SWIG-3.0 Documentation

SWIG-3.0 Documentation



Table of Contents



SWIG-3.0 Documentation 1 Preface 2 Introduction 3 Getting started on Windows 4 Scripting Languages 5 SWIG Basics 6 SWIG and C++ 7 SWIG and C++11 8 Preprocessing 9 SWIG library 10 Argument Handling 11 Typemaps 12 Customization Features 13 Contracts 14 Variable Length Arguments 15 Warning Messages 16 Working with Modules 17 Using SWIG with ccache - ccache-swig(1) manpage 18 SWIG and Allegro Common Lisp 19 SWIG and Android 20 SWIG and C# 21 SWIG and Chicken 22 SWIG and D 23 SWIG and Go 24 SWIG and Guile 25 SWIG and Java 26 SWIG and Javascript 27 SWIG and Common Lisp 28 SWIG and Lua 29 SWIG and Modula-3 30 SWIG and MzScheme/Racket 31 SWIG and Ocaml 32 SWIG and Octave 33 SWIG and Perl5 34 SWIG and PHP 35 SWIG and Pike 36 SWIG and Python 37 SWIG and R 38 SWIG and Ruby 39 SWIG and Tcl 40 Extending SWIG to support new languages

SWIG-3.0 Documentation

Last update : SWIG-3.0.2 (4 Jun 2014)

Sections

SWIG Core Documentation

Language Module Documentation

Developer Documentation


1 Preface

1.1 Introduction

SWIG (Simplified Wrapper and Interface Generator) is a software development tool for building scripting language interfaces to C and C++ programs. Originally developed in 1995, SWIG was first used by scientists in the Theoretical Physics Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory for building user interfaces to simulation codes running on the Connection Machine 5 supercomputer. In this environment, scientists needed to work with huge amounts of simulation data, complex hardware, and a constantly changing code base. The use of a scripting language interface provided a simple yet highly flexible foundation for solving these types of problems. SWIG simplifies development by largely automating the task of scripting language integration--allowing developers and users to focus on more important problems.

Although SWIG was originally developed for scientific applications, it has since evolved into a general purpose tool that is used in a wide variety of applications--in fact almost anything where C/C++ programming is involved.

1.2 SWIG Versions

In the late 1990's, the most stable version of SWIG was release 1.1p5. Versions 1.3.x were officially development versions and these were released over a period of 10 years starting from the year 2000. The final version in the 1.3.x series was 1.3.40, but in truth the 1.3.x series had been stable for many years. An official stable version was released along with the decision to make SWIG license changes and this gave rise to version 2.0.0 in 2010.

1.3 SWIG License

The LICENSE file shipped with SWIG in the top level directory contains the SWIG license. For further insight into the license including the license of SWIG's output code, please visit the SWIG legal page - http://www.swig.org/legal.html.

The license was clarified in version 2.0.0 so that the code that SWIG generated could be distributed under license terms of the user's choice/requirements and at the same time the SWIG source was placed under the GNU General Public License version 3.

1.4 SWIG resources

The official location of SWIG related material is

http://www.swig.org

This site contains the latest version of the software, users guide, and information regarding bugs, installation problems, and implementation tricks.

You can also subscribe to the swig-user mailing list by visiting the page

http://www.swig.org/mail.html

The mailing list often discusses some of the more technical aspects of SWIG along with information about beta releases and future work.

Git and Subversion access to the latest version of SWIG is also available. More information about this can be obtained at:

SWIG Bleeding Edge

1.5 Prerequisites

This manual assumes that you know how to write C/C++ programs and that you have at least heard of scripting languages such as Tcl, Python, and Perl. A detailed knowledge of these scripting languages is not required although some familiarity won't hurt. No prior experience with building C extensions to these languages is required---after all, this is what SWIG does automatically. However, you should be reasonably familiar with the use of compilers, linkers, and makefiles since making scripting language extensions is somewhat more complicated than writing a normal C program.

Over time SWIG releases have become significantly more capable in their C++ handling--especially support for advanced features like namespaces, overloaded operators, and templates. Whenever possible, this manual tries to cover the technicalities of this interface. However, this isn't meant to be a tutorial on C++ programming. For many of the gory details, you will almost certainly want to consult a good C++ reference. If you don't program in C++, you may just want to skip those parts of the manual.

1.6 Organization of this manual

The first few chapters of this manual describe SWIG in general and provide an overview of its capabilities. The remaining chapters are devoted to specific SWIG language modules and are self contained. Thus, if you are using SWIG to build Python interfaces, you can probably skip to that chapter and find almost everything you need to know.

1.7 How to avoid reading the manual

If you hate reading manuals, glance at the "Introduction" which contains a few simple examples. These examples contain about 95% of everything you need to know to use SWIG. After that, simply use the language-specific chapters as a reference. The SWIG distribution also comes with a large directory of examples that illustrate different topics.

1.8 Backwards compatibility

If you are a previous user of SWIG, don't expect SWIG to provide complete backwards compatibility. Although the developers strive to the utmost to keep backwards compatibility, this isn't always possible as the primary goal over time is to make SWIG better---a process that would simply be impossible if the developers are constantly bogged down with backwards compatibility issues. Potential incompatibilities are clearly marked in the detailed release notes.

If you need to work with different versions of SWIG and backwards compatibility is an issue, you can use the SWIG_VERSION preprocessor symbol which holds the version of SWIG being executed. SWIG_VERSION is a hexadecimal integer such as 0x010311 (corresponding to SWIG-1.3.11). This can be used in an interface file to define different typemaps, take advantage of different features etc:

#if SWIG_VERSION >= 0x010311
/* Use some fancy new feature */
#endif

Note: The version symbol is not defined in the generated SWIG wrapper file. The SWIG preprocessor has defined SWIG_VERSION since SWIG-1.3.11.

1.9 Release notes

The CHANGES.current, CHANGES and RELEASENOTES files shipped with SWIG in the top level directory contain, respectively, detailed release notes for the current version, detailed release notes for previous releases and summary release notes from SWIG-1.3.22 onwards.

1.10 Credits

SWIG is an unfunded project that would not be possible without the contributions of many people working in their spare time. If you have benefitted from using SWIG, please consider Donating to SWIG to keep development going. There have been a large varied number of people who have made contributions at all levels over time. Contributors are mentioned either in the COPYRIGHT file or CHANGES files shipped with SWIG or in submitted bugs.

1.11 Bug reports

Although every attempt has been made to make SWIG bug-free, we are also trying to make feature improvements that may introduce bugs. To report a bug, either send mail to the SWIG developer list at the swig-devel mailing list or report a bug at the SWIG bug tracker. In your report, be as specific as possible, including (if applicable), error messages, tracebacks (if a core dump occurred), corresponding portions of the SWIG interface file used, and any important pieces of the SWIG generated wrapper code. We can only fix bugs if we know about them.

1.12 Installation

1.12.1 Windows installation

Please see the dedicated Windows chapter for instructions on installing SWIG on Windows and running the examples. The Windows distribution is called swigwin and includes a prebuilt SWIG executable, swig.exe, included in the top level directory. Otherwise it is exactly the same as the main SWIG distribution. There is no need to download anything else.

1.12.2 Unix installation

You must use GNU make to build and install SWIG.

PCRE needs to be installed on your system to build SWIG, in particular pcre-config must be available. If you have PCRE headers and libraries but not pcre-config itself or, alternatively, wish to override the compiler or linker flags returned by pcre-config, you may set PCRE_LIBS and PCRE_CFLAGS variables to be used instead. And if you don't have PCRE at all, the configure script will provide instructions for obtaining it.

To build and install SWIG, simply type the following:

$ ./configure
$ make
$ make install

By default SWIG installs itself in /usr/local. If you need to install SWIG in a different location or in your home directory, use the --prefix option to ./configure. For example:

$ ./configure --prefix=/home/yourname/projects
$ make
$ make install

Note: the directory given to --prefix must be an absolute pathname. Do not use the ~ shell-escape to refer to your home directory. SWIG won't work properly if you do this.

The INSTALL file shipped in the top level directory details more about using configure. Also try

$ ./configure --help.

The configure script will attempt to locate various packages on your machine including Tcl, Perl5, Python and all the other target languages that SWIG supports. Don't panic if you get 'not found' messages -- SWIG does not need these packages to compile or run. The configure script is actually looking for these packages so that you can try out the SWIG examples contained in the 'Examples' directory without having to hack Makefiles. Note that the --without-xxx options, where xxx is a target language, have minimal effect. All they do is reduce the amount of testing done with 'make check'. The SWIG executable and library files installed cannot currently be configured with a subset of target languages.

SWIG used to include a set of runtime libraries for some languages for working with multiple modules. These are no longer built during the installation stage. However, users can build them just like any wrapper module as described in the Modules chapter. The CHANGES file shipped with SWIG in the top level directory also lists some examples which build the runtime library.

Note:

1.12.3 Macintosh OS X installation

SWIG is known to work on various flavors of OS X. Follow the Unix installation instructions above. However, as of this writing, there is still great deal of inconsistency with how shared libaries are handled by various scripting languages on OS X.

Users of OS X should be aware that Darwin handles shared libraries and linking in a radically different way than most Unix systems. In order to test SWIG and run the examples, SWIG configures itself to use flat namespaces and to allow undefined symbols (-flat_namespace -undefined suppress). This mostly closely follows the Unix model and makes it more likely that the SWIG examples will work with whatever installation of software you might have. However, this is generally not the recommended technique for building larger extension modules. Instead, you should utilize Darwin's two-level namespaces. Some details about this can be found here http://developer.apple.com/documentation/ReleaseNotes/DeveloperTools/TwoLevelNamespaces.html .

Needless to say, you might have to experiment a bit to get things working at first.

1.12.4 Testing

If you want to test SWIG after building it, a check can be performed on Unix operating systems. Type the following:

    $ make -k check

This step can be performed either before or after installation. The check requires at least one of the target languages to be installed. If it fails, it may mean that you have an uninstalled language module or that the file 'Examples/Makefile' has been incorrectly configured. It may also fail due to compiler issues such as a broken C++ compiler. Even if the check fails, there is a pretty good chance SWIG still works correctly --- you will just have to mess around with one of the examples and some makefiles to get it to work. Some tests may also fail due to missing dependency packages, eg PCRE or Boost, but this will require careful analysis of the configure output done during configuration.

The test suite executed by the check is designed to stress-test many parts of the implementation including obscure corner cases. If some of these tests fail or generate warning messages, there is no reason for alarm --- the test may be related to some new SWIG feature or a difficult bug that we're trying to resolve. Chances are that SWIG will work just fine for you. Note that if you have more than one CPU/core, then you can use parallel make to speed up the check as it does take quite some time to run, for example:

    $ make -j2 -k check

Also, SWIG's support for C++ is sufficiently advanced that certain tests may fail on older C++ compilers (for instance if your compiler does not support member templates). These errors are harmless if you don't intend to use these features in your own programs.

Note: The test-suite currently contains over 500 tests. If you have many different target languages installed and a slow machine, it might take more than an hour to run the test-suite.

1.12.5 Examples

The Examples directory contains a variety of examples of using SWIG and it has some browsable documentation. Simply point your browser to the file "Example/index.html".

The Examples directory also includes Visual C++ project 6 (.dsp) files for building some of the examples on Windows. Later versions of Visual Studio will convert these old style project files into a current solution file.


2 Introduction

2.1 What is SWIG?

SWIG is a software development tool that simplifies the task of interfacing different languages to C and C++ programs. In a nutshell, SWIG is a compiler that takes C/C++ declarations and creates the wrappers needed to access those declarations from other languages including Perl, Python, Tcl, Ruby, Guile, and Java. SWIG normally requires no modifications to existing code and can often be used to build a usable interface in only a few minutes. Possible applications of SWIG include:

SWIG was originally designed to make it extremely easy for scientists and engineers to build extensible scientific software without having to get a degree in software engineering. Because of this, the use of SWIG tends to be somewhat informal and ad-hoc (e.g., SWIG does not require users to provide formal interface specifications as you would find in a dedicated IDL compiler). Although this style of development isn't appropriate for every project, it is particularly well suited to software development in the small; especially the research and development work that is commonly found in scientific and engineering projects. However, nowadays SWIG is known to be used in many large open source and commercial projects.

2.2 Why use SWIG?

As stated in the previous section, the primary purpose of SWIG is to simplify the task of integrating C/C++ with other programming languages. However, why would anyone want to do that? To answer that question, it is useful to list a few strengths of C/C++ programming:

Next, let's list a few problems with C/C++ programming

To address these limitations, many programmers have arrived at the conclusion that it is much easier to use different programming languages for different tasks. For instance, writing a graphical user interface may be significantly easier in a scripting language like Python or Tcl (consider the reasons why millions of programmers have used languages like Visual Basic if you need more proof). An interactive interpreter might also serve as a useful debugging and testing tool. Other languages like Java might greatly simplify the task of writing distributed computing software. The key point is that different programming languages offer different strengths and weaknesses. Moreover, it is extremely unlikely that any programming is ever going to be perfect. Therefore, by combining languages together, you can utilize the best features of each language and greatly simplify certain aspects of software development.

From the standpoint of C/C++, a lot of people use SWIG because they want to break out of the traditional monolithic C programming model which usually results in programs that resemble this:

Instead of going down that route, incorporating C/C++ into a higher level language often results in a more modular design, less code, better flexibility, and increased programmer productivity.

SWIG tries to make the problem of C/C++ integration as painless as possible. This allows you to focus on the underlying C program and using the high-level language interface, but not the tedious and complex chore of making the two languages talk to each other. At the same time, SWIG recognizes that all applications are different. Therefore, it provides a wide variety of customization features that let you change almost every aspect of the language bindings. This is the main reason why SWIG has such a large user manual ;-).

2.3 A SWIG example

The best way to illustrate SWIG is with a simple example. Consider the following C code:

/* File : example.c */

double  My_variable  = 3.0;

/* Compute factorial of n */
int  fact(int n) {
	if (n <= 1) return 1;
	else return n*fact(n-1);
}

/* Compute n mod m */
int my_mod(int n, int m) {
	return(n % m);
}

Suppose that you wanted to access these functions and the global variable My_variable from Tcl. You start by making a SWIG interface file as shown below (by convention, these files carry a .i suffix) :

2.3.1 SWIG interface file

/* File : example.i */
%module example
%{
/* Put headers and other declarations here */
extern double My_variable;
extern int    fact(int);
extern int    my_mod(int n, int m);
%}

extern double My_variable;
extern int    fact(int);
extern int    my_mod(int n, int m);

The interface file contains ANSI C function prototypes and variable declarations. The %module directive defines the name of the module that will be created by SWIG. The %{ %} block provides a location for inserting additional code, such as C header files or additional C declarations, into the generated C wrapper code.

2.3.2 The swig command

SWIG is invoked using the swig command. We can use this to build a Tcl module (under Linux) as follows :

unix > swig -tcl example.i
unix > gcc -c -fpic example.c example_wrap.c -I/usr/local/include
unix > gcc -shared example.o example_wrap.o -o example.so
unix > tclsh
% load ./example.so
% fact 4
24
% my_mod 23 7
2
% expr $My_variable + 4.5
7.5
%

The swig command produced a new file called example_wrap.c that should be compiled along with the example.c file. Most operating systems and scripting languages now support dynamic loading of modules. In our example, our Tcl module has been compiled into a shared library that can be loaded into Tcl. When loaded, Tcl can now access the functions and variables declared in the SWIG interface. A look at the file example_wrap.c reveals a hideous mess. However, you almost never need to worry about it.

2.3.3 Building a Perl5 module

Now, let's turn these functions into a Perl5 module. Without making any changes type the following (shown for Solaris):

unix > swig -perl5 example.i
unix > gcc -c example.c example_wrap.c \
	-I/usr/local/lib/perl5/sun4-solaris/5.003/CORE
unix > ld -G example.o example_wrap.o -o example.so		# This is for Solaris
unix > perl5.003
use example;
print example::fact(4), "\n";
print example::my_mod(23,7), "\n";
print $example::My_variable + 4.5, "\n";
<ctrl-d>
24
2
7.5
unix >

2.3.4 Building a Python module

Finally, let's build a module for Python (shown for Irix).

unix > swig -python example.i
unix > gcc -c -fpic example.c example_wrap.c -I/usr/local/include/python2.0
unix > gcc -shared example.o example_wrap.o -o _example.so
unix > python
Python 2.0 (#6, Feb 21 2001, 13:29:45)
[GCC egcs-2.91.66 19990314/Linux (egcs-1.1.2 release)] on linux2
Type "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.     
>>> import example
>>> example.fact(4)
24
>>> example.my_mod(23,7)
2
>>> example.cvar.My_variable + 4.5
7.5

2.3.5 Shortcuts

To the truly lazy programmer, one may wonder why we needed the extra interface file at all. As it turns out, you can often do without it. For example, you could also build a Perl5 module by just running SWIG on the C header file and specifying a module name as follows

unix > swig -perl5 -module example example.h
unix > gcc -c example.c example_wrap.c \
	-I/usr/local/lib/perl5/sun4-solaris/5.003/CORE
unix > ld -G example.o example_wrap.o -o example.so
unix > perl5.003
use example;
print example::fact(4), "\n";
print example::my_mod(23,7), "\n";
print $example::My_variable + 4.5, "\n";
<ctrl-d>
24
2
7.5

2.4 Supported C/C++ language features

A primary goal of the SWIG project is to make the language binding process extremely easy. Although a few simple examples have been shown, SWIG is quite capable in supporting most of C++. Some of the major features include:

Currently, the only major C++ feature not supported is nested classes--a limitation that should be removed in a future release, but has some workarounds for the moment.

It is important to stress that SWIG is not a simplistic C++ lexing tool like several apparently similar wrapper generation tools. SWIG not only parses C++, it implements the full C++ type system and it is able to understand C++ semantics. SWIG generates its wrappers with full knowledge of this information. As a result, you will find SWIG to be just as capable of dealing with nasty corner cases as it is in wrapping simple C++ code. In fact, SWIG is able to handle C++ code that stresses the very limits of many C++ compilers.

2.5 Non-intrusive interface building

When used as intended, SWIG requires minimal (if any) modification to existing C or C++ code. This makes SWIG extremely easy to use with existing packages and promotes software reuse and modularity. By making the C/C++ code independent of the high level interface, you can change the interface and reuse the code in other applications. It is also possible to support different types of interfaces depending on the application.

2.6 Incorporating SWIG into a build system

SWIG is a command line tool and as such can be incorporated into any build system that supports invoking external tools/compilers. SWIG is most commonly invoked from within a Makefile, but is also known to be invoked from popular IDEs such as Microsoft Visual Studio.

If you are using the GNU Autotools ( Autoconf/ Automake / Libtool) to configure SWIG use in your project, the SWIG Autoconf macros can be used. The primary macro is ax_pkg_swig, see http://www.gnu.org/software/autoconf-archive/ax_pkg_swig.html#ax_pkg_swig . The ax_python_devel macro is also helpful for generating Python extensions. See the Autoconf Archive for further information on this and other Autoconf macros.

There is growing support for SWIG in some build tools, for example CMake is a cross-platform, open-source build manager with built in support for SWIG. CMake can detect the SWIG executable and many of the target language libraries for linking against. CMake knows how to build shared libraries and loadable modules on many different operating systems. This allows easy cross platform SWIG development. It can also generate the custom commands necessary for driving SWIG from IDEs and makefiles. All of this can be done from a single cross platform input file. The following example is a CMake input file for creating a python wrapper for the SWIG interface file, example.i:


# This is a CMake example for Python

FIND_PACKAGE(SWIG REQUIRED)
INCLUDE(${SWIG_USE_FILE})

FIND_PACKAGE(PythonLibs)
INCLUDE_DIRECTORIES(${PYTHON_INCLUDE_PATH})

INCLUDE_DIRECTORIES(${CMAKE_CURRENT_SOURCE_DIR})

SET(CMAKE_SWIG_FLAGS "")

SET_SOURCE_FILES_PROPERTIES(example.i PROPERTIES CPLUSPLUS ON)
SET_SOURCE_FILES_PROPERTIES(example.i PROPERTIES SWIG_FLAGS "-includeall")
SWIG_ADD_MODULE(example python example.i example.cxx)
SWIG_LINK_LIBRARIES(example ${PYTHON_LIBRARIES})

The above example will generate native build files such as makefiles, nmake files and Visual Studio projects which will invoke SWIG and compile the generated C++ files into _example.so (UNIX) or _example.pyd (Windows). For other target languages on Windows a dll, instead of a .pyd file, is usually generated.

2.7 Hands off code generation

SWIG is designed to produce working code that needs no hand-modification (in fact, if you look at the output, you probably won't want to modify it). You should think of your target language interface being defined entirely by the input to SWIG, not the resulting output file. While this approach may limit flexibility for hard-core hackers, it allows others to forget about the low-level implementation details.

2.8 SWIG and freedom

No, this isn't a special section on the sorry state of world politics. However, it may be useful to know that SWIG was written with a certain "philosophy" about programming---namely that programmers are smart and that tools should just stay out of their way. Because of that, you will find that SWIG is extremely permissive in what it lets you get away with. In fact, you can use SWIG to go well beyond "shooting yourself in the foot" if dangerous programming is your goal. On the other hand, this kind of freedom may be exactly what is needed to work with complicated and unusual C/C++ applications.

Ironically, the freedom that SWIG provides is countered by an extremely conservative approach to code generation. At its core, SWIG tries to distill even the most advanced C++ code down to a small well-defined set of interface building techniques based on ANSI C programming. Because of this, you will find that SWIG interfaces can be easily compiled by virtually every C/C++ compiler and that they can be used on any platform. Again, this is an important part of staying out of the programmer's way----the last thing any developer wants to do is to spend their time debugging the output of a tool that relies on non-portable or unreliable programming features.


3 Getting started on Windows

This chapter describes SWIG usage on Microsoft Windows. Installing SWIG and running the examples is covered as well as building the SWIG executable. Usage within the Unix like environments MinGW and Cygwin is also detailed.

3.1 Installation on Windows

SWIG does not come with the usual Windows type installation program, however it is quite easy to get started. The main steps are:

3.1.1 Windows Executable

The swigwin distribution contains the SWIG Windows executable, swig.exe, which will run on 32 bit versions of Windows, ie Windows 95 and later. If you want to build your own swig.exe have a look at Building swig.exe on Windows.

3.2 SWIG Windows Examples

Using Microsoft Visual C++ is the most common approach to compiling and linking SWIG's output. The Examples directory has a few Visual C++ project files (.dsp files). These were produced by Visual C++ 6. Newer versions of Visual Studio should be able to open and convert these project files. Each C# example comes with a Visual Studio 2005 solution and associated project files instead of Visual C++ 6 project files. The project files have been set up to execute SWIG in a custom build rule for the SWIG interface (.i) file. Alternatively run the examples using Cygwin.

More information on each of the examples is available with the examples distributed with SWIG (Examples/index.html).

3.2.1 Instructions for using the Examples with Visual Studio

Ensure the SWIG executable is as supplied in the SWIG root directory in order for the examples to work. Most languages require some environment variables to be set before running Visual C++. Note that Visual C++ must be re-started to pick up any changes in environment variables. Open up an example .dsp file, Visual C++ will create a workspace for you (.dsw file). Ensure the Release build is selected then do a Rebuild All from the Build menu. The required environment variables are displayed with their current values.

The list of required environment variables for each module language is also listed below. They are usually set from the Control Panel and System properties, but this depends on which flavour of Windows you are running. If you don't want to use environment variables then change all occurrences of the environment variables in the .dsp files with hard coded values. If you are interested in how the project files are set up there is explanatory information in some of the language module's documentation.

3.2.1.1 C#

The C# examples do not require any environment variables to be set as a C# project file is included. Just open up the .sln solution file in Visual Studio .NET 2003 or later, select Release Build, and do a Rebuild All from the Build menu. The accompanying C# and C++ project files are automatically used by the solution file.

3.2.1.2 Java

JAVA_INCLUDE : Set this to the directory containing jni.h
JAVA_BIN : Set this to the bin directory containing javac.exe

Example using JDK1.3:
JAVA_INCLUDE: D:\jdk1.3\include
JAVA_BIN: D:\jdk1.3\bin

3.2.1.3 Perl

PERL5_INCLUDE : Set this to the directory containing perl.h
PERL5_LIB : Set this to the Perl library including path for linking

Example using nsPerl 5.004_04:

PERL5_INCLUDE: D:\nsPerl5.004_04\lib\CORE
PERL5_LIB: D:\nsPerl5.004_04\lib\CORE\perl.lib

3.2.1.4 Python

PYTHON_INCLUDE : Set this to the directory that contains Python.h
PYTHON_LIB : Set this to the python library including path for linking

Example using Python 2.1.1:
PYTHON_INCLUDE: D:\python21\include
PYTHON_LIB: D:\python21\libs\python21.lib

3.2.1.5 TCL

TCL_INCLUDE : Set this to the directory containing tcl.h
TCL_LIB : Set this to the TCL library including path for linking

Example using ActiveTcl 8.3.3.3
TCL_INCLUDE: D:\tcl\include
TCL_LIB: D:\tcl\lib\tcl83.lib

3.2.1.6 R

R_INCLUDE : Set this to the directory containing R.h
R_LIB : Set this to the R library (Rdll.lib) including path for linking. The library needs to be built as described in the R README.packages file (the pexports.exe approach is the easiest).

Example using R 2.5.1:
R_INCLUDE: C:\Program Files\R\R-2.5.1\include
R_LIB: C:\Program Files\R\R-2.5.1\bin\Rdll.lib

3.2.1.7 Ruby

RUBY_INCLUDE : Set this to the directory containing ruby.h
RUBY_LIB : Set this to the ruby library including path for linking

Example using Ruby 1.6.4:
RUBY_INCLUDE: D:\ruby\lib\ruby\1.6\i586-mswin32
RUBY_LIB: D:\ruby\lib\mswin32-ruby16.lib

3.2.2 Instructions for using the Examples with other compilers

If you do not have access to Visual C++ you will have to set up project files / Makefiles for your chosen compiler. There is a section in each of the language modules detailing what needs setting up using Visual C++ which may be of some guidance. Alternatively you may want to use Cygwin as described in the following section.

3.3 SWIG on Cygwin and MinGW

SWIG can also be compiled and run using Cygwin or MinGW which provides a Unix like front end to Windows and comes free with gcc, an ANSI C/C++ compiler. However, this is not a recommended approach as the prebuilt executable is supplied.

3.3.1 Building swig.exe on Windows

If you want to replicate the build of swig.exe that comes with the download, follow the MinGW instructions below. This is not necessary to use the supplied swig.exe. This information is provided for those that want to modify the SWIG source code in a Windows environment. Normally this is not needed, so most people will want to ignore this section.

3.3.1.1 Building swig.exe using MinGW and MSYS

The short abbreviated instructions follow...

The step by step instructions to download and install MinGW and MSYS, then download and build the latest version of SWIG from Github follow... Note that the instructions for obtaining SWIG from Github are also online at SWIG Bleeding Edge.

Pitfall note: Execute the steps in the order shown and don't use spaces in path names. In fact it is best to use the default installation directories.

  1. Download the following packages from the MinGW download page or MinGW SourceForge download page. Note that at the time of writing, the majority of these are in the Current release list and some are in the Snapshot or Previous release list.
  2. Install MinGW-3.1.0-1.exe (C:\MinGW is default location.)
  3. Install MSYS-1.0.11-2004.04.30-1.exe. Make sure you install it on the same windows drive letter as MinGW (C:\msys\1.0 is default). In the post install script,
  4. Install msysDTK-1.0.1.exe to the same folder that you installed MSYS (C:\msys\1.0 is default).
  5. Copy the following to the MSYS install folder (C:\msys\1.0 is default):
  6. Start the MSYS command prompt and execute:
    cd /
    tar -jxf msys-automake-1.8.2.tar.bz2 
    tar -jxf msys-autoconf-2.59.tar.bz2
    tar -zxf bison-2.0-MSYS.tar.gz   
    
  7. The very latest development version of SWIG is available from SWIG on Github and can be downloaded as a zip file or if you have Git installed, via Git. Either download the latest Zip file snapshot and unzip and rename the top level folder to /usr/src/swig. Otherwise if using Git, type in the following:
    mkdir /usr/src
    cd /usr/src
    git clone https://github.com/swig/swig.git
    
    Pitfall note: If you want to place SWIG in a different folder to the proposed /usr/src/swig, do not use MSYS emulated windows drive letters, because the autotools will fail miserably on those.
  8. The PCRE third party library needs to be built next. Download the latest PCRE source tarball, such as pcre-8.10.tar.bz2, from PCRE and place in the /usr/src/swig directory. Build PCRE as a static library using the Tools/pcre-build.sh script as follows:
    cd /usr/src/swig
    Tools/pcre-build.sh
    
  9. You are now ready to build SWIG. Execute the following commands to build swig.exe:
    cd /usr/src/swig
    ./autogen.sh
    ./configure
    make
    

3.3.1.2 Building swig.exe using Cygwin

Note that SWIG can also be built using Cygwin. However, SWIG will then require the Cygwin DLL when executing. Follow the Unix instructions in the README file in the SWIG root directory. Note that the Cygwin environment will also allow one to regenerate the autotool generated files which are supplied with the release distribution. These files are generated using the autogen.sh script and will only need regenerating in circumstances such as changing the build system.

3.3.1.3 Building swig.exe alternatives

If you don't want to install Cygwin or MinGW, use a different compiler to build SWIG. For example, all the source code files can be added to a Visual C++ project file in order to build swig.exe from the Visual C++ IDE.

3.3.2 Running the examples on Windows using Cygwin

The examples and test-suite work as successfully on Cygwin as on any other Unix operating system. The modules which are known to work are Python, Tcl, Perl, Ruby, Java and C#. Follow the Unix instructions in the README file in the SWIG root directory to build the examples.

3.4 Microsoft extensions and other Windows quirks

A common problem when using SWIG on Windows are the Microsoft function calling conventions which are not in the C++ standard. SWIG parses ISO C/C++ so cannot deal with proprietary conventions such as __declspec(dllimport), __stdcall etc. There is a Windows interface file, windows.i, to deal with these calling conventions though. The file also contains typemaps for handling commonly used Windows specific types such as __int64, BOOL , DWORD etc. Include it like you would any other interface file, for example:

%include <windows.i>

__declspec(dllexport) ULONG __stdcall foo(DWORD, __int32);

4 Scripting Languages

This chapter provides a brief overview of scripting language extension programming and the mechanisms by which scripting language interpreters access C and C++ code.

4.1 The two language view of the world

When a scripting language is used to control a C program, the resulting system tends to look as follows:

Scripting language input - C/C++ functions output

In this programming model, the scripting language interpreter is used for high level control whereas the underlying functionality of the C/C++ program is accessed through special scripting language "commands." If you have ever tried to write your own simple command interpreter, you might view the scripting language approach to be a highly advanced implementation of that. Likewise, If you have ever used a package such as MATLAB or IDL, it is a very similar model--the interpreter executes user commands and scripts. However, most of the underlying functionality is written in a low-level language like C or Fortran.

The two-language model of computing is extremely powerful because it exploits the strengths of each language. C/C++ can be used for maximal performance and complicated systems programming tasks. Scripting languages can be used for rapid prototyping, interactive debugging, scripting, and access to high-level data structures such associative arrays.

4.2 How does a scripting language talk to C?

Scripting languages are built around a parser that knows how to execute commands and scripts. Within this parser, there is a mechanism for executing commands and accessing variables. Normally, this is used to implement the builtin features of the language. However, by extending the interpreter, it is usually possible to add new commands and variables. To do this, most languages define a special API for adding new commands. Furthermore, a special foreign function interface defines how these new commands are supposed to hook into the interpreter.

Typically, when you add a new command to a scripting interpreter you need to do two things; first you need to write a special "wrapper" function that serves as the glue between the interpreter and the underlying C function. Then you need to give the interpreter information about the wrapper by providing details about the name of the function, arguments, and so forth. The next few sections illustrate the process.

4.2.1 Wrapper functions

Suppose you have an ordinary C function like this :

int fact(int n) {
	if (n <= 1) return 1;
	else return n*fact(n-1);
}

In order to access this function from a scripting language, it is necessary to write a special "wrapper" function that serves as the glue between the scripting language and the underlying C function. A wrapper function must do three things :

As an example, the Tcl wrapper function for the fact() function above example might look like the following :

int wrap_fact(ClientData clientData, Tcl_Interp *interp,
		int argc, char *argv[]) {
	int result;
	int arg0;
	if (argc != 2) {
		interp->result = "wrong # args";
		return TCL_ERROR;
	}
	arg0 = atoi(argv[1]);
	result = fact(arg0);
	sprintf(interp->result,"%d", result);
	return TCL_OK;
}

Once you have created a wrapper function, the final step is to tell the scripting language about the new function. This is usually done in an initialization function called by the language when the module is loaded. For example, adding the above function to the Tcl interpreter requires code like the following :

int Wrap_Init(Tcl_Interp *interp) {
	Tcl_CreateCommand(interp, "fact", wrap_fact, (ClientData) NULL,
				(Tcl_CmdDeleteProc *) NULL);
	return TCL_OK;
}

When executed, Tcl will now have a new command called "fact " that you can use like any other Tcl command.

Although the process of adding a new function to Tcl has been illustrated, the procedure is almost identical for Perl and Python. Both require special wrappers to be written and both need additional initialization code. Only the specific details are different.

4.2.2 Variable linking

Variable linking refers to the problem of mapping a C/C++ global variable to a variable in the scripting language interpreter. For example, suppose you had the following variable:

double Foo = 3.5;

It might be nice to access it from a script as follows (shown for Perl):

$a = $Foo * 2.3;   # Evaluation
$Foo = $a + 2.0;   # Assignment

To provide such access, variables are commonly manipulated using a pair of get/set functions. For example, whenever the value of a variable is read, a "get" function is invoked. Similarly, whenever the value of a variable is changed, a "set" function is called.

In many languages, calls to the get/set functions can be attached to evaluation and assignment operators. Therefore, evaluating a variable such as $Foo might implicitly call the get function. Similarly, typing $Foo = 4 would call the underlying set function to change the value.

4.2.3 Constants

In many cases, a C program or library may define a large collection of constants. For example:

#define RED   0xff0000
#define BLUE  0x0000ff
#define GREEN 0x00ff00

To make constants available, their values can be stored in scripting language variables such as $RED, $BLUE, and $GREEN. Virtually all scripting languages provide C functions for creating variables so installing constants is usually a trivial exercise.

4.2.4 Structures and classes

Although scripting languages have no trouble accessing simple functions and variables, accessing C/C++ structures and classes present a different problem. This is because the implementation of structures is largely related to the problem of data representation and layout. Furthermore, certain language features are difficult to map to an interpreter. For instance, what does C++ inheritance mean in a Perl interface?

The most straightforward technique for handling structures is to implement a collection of accessor functions that hide the underlying representation of a structure. For example,

struct Vector {
	Vector();
	~Vector();
	double x,y,z;
};

can be transformed into the following set of functions :

Vector *new_Vector();
void delete_Vector(Vector *v);
double Vector_x_get(Vector *v);
double Vector_y_get(Vector *v);
double Vector_z_get(Vector *v);
void Vector_x_set(Vector *v, double x);
void Vector_y_set(Vector *v, double y);
void Vector_z_set(Vector *v, double z);

Now, from an interpreter these function might be used as follows:

% set v [new_Vector]
% Vector_x_set $v 3.5
% Vector_y_get $v
% delete_Vector $v
% ...

Since accessor functions provide a mechanism for accessing the internals of an object, the interpreter does not need to know anything about the actual representation of a Vector.

4.2.5 Proxy classes

In certain cases, it is possible to use the low-level accessor functions to create a proxy class, also known as a shadow class. A proxy class is a special kind of object that gets created in a scripting language to access a C/C++ class (or struct) in a way that looks like the original structure (that is, it proxies the real C++ class). For example, if you have the following C++ definition :

class Vector {
public:
	Vector();
	~Vector();
	double x,y,z;
};

A proxy classing mechanism would allow you to access the structure in a more natural manner from the interpreter. For example, in Python, you might want to do this:

>>> v = Vector()
>>> v.x = 3
>>> v.y = 4
>>> v.z = -13
>>> ...
>>> del v

Similarly, in Perl5 you may want the interface to work like this:

$v = new Vector;
$v->{x} = 3;
$v->{y} = 4;
$v->{z} = -13;

Finally, in Tcl :

Vector v
v configure -x 3 -y 4 -z -13

When proxy classes are used, two objects are really at work--one in the scripting language, and an underlying C/C++ object. Operations affect both objects equally and for all practical purposes, it appears as if you are simply manipulating a C/C++ object.

4.3 Building scripting language extensions

The final step in using a scripting language with your C/C++ application is adding your extensions to the scripting language itself. There are two primary approaches for doing this. The preferred technique is to build a dynamically loadable extension in the form of a shared library. Alternatively, you can recompile the scripting language interpreter with your extensions added to it.

4.3.1 Shared libraries and dynamic loading

To create a shared library or DLL, you often need to look at the manual pages for your compiler and linker. However, the procedure for a few common platforms is shown below:

# Build a shared library for Solaris
gcc -fpic -c example.c example_wrap.c -I/usr/local/include
ld -G example.o example_wrap.o -o example.so

# Build a shared library for Linux
gcc -fpic -c example.c example_wrap.c -I/usr/local/include
gcc -shared example.o example_wrap.o -o example.so

To use your shared library, you simply use the corresponding command in the scripting language (load, import, use, etc...). This will import your module and allow you to start using it. For example:

% load ./example.so
% fact 4
24
%

When working with C++ codes, the process of building shared libraries may be more complicated--primarily due to the fact that C++ modules may need additional code in order to operate correctly. On many machines, you can build a shared C++ module by following the above procedures, but changing the link line to the following :

c++ -shared example.o example_wrap.o -o example.so

4.3.2 Linking with shared libraries

When building extensions as shared libraries, it is not uncommon for your extension to rely upon other shared libraries on your machine. In order for the extension to work, it needs to be able to find all of these libraries at run-time. Otherwise, you may get an error such as the following :

>>> import graph
Traceback (innermost last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in ?
  File "/home/sci/data1/beazley/graph/graph.py", line 2, in ?
    import graphc
ImportError:  1101:/home/sci/data1/beazley/bin/python: rld: Fatal Error: cannot 
successfully map soname 'libgraph.so' under any of the filenames /usr/lib/libgraph.so:/
lib/libgraph.so:/lib/cmplrs/cc/libgraph.so:/usr/lib/cmplrs/cc/libgraph.so:
>>>

What this error means is that the extension module created by SWIG depends upon a shared library called "libgraph.so" that the system was unable to locate. To fix this problem, there are a few approaches you can take.

4.3.3 Static linking

With static linking, you rebuild the scripting language interpreter with extensions. The process usually involves compiling a short main program that adds your customized commands to the language and starts the interpreter. You then link your program with a library to produce a new scripting language executable.

Although static linking is supported on all platforms, this is not the preferred technique for building scripting language extensions. In fact, there are very few practical reasons for doing this--consider using shared libraries instead.


5 SWIG Basics

This chapter describes the basic operation of SWIG, the structure of its input files, and how it handles standard ANSI C declarations. C++ support is described in the next chapter. However, C++ programmers should still read this chapter to understand the basics. Specific details about each target language are described in later chapters.

5.1 Running SWIG

To run SWIG, use the swig command with options and a filename like this:

swig [ options ] filename

where filename is a SWIG interface file or a C/C++ header file. Below is a subset of options that can be used. Additional options are also defined for each target language. A full list can be obtained by typing swig -help or swig - lang -help.

-allegrocl            Generate ALLEGROCL wrappers
-chicken              Generate CHICKEN wrappers
-clisp                Generate CLISP wrappers
-cffi                 Generate CFFI wrappers
-csharp               Generate C# wrappers
-go                   Generate Go wrappers
-guile                Generate Guile wrappers
-java                 Generate Java wrappers
-lua                  Generate Lua wrappers
-modula3              Generate Modula 3 wrappers
-mzscheme             Generate Mzscheme wrappers
-ocaml                Generate Ocaml wrappers
-perl                 Generate Perl wrappers
-php                  Generate PHP wrappers
-pike                 Generate Pike wrappers
-python               Generate Python wrappers
-r                    Generate R (aka GNU S) wrappers
-ruby                 Generate Ruby wrappers
-sexp                 Generate Lisp S-Expressions wrappers
-tcl                  Generate Tcl wrappers
-uffi                 Generate Common Lisp / UFFI wrappers
-xml                  Generate XML wrappers

-c++                  Enable C++ parsing
-Dsymbol              Define a preprocessor symbol
-Fstandard            Display error/warning messages in commonly used format
-Fmicrosoft           Display error/warning messages in Microsoft format
-help                 Display all options
-Idir                 Add a directory to the file include path
-lfile                Include a SWIG library file.
-module name          Set the name of the SWIG module
-o outfile            Name of output file
-outcurrentdir	      Set default output dir to current dir instead of input file's path
-outdir dir           Set language specific files output directory
-pcreversion          Display PCRE version information
-swiglib              Show location of SWIG library
-version              Show SWIG version number

5.1.1 Input format

As input, SWIG expects a file containing ANSI C/C++ declarations and special SWIG directives. More often than not, this is a special SWIG interface file which is usually denoted with a special .i or .swg suffix. In certain cases, SWIG can be used directly on raw header files or source files. However, this is not the most typical case and there are several reasons why you might not want to do this (described later).

The most common format of a SWIG interface is as follows:

%module mymodule 
%{
#include "myheader.h"
%}
// Now list ANSI C/C++ declarations
int foo;
int bar(int x);
...

The module name is supplied using the special %module directive. Modules are described further in the Modules Introduction section.

Everything in the %{ ... %} block is simply copied verbatim to the resulting wrapper file created by SWIG. This section is almost always used to include header files and other declarations that are required to make the generated wrapper code compile. It is important to emphasize that just because you include a declaration in a SWIG input file, that declaration does not automatically appear in the generated wrapper code---therefore you need to make sure you include the proper header files in the %{ ... %} section. It should be noted that the text enclosed in %{ ... %} is not parsed or interpreted by SWIG. The %{...%} syntax and semantics in SWIG is analogous to that of the declarations section used in input files to parser generation tools such as yacc or bison.

5.1.2 SWIG Output

The output of SWIG is a C/C++ file that contains all of the wrapper code needed to build an extension module. SWIG may generate some additional files depending on the target language. By default, an input file with the name file.i is transformed into a file file_wrap.c or file_wrap.cxx (depending on whether or not the -c++ option has been used). The name of the output file can be changed using the -o option. In certain cases, file suffixes are used by the compiler to determine the source language (C, C++, etc.). Therefore, you have to use the -o option to change the suffix of the SWIG-generated wrapper file if you want something different than the default. For example:

$ swig -c++ -python -o example_wrap.cpp example.i

The C/C++ output file created by SWIG often contains everything that is needed to construct an extension module for the target scripting language. SWIG is not a stub compiler nor is it usually necessary to edit the output file (and if you look at the output, you probably won't want to). To build the final extension module, the SWIG output file is compiled and linked with the rest of your C/C++ program to create a shared library.

For many target languages SWIG will also generate proxy class files in the target language. The default output directory for these language specific files is the same directory as the generated C/C++ file. This can be modified using the -outdir option. For example:

$ swig -c++ -python -outdir pyfiles -o cppfiles/example_wrap.cpp example.i

If the directories cppfiles and pyfiles exist, the following will be generated:

cppfiles/example_wrap.cpp
pyfiles/example.py

If the -outcurrentdir option is used (without -o) then SWIG behaves like a typical C/C++ compiler and the default output directory is then the current directory. Without this option the default output directory is the path to the input file. If -o and -outcurrentdir are used together, -outcurrentdir is effectively ignored as the output directory for the language files is the same directory as the generated C/C++ file if not overridden with -outdir.

5.1.3 Comments

C and C++ style comments may appear anywhere in interface files. In previous versions of SWIG, comments were used to generate documentation files. However, this feature is currently under repair and will reappear in a later SWIG release.

5.1.4 C Preprocessor

Like C, SWIG preprocesses all input files through an enhanced version of the C preprocessor. All standard preprocessor features are supported including file inclusion, conditional compilation and macros. However, #include statements are ignored unless the -includeall command line option has been supplied. The reason for disabling includes is that SWIG is sometimes used to process raw C header files. In this case, you usually only want the extension module to include functions in the supplied header file rather than everything that might be included by that header file (i.e., system headers, C library functions, etc.).

It should also be noted that the SWIG preprocessor skips all text enclosed inside a %{...%} block. In addition, the preprocessor includes a number of macro handling enhancements that make it more powerful than the normal C preprocessor. These extensions are described in the "Preprocessor" chapter.

5.1.5 SWIG Directives

Most of SWIG's operation is controlled by special directives that are always preceded by a "%" to distinguish them from normal C declarations. These directives are used to give SWIG hints or to alter SWIG's parsing behavior in some manner.

Since SWIG directives are not legal C syntax, it is generally not possible to include them in header files. However, SWIG directives can be included in C header files using conditional compilation like this:

/* header.h  --- Some header file */

/* SWIG directives -- only seen if SWIG is running */ 
#ifdef SWIG
%module foo
#endif

SWIG is a special preprocessing symbol defined by SWIG when it is parsing an input file.

5.1.6 Parser Limitations

Although SWIG can parse most C/C++ declarations, it does not provide a complete C/C++ parser implementation. Most of these limitations pertain to very complicated type declarations and certain advanced C++ features. Specifically, the following features are not currently supported:

In the event of a parsing error, conditional compilation can be used to skip offending code. For example:

#ifndef SWIG
... some bad declarations ...
#endif

Alternatively, you can just delete the offending code from the interface file.

One of the reasons why SWIG does not provide a full C++ parser implementation is that it has been designed to work with incomplete specifications and to be very permissive in its handling of C/C++ datatypes (e.g., SWIG can generate interfaces even when there are missing class declarations or opaque datatypes). Unfortunately, this approach makes it extremely difficult to implement certain parts of a C/C++ parser as most compilers use type information to assist in the parsing of more complex declarations (for the truly curious, the primary complication in the implementation is that the SWIG parser does not utilize a separate typedef-name terminal symbol as described on p. 234 of K&R).

5.2 Wrapping Simple C Declarations

SWIG wraps simple C declarations by creating an interface that closely matches the way in which the declarations would be used in a C program. For example, consider the following interface file:

%module example

%inline %{
extern double sin(double x);
extern int strcmp(const char *, const char *);
extern int Foo;
%}
#define STATUS 50
#define VERSION "1.1"

In this file, there are two functions sin() and strcmp(), a global variable Foo, and two constants STATUS and VERSION. When SWIG creates an extension module, these declarations are accessible as scripting language functions, variables, and constants respectively. For example, in Tcl:

% sin 3
5.2335956
% strcmp Dave Mike
-1
% puts $Foo
42
% puts $STATUS
50
% puts $VERSION
1.1

Or in Python:

>>> example.sin(3)
5.2335956
>>> example.strcmp('Dave','Mike')
-1
>>> print example.cvar.Foo
42
>>> print example.STATUS
50
>>> print example.VERSION
1.1

Whenever possible, SWIG creates an interface that closely matches the underlying C/C++ code. However, due to subtle differences between languages, run-time environments, and semantics, it is not always possible to do so. The next few sections describe various aspects of this mapping.

5.2.1 Basic Type Handling

In order to build an interface, SWIG has to convert C/C++ datatypes to equivalent types in the target language. Generally, scripting languages provide a more limited set of primitive types than C. Therefore, this conversion process involves a certain amount of type coercion.

Most scripting languages provide a single integer type that is implemented using the int or long datatype in C. The following list shows all of the C datatypes that SWIG will convert to and from integers in the target language:

int
short
long
unsigned
signed
unsigned short
unsigned long
unsigned char
signed char
bool

When an integral value is converted from C, a cast is used to convert it to the representation in the target language. Thus, a 16 bit short in C may be promoted to a 32 bit integer. When integers are converted in the other direction, the value is cast back into the original C type. If the value is too large to fit, it is silently truncated.

unsigned char and signed char are special cases that are handled as small 8-bit integers. Normally, the char datatype is mapped as a one-character ASCII string.

The bool datatype is cast to and from an integer value of 0 and 1 unless the target language provides a special boolean type.

Some care is required when working with large integer values. Most scripting languages use 32-bit integers so mapping a 64-bit long integer may lead to truncation errors. Similar problems may arise with 32 bit unsigned integers (which may appear as large negative numbers). As a rule of thumb, the int datatype and all variations of char and short datatypes are safe to use. For unsigned int and long datatypes, you will need to carefully check the correct operation of your program after it has been wrapped with SWIG.

Although the SWIG parser supports the long long datatype, not all language modules support it. This is because long long usually exceeds the integer precision available in the target language. In certain modules such as Tcl and Perl5, long long integers are encoded as strings. This allows the full range of these numbers to be represented. However, it does not allow long long values to be used in arithmetic expressions. It should also be noted that although long long is part of the ISO C99 standard, it is not universally supported by all C compilers. Make sure you are using a compiler that supports long long before trying to use this type with SWIG.

SWIG recognizes the following floating point types :

float
double

Floating point numbers are mapped to and from the natural representation of floats in the target language. This is almost always a C double. The rarely used datatype of long double is not supported by SWIG.

The char datatype is mapped into a NULL terminated ASCII string with a single character. When used in a scripting language it shows up as a tiny string containing the character value. When converting the value back into C, SWIG takes a character string from the scripting language and strips off the first character as the char value. Thus if the value "foo" is assigned to a char datatype, it gets the value `f'.

The char * datatype is handled as a NULL-terminated ASCII string. SWIG maps this into a 8-bit character string in the target scripting language. SWIG converts character strings in the target language to NULL terminated strings before passing them into C/C++. The default handling of these strings does not allow them to have embedded NULL bytes. Therefore, the char * datatype is not generally suitable for passing binary data. However, it is possible to change this behavior by defining a SWIG typemap. See the chapter on Typemaps for details about this.

At this time, SWIG provides limited support for Unicode and wide-character strings (the C wchar_t type). Some languages provide typemaps for wchar_t, but bear in mind these might not be portable across different operating systems. This is a delicate topic that is poorly understood by many programmers and not implemented in a consistent manner across languages. For those scripting languages that provide Unicode support, Unicode strings are often available in an 8-bit representation such as UTF-8 that can be mapped to the char * type (in which case the SWIG interface will probably work). If the program you are wrapping uses Unicode, there is no guarantee that Unicode characters in the target language will use the same internal representation (e.g., UCS-2 vs. UCS-4). You may need to write some special conversion functions.

5.2.2 Global Variables

Whenever possible, SWIG maps C/C++ global variables into scripting language variables. For example,

%module example
double foo;

results in a scripting language variable like this:

# Tcl
set foo [3.5]                   ;# Set foo to 3.5
puts $foo                       ;# Print the value of foo

# Python
cvar.foo = 3.5                  # Set foo to 3.5
print cvar.foo                  # Print value of foo

# Perl
$foo = 3.5;                     # Set foo to 3.5
print $foo,"\n";                # Print value of foo

# Ruby
Module.foo = 3.5               # Set foo to 3.5
print Module.foo, "\n"         # Print value of foo

Whenever the scripting language variable is used, the underlying C global variable is accessed. Although SWIG makes every attempt to make global variables work like scripting language variables, it is not always possible to do so. For instance, in Python, all global variables must be accessed through a special variable object known as cvar (shown above). In Ruby, variables are accessed as attributes of the module. Other languages may convert variables to a pair of accessor functions. For example, the Java module generates a pair of functions double get_foo() and set_foo(double val) that are used to manipulate the value.

Finally, if a global variable has been declared as const, it only supports read-only access. Note: this behavior is new to SWIG-1.3. Earlier versions of SWIG incorrectly handled const and created constants instead.

5.2.3 Constants

Constants can be created using #define, enumerations, or a special %constant directive. The following interface file shows a few valid constant declarations :

#define I_CONST       5               // An integer constant
#define PI            3.14159         // A Floating point constant
#define S_CONST       "hello world"   // A string constant
#define NEWLINE       '\n'            // Character constant

enum boolean {NO=0, YES=1};
enum months {JAN, FEB, MAR, APR, MAY, JUN, JUL, AUG,
             SEP, OCT, NOV, DEC};
%constant double BLAH = 42.37;
#define PI_4 PI/4
#define FLAGS 0x04 | 0x08 | 0x40

In #define declarations, the type of a constant is inferred by syntax. For example, a number with a decimal point is assumed to be floating point. In addition, SWIG must be able to fully resolve all of the symbols used in a #define in order for a constant to actually be created. This restriction is necessary because #define is also used to define preprocessor macros that are definitely not meant to be part of the scripting language interface. For example:

#define EXTERN extern

EXTERN void foo();

In this case, you probably don't want to create a constant called EXTERN (what would the value be?). In general, SWIG will not create constants for macros unless the value can be completely determined by the preprocessor. For instance, in the above example, the declaration

#define PI_4  PI/4

defines a constant because PI was already defined as a constant and the value is known. However, for the same conservative reasons even a constant with a simple cast will be ignored, such as

#define F_CONST (double) 5            // A floating point constant with cast

The use of constant expressions is allowed, but SWIG does not evaluate them. Rather, it passes them through to the output file and lets the C compiler perform the final evaluation (SWIG does perform a limited form of type-checking however).

For enumerations, it is critical that the original enum definition be included somewhere in the interface file (either in a header file or in the %{,%} block). SWIG only translates the enumeration into code needed to add the constants to a scripting language. It needs the original enumeration declaration in order to get the correct enum values as assigned by the C compiler.

The %constant directive is used to more precisely create constants corresponding to different C datatypes. Although it is not usually needed for simple values, it is more useful when working with pointers and other more complex datatypes. Typically, %constant is only used when you want to add constants to the scripting language interface that are not defined in the original header file.

5.2.4 A brief word about const

A common confusion with C programming is the semantic meaning of the const qualifier in declarations--especially when it is mixed with pointers and other type modifiers. In fact, previous versions of SWIG handled const incorrectly--a situation that SWIG-1.3.7 and newer releases have fixed.

Starting with SWIG-1.3, all variable declarations, regardless of any use of const, are wrapped as global variables. If a declaration happens to be declared as const, it is wrapped as a read-only variable. To tell if a variable is const or not, you need to look at the right-most occurrence of the const qualifier (that appears before the variable name). If the right-most const occurs after all other type modifiers (such as pointers), then the variable is const. Otherwise, it is not.

Here are some examples of const declarations.

const char a;           // A constant character
char const b;           // A constant character (the same)
char *const c;          // A constant pointer to a character
const char *const d;    // A constant pointer to a constant character

Here is an example of a declaration that is not const:

const char *e;          // A pointer to a constant character.  The pointer
                        // may be modified.

In this case, the pointer e can change---it's only the value being pointed to that is read-only.

Please note that for const parameters or return types used in a function, SWIG pretty much ignores the fact that these are const, see the section on const-correctness for more information.

Compatibility Note: One reason for changing SWIG to handle const declarations as read-only variables is that there are many situations where the value of a const variable might change. For example, a library might export a symbol as const in its public API to discourage modification, but still allow the value to change through some other kind of internal mechanism. Furthermore, programmers often overlook the fact that with a constant declaration like char *const, the underlying data being pointed to can be modified--it's only the pointer itself that is constant. In an embedded system, a const declaration might refer to a read-only memory address such as the location of a memory-mapped I/O device port (where the value changes, but writing to the port is not supported by the hardware). Rather than trying to build a bunch of special cases into the const qualifier, the new interpretation of const as "read-only" is simple and exactly matches the actual semantics of const in C/C++. If you really want to create a constant as in older versions of SWIG, use the %constant directive instead. For example:

%constant double PI = 3.14159;

or

#ifdef SWIG
#define const %constant
#endif
const double foo = 3.4;
const double bar = 23.4;
const int    spam = 42;
#ifdef SWIG
#undef const
#endif
...

5.2.5 A cautionary tale of char *

Before going any further, there is one bit of caution involving char * that must now be mentioned. When strings are passed from a scripting language to a C char *, the pointer usually points to string data stored inside the interpreter. It is almost always a really bad idea to modify this data. Furthermore, some languages may explicitly disallow it. For instance, in Python, strings are supposed to be immutable. If you violate this, you will probably receive a vast amount of wrath when you unleash your module on the world.

The primary source of problems are functions that might modify string data in place. A classic example would be a function like this:

char *strcat(char *s, const char *t)

Although SWIG will certainly generate a wrapper for this, its behavior will be undefined. In fact, it will probably cause your application to crash with a segmentation fault or other memory related problem. This is because s refers to some internal data in the target language---data that you shouldn't be touching.

The bottom line: don't rely on char * for anything other than read-only input values. However, it must be noted that you could change the behavior of SWIG using typemaps.

5.3 Pointers and complex objects

Most C programs manipulate arrays, structures, and other types of objects. This section discusses the handling of these datatypes.

5.3.1 Simple pointers

Pointers to primitive C datatypes such as

int *
double ***
char **

are fully supported by SWIG. Rather than trying to convert the data being pointed to into a scripting representation, SWIG simply encodes the pointer itself into a representation that contains the actual value of the pointer and a type-tag. Thus, the SWIG representation of the above pointers (in Tcl), might look like this:

_10081012_p_int
_1008e124_ppp_double
_f8ac_pp_char

A NULL pointer is represented by the string "NULL" or the value 0 encoded with type information.

All pointers are treated as opaque objects by SWIG. Thus, a pointer may be returned by a function and passed around to other C functions as needed. For all practical purposes, the scripting language interface works in exactly the same way as you would use the pointer in a C program. The only difference is that there is no mechanism for dereferencing the pointer since this would require the target language to understand the memory layout of the underlying object.

The scripting language representation of a pointer value should never be manipulated directly. Even though the values shown look like hexadecimal addresses, the numbers used may differ from the actual machine address (e.g., on little-endian machines, the digits may appear in reverse order). Furthermore, SWIG does not normally map pointers into high-level objects such as associative arrays or lists (for example, converting an int * into an list of integers). There are several reasons why SWIG does not do this:

5.3.2 Run time pointer type checking

By allowing pointers to be manipulated from a scripting language, extension modules effectively bypass compile-time type checking in the C/C++ compiler. To prevent errors, a type signature is encoded into all pointer values and is used to perform run-time type checking. This type-checking process is an integral part of SWIG and can not be disabled or modified without using typemaps (described in later chapters).

Like C, void * matches any kind of pointer. Furthermore, NULL pointers can be passed to any function that expects to receive a pointer. Although this has the potential to cause a crash, NULL pointers are also sometimes used as sentinel values or to denote a missing/empty value. Therefore, SWIG leaves NULL pointer checking up to the application.

5.3.3 Derived types, structs, and classes

For everything else (structs, classes, arrays, etc...) SWIG applies a very simple rule :

Everything else is a pointer

In other words, SWIG manipulates everything else by reference. This model makes sense because most C/C++ programs make heavy use of pointers and SWIG can use the type-checked pointer mechanism already present for handling pointers to basic datatypes.

Although this probably sounds complicated, it's really quite simple. Suppose you have an interface file like this :

%module fileio
FILE *fopen(char *, char *);
int fclose(FILE *);
unsigned fread(void *ptr, unsigned size, unsigned nobj, FILE *);
unsigned fwrite(void *ptr, unsigned size, unsigned nobj, FILE *);
void *malloc(int nbytes);
void free(void *);

In this file, SWIG doesn't know what a FILE is, but since it's used as a pointer, so it doesn't really matter what it is. If you wrapped this module into Python, you can use the functions just like you expect :

# Copy a file 
def filecopy(source,target):
	f1 = fopen(source,"r")
	f2 = fopen(target,"w")
	buffer = malloc(8192)
	nbytes = fread(buffer,8192,1,f1)
	while (nbytes > 0):
		fwrite(buffer,8192,1,f2)
		nbytes = fread(buffer,8192,1,f1)
	free(buffer)

In this case f1, f2, and buffer are all opaque objects containing C pointers. It doesn't matter what value they contain--our program works just fine without this knowledge.

5.3.4 Undefined datatypes

When SWIG encounters an undeclared datatype, it automatically assumes that it is a structure or class. For example, suppose the following function appeared in a SWIG input file:

void matrix_multiply(Matrix *a, Matrix *b, Matrix *c);

SWIG has no idea what a "Matrix" is. However, it is obviously a pointer to something so SWIG generates a wrapper using its generic pointer handling code.

Unlike C or C++, SWIG does not actually care whether Matrix has been previously defined in the interface file or not. This allows SWIG to generate interfaces from only partial or limited information. In some cases, you may not care what a Matrix really is as long as you can pass an opaque reference to one around in the scripting language interface.

An important detail to mention is that SWIG will gladly generate wrappers for an interface when there are unspecified type names. However, all unspecified types are internally handled as pointers to structures or classes! For example, consider the following declaration:

void foo(size_t num);

If size_t is undeclared, SWIG generates wrappers that expect to receive a type of size_t * (this mapping is described shortly). As a result, the scripting interface might behave strangely. For example:

foo(40);
TypeError: expected a _p_size_t.

The only way to fix this problem is to make sure you properly declare type names using typedef.

5.3.5 Typedef

Like C, typedef can be used to define new type names in SWIG. For example:

typedef unsigned int size_t;

typedef definitions appearing in a SWIG interface are not propagated to the generated wrapper code. Therefore, they either need to be defined in an included header file or placed in the declarations section like this:

%{
/* Include in the generated wrapper file */
typedef unsigned int size_t;
%}
/* Tell SWIG about it */
typedef unsigned int size_t;

or

%inline %{
typedef unsigned int size_t;
%}

In certain cases, you might be able to include other header files to collect type information. For example:

%module example
%import "sys/types.h"

In this case, you might run SWIG as follows:

$ swig -I/usr/include -includeall example.i

It should be noted that your mileage will vary greatly here. System headers are notoriously complicated and may rely upon a variety of non-standard C coding extensions (e.g., such as special directives to GCC). Unless you exactly specify the right include directories and preprocessor symbols, this may not work correctly (you will have to experiment).

SWIG tracks typedef declarations and uses this information for run-time type checking. For instance, if you use the above typedef and had the following function declaration:

void foo(unsigned int *ptr);

The corresponding wrapper function will accept arguments of type unsigned int * or size_t *.

5.4 Other Practicalities

So far, this chapter has presented almost everything you need to know to use SWIG for simple interfaces. However, some C programs use idioms that are somewhat more difficult to map to a scripting language interface. This section describes some of these issues.

5.4.1 Passing structures by value

Sometimes a C function takes structure parameters that are passed by value. For example, consider the following function:

double dot_product(Vector a, Vector b);

To deal with this, SWIG transforms the function to use pointers by creating a wrapper equivalent to the following:

double wrap_dot_product(Vector *a, Vector *b) {
    Vector x = *a;
    Vector y = *b;
    return dot_product(x,y);
}

In the target language, the dot_product() function now accepts pointers to Vectors instead of Vectors. For the most part, this transformation is transparent so you might not notice.

5.4.2 Return by value

C functions that return structures or classes datatypes by value are more difficult to handle. Consider the following function:

Vector cross_product(Vector v1, Vector v2);

This function wants to return Vector, but SWIG only really supports pointers. As a result, SWIG creates a wrapper like this:

Vector *wrap_cross_product(Vector *v1, Vector *v2) {
        Vector x = *v1;
        Vector y = *v2;
        Vector *result;
        result = (Vector *) malloc(sizeof(Vector));
        *(result) = cross(x,y);
        return result;
}

or if SWIG was run with the -c++ option:

Vector *wrap_cross(Vector *v1, Vector *v2) {
        Vector x = *v1;
        Vector y = *v2;
        Vector *result = new Vector(cross(x,y)); // Uses default copy constructor
        return result;
}

In both cases, SWIG allocates a new object and returns a reference to it. It is up to the user to delete the returned object when it is no longer in use. Clearly, this will leak memory if you are unaware of the implicit memory allocation and don't take steps to free the result. That said, it should be noted that some language modules can now automatically track newly created objects and reclaim memory for you. Consult the documentation for each language module for more details.

It should also be noted that the handling of pass/return by value in C++ has some special cases. For example, the above code fragments don't work correctly if Vector doesn't define a default constructor. The section on SWIG and C++ has more information about this case.

5.4.3 Linking to structure variables

When global variables or class members involving structures are encountered, SWIG handles them as pointers. For example, a global variable like this

Vector unit_i;

gets mapped to an underlying pair of set/get functions like this :

Vector *unit_i_get() {
	return &unit_i;
}
void unit_i_set(Vector *value) {
	unit_i = *value;
}

Again some caution is in order. A global variable created in this manner will show up as a pointer in the target scripting language. It would be an extremely bad idea to free or destroy such a pointer. Also, C++ classes must supply a properly defined copy constructor in order for assignment to work correctly.

5.4.4 Linking to char *

When a global variable of type char * appears, SWIG uses malloc() or new to allocate memory for the new value. Specifically, if you have a variable like this

char *foo;

SWIG generates the following code:

/* C mode */
void foo_set(char *value) {
   if (foo) free(foo);
   foo = (char *) malloc(strlen(value)+1);
   strcpy(foo,value);
}

/* C++ mode.  When -c++ option is used */
void foo_set(char *value) {
   if (foo) delete [] foo;
   foo = new char[strlen(value)+1];
   strcpy(foo,value);
}

If this is not the behavior that you want, consider making the variable read-only using the %immutable directive. Alternatively, you might write a short assist-function to set the value exactly like you want. For example:

%inline %{
  void set_foo(char *value) {
       strncpy(foo,value, 50);
   }
%}

Note: If you write an assist function like this, you will have to call it as a function from the target scripting language (it does not work like a variable). For example, in Python you will have to write:

>>> set_foo("Hello World")

A common mistake with char * variables is to link to a variable declared like this:

char *VERSION = "1.0";

In this case, the variable will be readable, but any attempt to change the value results in a segmentation or general protection fault. This is due to the fact that SWIG is trying to release the old value using free or delete when the string literal value currently assigned to the variable wasn't allocated using malloc() or new. To fix this behavior, you can either mark the variable as read-only, write a typemap (as described in Chapter 6), or write a special set function as shown. Another alternative is to declare the variable as an array:

char VERSION[64] = "1.0";

When variables of type const char * are declared, SWIG still generates functions for setting and getting the value. However, the default behavior does not release the previous contents (resulting in a possible memory leak). In fact, you may get a warning message such as this when wrapping such a variable:

example.i:20. Typemap warning. Setting const char * variable may leak memory

The reason for this behavior is that const char * variables are often used to point to string literals. For example:

const char *foo = "Hello World\n";

Therefore, it's a really bad idea to call free() on such a pointer. On the other hand, it is legal to change the pointer to point to some other value. When setting a variable of this type, SWIG allocates a new string (using malloc or new) and changes the pointer to point to the new value. However, repeated modifications of the value will result in a memory leak since the old value is not released.

5.4.5 Arrays

Arrays are fully supported by SWIG, but they are always handled as pointers instead of mapping them to a special array object or list in the target language. Thus, the following declarations :

int foobar(int a[40]);
void grok(char *argv[]);
void transpose(double a[20][20]);

are processed as if they were really declared like this:

int foobar(int *a);
void grok(char **argv);
void transpose(double (*a)[20]);

Like C, SWIG does not perform array bounds checking. It is up to the user to make sure the pointer points to a suitably allocated region of memory.

Multi-dimensional arrays are transformed into a pointer to an array of one less dimension. For example:

int [10];         // Maps to int *
int [10][20];     // Maps to int (*)[20]
int [10][20][30]; // Maps to int (*)[20][30]

It is important to note that in the C type system, a multidimensional array a[][] is NOT equivalent to a single pointer *a or a double pointer such as **a. Instead, a pointer to an array is used (as shown above) where the actual value of the pointer is the starting memory location of the array. The reader is strongly advised to dust off their C book and re-read the section on arrays before using them with SWIG.

Array variables are supported, but are read-only by default. For example:

int   a[100][200];

In this case, reading the variable 'a' returns a pointer of type int (*)[200] that points to the first element of the array &a[0][0]. Trying to modify 'a' results in an error. This is because SWIG does not know how to copy data from the target language into the array. To work around this limitation, you may want to write a few simple assist functions like this:

%inline %{
void a_set(int i, int j, int val) {
   a[i][j] = val;
}
int a_get(int i, int j) {
   return a[i][j];
}
%}

To dynamically create arrays of various sizes and shapes, it may be useful to write some helper functions in your interface. For example:

// Some array helpers
%inline %{
  /* Create any sort of [size] array */
  int *int_array(int size) {
     return (int *) malloc(size*sizeof(int));
  }
  /* Create a two-dimension array [size][10] */
  int (*int_array_10(int size))[10] {
     return (int (*)[10]) malloc(size*10*sizeof(int));
  }
%}

Arrays of char are handled as a special case by SWIG. In this case, strings in the target language can be stored in the array. For example, if you have a declaration like this,

char pathname[256];

SWIG generates functions for both getting and setting the value that are equivalent to the following code:

char *pathname_get() {
   return pathname;
}
void pathname_set(char *value) {
   strncpy(pathname,value,256);
}

In the target language, the value can be set like a normal variable.

5.4.6 Creating read-only variables

A read-only variable can be created by using the %immutable directive as shown :

// File : interface.i

int 	a; 			// Can read/write
%immutable;
int	b,c,d			// Read only variables
%mutable;
double	x,y			// read/write

The %immutable directive enables read-only mode until it is explicitly disabled using the %mutable directive. As an alternative to turning read-only mode off and on like this, individual declarations can also be tagged as immutable. For example:

%immutable x;                   // Make x read-only
...
double x;                       // Read-only (from earlier %immutable directive)
double y;                       // Read-write
...

The %mutable and %immutable directives are actually %feature directives defined like this:

#define %immutable   %feature("immutable")
#define %mutable     %feature("immutable","")

If you wanted to make all wrapped variables read-only, barring one or two, it might be easier to take this approach:

%immutable;                     // Make all variables read-only
%feature("immutable","0") x;    // except, make x read/write
...
double x;
double y;
double z;
...

Read-only variables are also created when declarations are declared as const. For example:

const int foo;               /* Read only variable */
char * const version="1.0";  /* Read only variable */

Compatibility note: Read-only access used to be controlled by a pair of directives %readonly and %readwrite. Although these directives still work, they generate a warning message. Simply change the directives to %immutable; and %mutable; to silence the warning. Don't forget the extra semicolon!

5.4.7 Renaming and ignoring declarations

5.4.7.1 Simple renaming of specific identifiers

Normally, the name of a C declaration is used when that declaration is wrapped into the target language. However, this may generate a conflict with a keyword or already existing function in the scripting language. To resolve a name conflict, you can use the %rename directive as shown :

// interface.i

%rename(my_print) print;
extern void print(const char *);

%rename(foo) a_really_long_and_annoying_name;
extern int a_really_long_and_annoying_name;

SWIG still calls the correct C function, but in this case the function print() will really be called "my_print()" in the target language.

The placement of the %rename directive is arbitrary as long as it appears before the declarations to be renamed. A common technique is to write code for wrapping a header file like this:

// interface.i

%rename(my_print) print;
%rename(foo) a_really_long_and_annoying_name;

%include "header.h"

%rename applies a renaming operation to all future occurrences of a name. The renaming applies to functions, variables, class and structure names, member functions, and member data. For example, if you had two-dozen C++ classes, all with a member function named `print' (which is a keyword in Python), you could rename them all to `output' by specifying :

%rename(output) print; // Rename all `print' functions to `output'

SWIG does not normally perform any checks to see if the functions it wraps are already defined in the target scripting language. However, if you are careful about namespaces and your use of modules, you can usually avoid these problems.

Closely related to %rename is the %ignore directive. %ignore instructs SWIG to ignore declarations that match a given identifier. For example:

%ignore print;         // Ignore all declarations named print
%ignore MYMACRO;       // Ignore a macro
...
#define MYMACRO 123
void print(const char *);
...

Any function, variable etc which matches %ignore will not be wrapped and therefore will not be available from the target language. A common usage of %ignore is to selectively remove certain declarations from a header file without having to add conditional compilation to the header. However, it should be stressed that this only works for simple declarations. If you need to remove a whole section of problematic code, the SWIG preprocessor should be used instead.

Compatibility note: Older versions of SWIG provided a special %name directive for renaming declarations. For example:

%name(output) extern void print(const char *);

This directive is still supported, but it is deprecated and should probably be avoided. The %rename directive is more powerful and better supports wrapping of raw header file information.

5.4.7.2 Advanced renaming support

While writing %rename for specific declarations is simple enough, sometimes the same renaming rule needs to be applied to many, maybe all, identifiers in the SWIG input. For example, it may be necessary to apply some transformation to all the names in the target language to better follow its naming conventions, like adding a specific prefix to all wrapped functions. Doing it individually for each function is impractical so SWIG supports applying a renaming rule to all declarations if the name of the identifier to be renamed is not specified:

%rename("myprefix_%s") ""; // print -> myprefix_print

This also shows that the argument of %rename doesn't have to be a literal string but can be a printf()-like format string. In the simplest form, "%s" is replaced with the name of the original declaration, as shown above. However this is not always enough and SWIG provides extensions to the usual format string syntax to allow applying a (SWIG-defined) function to the argument. For example, to wrap all C functions do_something_long() as more Java-like doSomethingLong() you can use the "lowercamelcase" extended format specifier like this:

%rename("%(lowercamelcase)s") ""; // foo_bar -> fooBar; FooBar -> fooBar

Some functions can be parametrized, for example the "strip" one strips the provided prefix from its argument. The prefix is specified as part of the format string, following a colon after the function name:

%rename("%(strip:[wx])s") ""; // wxHello -> Hello; FooBar -> FooBar

Below is the table summarizing all currently defined functions with an example of applying each one. Note that some of them have two names, a shorter one and a more descriptive one, but the two functions are otherwise equivalent:

FunctionReturnsExample (in/out)
uppercase or upperUpper case version of the string.PrintPRINT
lowercase or lowerLower case version of the string.Printprint
titleString with first letter capitalized and the rest in lower case.printPrint
firstuppercaseString with the first letter capitalized and the rest unchanged.printIt PrintIt
firstlowercaseString with the first letter in lower case and the rest unchanged.PrintIt printIt
camelcase or ctitleString with capitalized first letter and any letter following an underscore (which are removed in the process) and rest in lower case. print_itPrintIt
lowercamelcase or lctitleString with every letter following an underscore (which is removed in the process) capitalized and rest, including the first letter, in lower case. print_itprintIt
undercase or utitleLower case string with underscores inserted before every upper case letter in the original string and any number not at the end of string. Logically, this is the reverse of camelcase.PrintIt print_it
schemifyString with all underscores replaced with dashes, resulting in more Lispers/Schemers-pleasing name. print_itprint-it
strip:[prefix]String without the given prefix or the original string if it doesn't start with this prefix. Note that square brackets should be used literally, e.g. %rename("strip:[wx]")wxPrintPrint
regex:/pattern/subst/String after (Perl-like) regex substitution operation. This function allows to apply arbitrary regular expressions to the identifier names. The pattern part is a regular expression in Perl syntax (as supported by the Perl Compatible Regular Expressions (PCRE)) library and the subst string can contain back-references of the form \N where N is a digit from 0 to 9, or one of the following escape sequences: \l, \L, \u, \U or \E. The back-references are replaced with the contents of the corresponding capture group while the escape sequences perform the case conversion in the substitution string: \l and \L convert to the lower case, while \u and \U convert to the upper case. The difference between the elements of each pair is that \l and \u change the case of the next character only, while \L and \U do it for all the remaining characters or until \E is encountered. Finally please notice that backslashes need to be escaped in C strings, so in practice "\\" must be used in all these escape sequences. For example, to remove any alphabetic prefix before an underscore and capitalize the remaining part you could use the following directive: %rename("regex:/(\\w+)_(.*)/\\u\\2/") prefix_printPrint
command:cmdOutput of an external command cmd with the string passed to it as input. Notice that this function is extremely slow compared to all the other ones as it involves spawning a separate process and using it for many declarations is not recommended. The cmd is not enclosed in square brackets but must be terminated with a triple '<' sign, e.g. %rename("command:tr -d aeiou <<<") (nonsensical example removing all vowels)PrintPrnt

The most general function of all of the above ones (not counting command which is even more powerful in principle but which should generally be avoided because of performance considerations) is the regex one. Here are some more examples of its use:

// Strip the wx prefix from all identifiers except those starting with wxEVT
%rename("%(regex:/wx(?!EVT)(.*)/\\1/)s") ""; // wxSomeWidget -> SomeWidget
                                             // wxEVT_PAINT -> wxEVT_PAINT

// Apply a rule for renaming the enum elements to avoid the common prefixes
// which are redundant in C#/Java
%rename("%(regex:/^([A-Z][a-z]+)+_(.*)/\\2/)s", %$isenumitem) ""; // Colour_Red -> Red

// Remove all "Set/Get" prefixes.
%rename("%(regex:/^(Set|Get)(.*)/\\2/)s") ""; // SetValue -> Value
                                              // GetValue -> Value

As before, everything that was said above about %rename also applies to %ignore. In fact, the latter is just a special case of the former and ignoring an identifier is the same as renaming it to the special "$ignore" value. So the following snippets

%ignore print;

and

%rename("$ignore") print;

are exactly equivalent and %rename can be used to selectively ignore multiple declarations using the previously described matching possibilities.

5.4.7.3 Limiting global renaming rules

As explained in the previous sections, it is possible to either rename individual declarations or apply a rename rule to all of them at once. In practice, the latter is however rarely appropriate as there are always some exceptions to the general rules. To deal with them, the scope of an unnamed %rename can be limited using subsequent match parameters. They can be applied to any of the attributes associated by SWIG with the declarations appearing in its input. For example:

%rename("foo", match$name="bar") "";

can be used to achieve the same effect as the simpler

%rename("foo") bar;

and so is not very interesting on its own. However match can also be applied to the declaration type, for example match="class" restricts the match to class declarations only (in C++) and match="enumitem" restricts it to the enum elements. SWIG also provides convenience macros for such match expressions, for example

%rename("%(title)s", %$isenumitem) "";

will capitalize the names of all the enum elements but not change the case of the other declarations. Similarly, %$isclass, %$isfunction, %$isconstructor, %$isunion, %$istemplate, and %$isvariable can be used. Many other checks are possible and this documentation is not exhaustive, see the "%rename predicates" section in swig.swg for the full list of supported match expressions.

In addition to literally matching some string with match you can also use regexmatch or notregexmatch to match a string against a regular expression. For example, to ignore all functions having "Old" as a suffix you could use

%rename("$ignore", regexmatch$name="Old$") "";

For simple cases like this, specifying the regular expression for the declaration name directly can be preferable and can also be done using regextarget:

%rename("$ignore", regextarget=1) "Old$";

Notice that the check is done only against the name of the declaration itself, if you need to match the full name of a C++ declaration you must use fullname attribute:

%rename("$ignore", regextarget=1, fullname=1) "NameSpace::ClassName::.*Old$";

As for notregexmatch, it restricts the match only to the strings not matching the specified regular expression. So to rename all declarations to lower case except those consisting of capital letters only:

%rename("$(lower)s", notregexmatch$name="^[A-Z]+$") "";

Finally, variants of %rename and %ignore directives can be used to help wrap C++ overloaded functions and methods or C++ methods which use default arguments. This is described in the Ambiguity resolution and renaming section in the C++ chapter.

5.4.7.4 Ignoring everything then wrapping a few selected symbols

Using the techniques described above it is possible to ignore everything in a header and then selectively wrap a few chosen methods or classes. For example, consider a header, myheader.h which has many classes in it and just the one class called Star is wanted within this header, the following approach could be taken:

%ignore ""; // Ignore everything

// Unignore chosen class 'Star'
%rename("%s") Star;

// As the ignore everything will include the constructor, destructor, methods etc
// in the class, these have to be explicitly unignored too:
%rename("%s") Star::Star;
%rename("%s") Star::~Star;
%rename("%s") Star::shine; // named method

%include "myheader.h"

Another approach which might be more suitable as it does not require naming all the methods in the chosen class is to begin by ignoring just the classes. This does not add an explicit ignore to any members of the class, so when the chosen class is unignored, all of its methods will be wrapped.

%rename($ignore, %$isclass) ""; // Only ignore all classes
%rename("%s") Star; // Unignore 'Star'
%include "myheader.h"

5.4.8 Default/optional arguments

SWIG supports default arguments in both C and C++ code. For example:

int plot(double x, double y, int color=WHITE);

In this case, SWIG generates wrapper code where the default arguments are optional in the target language. For example, this function could be used in Tcl as follows :

% plot -3.4 7.5 				# Use default value
% plot -3.4 7.5 10				# set color to 10 instead

Although the ANSI C standard does not allow default arguments, default arguments specified in a SWIG interface work with both C and C++.

Note: There is a subtle semantic issue concerning the use of default arguments and the SWIG generated wrapper code. When default arguments are used in C code, the default values are emitted into the wrappers and the function is invoked with a full set of arguments. This is different to when wrapping C++ where an overloaded wrapper method is generated for each defaulted argument. Please refer to the section on default arguments in the C++ chapter for further details.

5.4.9 Pointers to functions and callbacks

Occasionally, a C library may include functions that expect to receive pointers to functions--possibly to serve as callbacks. SWIG provides full support for function pointers provided that the callback functions are defined in C and not in the target language. For example, consider a function like this:

int binary_op(int a, int b, int (*op)(int,int));

When you first wrap something like this into an extension module, you may find the function to be impossible to use. For instance, in Python:

>>> def add(x,y):
...     return x+y
...
>>> binary_op(3,4,add)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in ?
TypeError: Type error. Expected _p_f_int_int__int
>>>

The reason for this error is that SWIG doesn't know how to map a scripting language function into a C callback. However, existing C functions can be used as arguments provided you install them as constants. One way to do this is to use the %constant directive like this:

/* Function with a callback */
int binary_op(int a, int b, int (*op)(int,int));

/* Some callback functions */
%constant int add(int,int);
%constant int sub(int,int);
%constant int mul(int,int);

In this case, add, sub, and mul become function pointer constants in the target scripting language. This allows you to use them as follows:

>>> binary_op(3,4,add)
7
>>> binary_op(3,4,mul)
12
>>>

Unfortunately, by declaring the callback functions as constants, they are no longer accessible as functions. For example:

>>> add(3,4)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in ?
TypeError: object is not callable: '_ff020efc_p_f_int_int__int'
>>>

If you want to make a function available as both a callback function and a function, you can use the %callback and %nocallback directives like this:

/* Function with a callback */
int binary_op(int a, int b, int (*op)(int,int));

/* Some callback functions */
%callback("%s_cb");
int add(int,int);
int sub(int,int);
int mul(int,int);
%nocallback;

The argument to %callback is a printf-style format string that specifies the naming convention for the callback constants (%s gets replaced by the function name). The callback mode remains in effect until it is explicitly disabled using %nocallback. When you do this, the interface now works as follows:

>>> binary_op(3,4,add_cb)
7
>>> binary_op(3,4,mul_cb)
12
>>> add(3,4)
7
>>> mul(3,4)
12

Notice that when the function is used as a callback, special names such as add_cb are used instead. To call the function normally, just use the original function name such as add().

SWIG provides a number of extensions to standard C printf formatting that may be useful in this context. For instance, the following variation installs the callbacks as all upper case constants such as ADD, SUB, and MUL:

/* Some callback functions */
%callback("%(uppercase)s");
int add(int,int);
int sub(int,int);
int mul(int,int);
%nocallback;

A format string of "%(lowercase)s" converts all characters to lower case. A string of "%(title)s" capitalizes the first character and converts the rest to lower case.

And now, a final note about function pointer support. Although SWIG does not normally allow callback functions to be written in the target language, this can be accomplished with the use of typemaps and other advanced SWIG features. See the Typemaps chapter for more about typemaps and individual target language chapters for more on callbacks and the 'director' feature.

5.5 Structures and unions

This section describes the behavior of SWIG when processing ANSI C structures and union declarations. Extensions to handle C++ are described in the next section.

If SWIG encounters the definition of a structure or union, it creates a set of accessor functions. Although SWIG does not need structure definitions to build an interface, providing definitions makes it possible to access structure members. The accessor functions generated by SWIG simply take a pointer to an object and allow access to an individual member. For example, the declaration :

struct Vector {
	double x,y,z;
}

gets transformed into the following set of accessor functions :

double Vector_x_get(struct Vector *obj) {
	return obj->x;
}
double Vector_y_get(struct Vector *obj) { 
	return obj->y;
}
double Vector_z_get(struct Vector *obj) { 
	return obj->z;
}
void Vector_x_set(struct Vector *obj, double value) {
	obj->x = value;
}
void Vector_y_set(struct Vector *obj, double value) {
	obj->y = value;
}
void Vector_z_set(struct Vector *obj, double value) {
	obj->z = value;
}

In addition, SWIG creates default constructor and destructor functions if none are defined in the interface. For example:

struct Vector *new_Vector() {
    return (Vector *) calloc(1,sizeof(struct Vector));
}
void delete_Vector(struct Vector *obj) {
    free(obj);
}

Using these low-level accessor functions, an object can be minimally manipulated from the target language using code like this:

v = new_Vector()
Vector_x_set(v,2)
Vector_y_set(v,10)
Vector_z_set(v,-5)
...
delete_Vector(v)

However, most of SWIG's language modules also provide a high-level interface that is more convenient. Keep reading.

5.5.1 Typedef and structures

SWIG supports the following construct which is quite common in C programs :

typedef struct {
	double x,y,z;
} Vector;

When encountered, SWIG assumes that the name of the object is `Vector' and creates accessor functions like before. The only difference is that the use of typedef allows SWIG to drop the struct keyword on its generated code. For example:

double Vector_x_get(Vector *obj) {
	return obj->x;
}

If two different names are used like this :

typedef struct vector_struct {
	double x,y,z;
} Vector;

the name Vector is used instead of vector_struct since this is more typical C programming style. If declarations defined later in the interface use the type struct vector_struct, SWIG knows that this is the same as Vector and it generates the appropriate type-checking code.

5.5.2 Character strings and structures

Structures involving character strings require some care. SWIG assumes that all members of type char * have been dynamically allocated using malloc() and that they are NULL-terminated ASCII strings. When such a member is modified, the previous contents will be released, and the new contents allocated. For example :

%module mymodule
...
struct Foo {
	char *name;
	...
}

This results in the following accessor functions :

char *Foo_name_get(Foo *obj) {
	return Foo->name;
}

char *Foo_name_set(Foo *obj, char *c) {
	if (obj->name) free(obj->name);
	obj->name = (char *) malloc(strlen(c)+1);
	strcpy(obj->name,c);
	return obj->name;
}

If this behavior differs from what you need in your applications, the SWIG "memberin" typemap can be used to change it. See the typemaps chapter for further details.

Note: If the -c++ option is used, new and delete are used to perform memory allocation.

5.5.3 Array members

Arrays may appear as the members of structures, but they will be read-only. SWIG will write an accessor function that returns the pointer to the first element of the array, but will not write a function to change the contents of the array itself. When this situation is detected, SWIG may generate a warning message such as the following :

interface.i:116. Warning. Array member will be read-only

To eliminate the warning message, typemaps can be used, but this is discussed in a later chapter. In many cases, the warning message is harmless.

5.5.4 Structure data members

Occasionally, a structure will contain data members that are themselves structures. For example:

typedef struct Foo {
   int x;
} Foo;

typedef struct Bar {
   int y;
   Foo f;           /* struct member */
} Bar;

When a structure member is wrapped, it is handled as a pointer, unless the %naturalvar directive is used where it is handled more like a C++ reference (see C++ Member data). The accessors to the member variable as a pointer are effectively wrapped as follows:

Foo *Bar_f_get(Bar *b) {
   return &b->f;
}
void Bar_f_set(Bar *b, Foo *value) {
   b->f = *value;
}

The reasons for this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the problem of modifying and accessing data inside the data member. For example, suppose you wanted to modify the value of f.x of a Bar object like this:

Bar *b;
b->f.x = 37;

Translating this assignment to function calls (as would be used inside the scripting language interface) results in the following code:

Bar *b;
Foo_x_set(Bar_f_get(b),37);

In this code, if the Bar_f_get() function were to return a Foo instead of a Foo *, then the resulting modification would be applied to a copy of f and not the data member f itself. Clearly that's not what you want!

It should be noted that this transformation to pointers only occurs if SWIG knows that a data member is a structure or class. For instance, if you had a structure like this,

struct Foo {
   WORD   w;
};

and nothing was known about WORD, then SWIG will generate more normal accessor functions like this:

WORD Foo_w_get(Foo *f) {
    return f->w;
}
void Foo_w_set(FOO *f, WORD value) {
    f->w = value;
}

Compatibility Note: SWIG-1.3.11 and earlier releases transformed all non-primitive member datatypes to pointers. Starting in SWIG-1.3.12, this transformation only occurs if a datatype is known to be a structure, class, or union. This is unlikely to break existing code. However, if you need to tell SWIG that an undeclared datatype is really a struct, simply use a forward struct declaration such as "struct Foo;".

5.5.5 C constructors and destructors

When wrapping structures, it is generally useful to have a mechanism for creating and destroying objects. If you don't do anything, SWIG will automatically generate functions for creating and destroying objects using malloc() and free(). Note: the use of malloc() only applies when SWIG is used on C code (i.e., when the -c++ option is not supplied on the command line). C++ is handled differently.

If you don't want SWIG to generate default constructors for your interfaces, you can use the %nodefaultctor directive or the -nodefaultctor command line option. For example:

swig -nodefaultctor example.i 

or

%module foo
...
%nodefaultctor;        // Don't create default constructors
... declarations ...
%clearnodefaultctor;   // Re-enable default constructors

If you need more precise control, %nodefaultctor can selectively target individual structure definitions. For example:

%nodefaultctor Foo;      // No default constructor for Foo
...
struct Foo {             // No default constructor generated.
};

struct Bar {             // Default constructor generated.
};

Since ignoring the implicit or default destructors most of the time produces memory leaks, SWIG will always try to generate them. If needed, however, you can selectively disable the generation of the default/implicit destructor by using %nodefaultdtor

%nodefaultdtor Foo; // No default/implicit destructor for Foo
...
struct Foo {              // No default destructor is generated.
};

struct Bar {              // Default destructor generated.
};

Compatibility note: Prior to SWIG-1.3.7, SWIG did not generate default constructors or destructors unless you explicitly turned them on using -make_default. However, it appears that most users want to have constructor and destructor functions so it has now been enabled as the default behavior.

Note: There are also the -nodefault option and %nodefault directive, which disable both the default or implicit destructor generation. This could lead to memory leaks across the target languages, and it is highly recommended you don't use them.

5.5.6 Adding member functions to C structures

Most languages provide a mechanism for creating classes and supporting object oriented programming. From a C standpoint, object oriented programming really just boils down to the process of attaching functions to structures. These functions normally operate on an instance of the structure (or object). Although there is a natural mapping of C++ to such a scheme, there is no direct mechanism for utilizing it with C code. However, SWIG provides a special %extend directive that makes it possible to attach methods to C structures for purposes of building an object oriented interface. Suppose you have a C header file with the following declaration :

/* file : vector.h */
...
typedef struct Vector {
	double x,y,z;
} Vector;

You can make a Vector look a lot like a class by writing a SWIG interface like this:

// file : vector.i
%module mymodule
%{
#include "vector.h"
%}

%include "vector.h"          // Just grab original C header file
%extend Vector {             // Attach these functions to struct Vector
	Vector(double x, double y, double z) {
		Vector *v;
		v = (Vector *) malloc(sizeof(Vector));
		v->x = x;
		v->y = y;
		v->z = z;
		return v;
	}
	~Vector() {
		free($self);
	}
	double magnitude() {
		return sqrt($self->x*$self->x+$self->y*$self->y+$self->z*$self->z);
	}
	void print() {
		printf("Vector [%g, %g, %g]\n", $self->x,$self->y,$self->z);
	}
};

Note the usage of the $self special variable. Its usage is identical to a C++ 'this' pointer and should be used whenever access to the struct instance is required. Also note that C++ constructor and destructor syntax has been used to simulate a constructor and destructor, even for C code. There is one subtle difference to a normal C++ constructor implementation though and that is although the constructor declaration is as per a normal C++ constructor, the newly constructed object must be returned as if the constructor declaration had a return value, a Vector * in this case.

Now, when used with proxy classes in Python, you can do things like this :

>>> v = Vector(3,4,0)                 # Create a new vector
>>> print v.magnitude()                # Print magnitude
5.0
>>> v.print()                  # Print it out
[ 3, 4, 0 ]
>>> del v                      # Destroy it

The %extend directive can also be used inside the definition of the Vector structure. For example:

// file : vector.i
%module mymodule
%{
#include "vector.h"
%}

typedef struct Vector {
	double x,y,z;
	%extend {
		Vector(double x, double y, double z) { ... }
		~Vector() { ... }
		...
	}
} Vector;

Note that %extend can be used to access externally written functions provided they follow the naming convention used in this example :

/* File : vector.c */
/* Vector methods */
#include "vector.h"
Vector *new_Vector(double x, double y, double z) {
	Vector *v;
	v = (Vector *) malloc(sizeof(Vector));
	v->x = x;
	v->y = y;
	v->z = z;
	return v;
}
void delete_Vector(Vector *v) {
	free(v);
}

double Vector_magnitude(Vector *v) {
	return sqrt(v->x*v->x+v->y*v->y+v->z*v->z);
}

// File : vector.i
// Interface file
%module mymodule
%{
#include "vector.h"
%}

typedef struct Vector {
	double x,y,z;
	%extend {
                Vector(int,int,int); // This calls new_Vector()
               ~Vector();            // This calls delete_Vector()
		double magnitude();  // This will call Vector_magnitude()
		...
	}
} Vector;

The name used for %extend should be the name of the struct and not the name of any typedef to the struct. For example:

typedef struct Integer {
	int value;
} Int;
%extend Integer { ...  } /* Correct name */
%extend Int { ...  } /* Incorrect name */

struct Float {
	float value;
};
typedef struct Float FloatValue;
%extend Float { ...  } /* Correct name */
%extend FloatValue { ...  } /* Incorrect name */

There is one exception to this rule and that is when the struct is anonymously named such as:

typedef struct {
	double value;
} Double;
%extend Double { ...  } /* Okay */

A little known feature of the %extend directive is that it can also be used to add synthesized attributes or to modify the behavior of existing data attributes. For example, suppose you wanted to make magnitude a read-only attribute of Vector instead of a method. To do this, you might write some code like this:

// Add a new attribute to Vector
%extend Vector {
    const double magnitude;
}
// Now supply the implementation of the Vector_magnitude_get function
%{
const double Vector_magnitude_get(Vector *v) {
  return (const double) sqrt(v->x*v->x+v->y*v->y+v->z*v->z);
}
%}

Now, for all practical purposes, magnitude will appear like an attribute of the object.

A similar technique can also be used to work with data members that you want to process. For example, consider this interface:

typedef struct Person {
  char name[50];
  ...
} Person;

Say you wanted to ensure name was always upper case, you can rewrite the interface as follows to ensure this occurs whenever a name is read or written to:

typedef struct Person {
  %extend {
    char name[50];
  }
  ...
} Person;

%{
#include <string.h>
#include <ctype.h>

void make_upper(char *name) {
  char *c;
  for (c = name; *c; ++c)
    *c = (char)toupper((int)*c);
}

/* Specific implementation of set/get functions forcing capitalization */

char *Person_name_get(Person *p) {
  make_upper(p->name);
  return p->name;
}

void Person_name_set(Person *p, char *val) {
  strncpy(p->name,val,50);
  make_upper(p->name);
}
%}

Finally, it should be stressed that even though %extend can be used to add new data members, these new members can not require the allocation of additional storage in the object (e.g., their values must be entirely synthesized from existing attributes of the structure or obtained elsewhere).

Compatibility note: The %extend directive is a new name for the %addmethods directive. Since %addmethods could be used to extend a structure with more than just methods, a more suitable directive name has been chosen.

5.5.7 Nested structures

Occasionally, a C program will involve structures like this :

typedef struct Object {
	int objtype;
	union {
		int 	ivalue;
		double	dvalue;
		char	*strvalue;
		void	*ptrvalue;
	} intRep;
} Object;

When SWIG encounters this, it performs a structure splitting operation that transforms the declaration into the equivalent of the following:

typedef union {
	int 		ivalue;
	double		dvalue;
	char		*strvalue;
	void		*ptrvalue;
} Object_intRep;

typedef struct Object {
	int objType;
	Object_intRep intRep;
} Object;

SWIG will then create an Object_intRep structure for use inside the interface file. Accessor functions will be created for both structures. In this case, functions like this would be created :

Object_intRep *Object_intRep_get(Object *o) {
	return (Object_intRep *) &o->intRep;
}
int Object_intRep_ivalue_get(Object_intRep *o) {
	return o->ivalue;
}
int Object_intRep_ivalue_set(Object_intRep *o, int value) {
	return (o->ivalue = value);
}
double Object_intRep_dvalue_get(Object_intRep *o) {
	return o->dvalue;
}
... etc ...

Although this process is a little hairy, it works like you would expect in the target scripting language--especially when proxy classes are used. For instance, in Perl:

# Perl5 script for accessing nested member
$o = CreateObject();                    # Create an object somehow
$o->{intRep}->{ivalue} = 7              # Change value of o.intRep.ivalue

If you have a lot of nested structure declarations, it is advisable to double-check them after running SWIG. Although, there is a good chance that they will work, you may have to modify the interface file in certain cases.

Finally, note that nesting is handled differently in C++ mode, see Nested classes.

5.5.8 Other things to note about structure wrapping

SWIG doesn't care if the declaration of a structure in a .i file exactly matches that used in the underlying C code (except in the case of nested structures). For this reason, there are no problems omitting problematic members or simply omitting the structure definition altogether. If you are happy passing pointers around, this can be done without ever giving SWIG a structure definition.

Starting with SWIG1.3, a number of improvements have been made to SWIG's code generator. Specifically, even though structure access has been described in terms of high-level accessor functions such as this,

double Vector_x_get(Vector *v) {
   return v->x;
}

most of the generated code is actually inlined directly into wrapper functions. Therefore, no function Vector_x_get() actually exists in the generated wrapper file. For example, when creating a Tcl module, the following function is generated instead:

static int
_wrap_Vector_x_get(ClientData clientData, Tcl_Interp *interp, 
                   int objc, Tcl_Obj *CONST objv[]) {
    struct Vector *arg1 ;
    double result ;
    
    if (SWIG_GetArgs(interp, objc, objv,"p:Vector_x_get self ",&arg0,
                     SWIGTYPE_p_Vector) == TCL_ERROR)
         return TCL_ERROR;
    result = (double ) (arg1->x);
    Tcl_SetObjResult(interp,Tcl_NewDoubleObj((double) result));
    return TCL_OK;
}

The only exception to this rule are methods defined with %extend . In this case, the added code is contained in a separate function.

Finally, it is important to note that most language modules may choose to build a more advanced interface. Although you may never use the low-level interface described here, most of SWIG's language modules use it in some way or another.

5.6 Code Insertion

Sometimes it is necessary to insert special code into the resulting wrapper file generated by SWIG. For example, you may want to include additional C code to perform initialization or other operations. There are four common ways to insert code, but it's useful to know how the output of SWIG is structured first.

5.6.1 The output of SWIG

When SWIG creates its output file, it is broken up into five sections corresponding to runtime code, headers, wrapper functions, and module initialization code (in that order).

5.6.2 Code insertion blocks

Code is inserted into the appropriate code section by using one of the code insertion directives listed below. The order of the sections in the wrapper file is as shown:

%begin %{
   ... code in begin section ...
%}

%runtime %{
   ... code in runtime section ...
%}

%header %{
   ... code in header section ...
%}

%wrapper %{
   ... code in wrapper section ...
%}

%init %{
   ... code in init section ...
%}

The bare %{ ... %} directive is a shortcut that is the same as %header %{ ... %}.

The %begin section is effectively empty as it just contains the SWIG banner by default. This section is provided as a way for users to insert code at the top of the wrapper file before any other code is generated. Everything in a code insertion block is copied verbatim into the output file and is not parsed by SWIG. Most SWIG input files have at least one such block to include header files and support C code. Additional code blocks may be placed anywhere in a SWIG file as needed.

%module mymodule
%{
#include "my_header.h"
%}
... Declare functions here
%{

void some_extra_function() {
  ...
}
%}

A common use for code blocks is to write "helper" functions. These are functions that are used specifically for the purpose of building an interface, but which are generally not visible to the normal C program. For example :

%{
/* Create a new vector */
static Vector *new_Vector() {
	return (Vector *) malloc(sizeof(Vector));
}

%}
// Now wrap it 
Vector *new_Vector();

5.6.3 Inlined code blocks

Since the process of writing helper functions is fairly common, there is a special inlined form of code block that is used as follows :

%inline %{
/* Create a new vector */
Vector *new_Vector() {
	return (Vector *) malloc(sizeof(Vector));
}
%}

The %inline directive inserts all of the code that follows verbatim into the header portion of an interface file. The code is then parsed by both the SWIG preprocessor and parser. Thus, the above example creates a new command new_Vector using only one declaration. Since the code inside an %inline %{ ... %} block is given to both the C compiler and SWIG, it is illegal to include any SWIG directives inside a %{ ... %} block.

5.6.4 Initialization blocks

When code is included in the %init section, it is copied directly into the module initialization function. For example, if you needed to perform some extra initialization on module loading, you could write this:

%init %{
	init_variables();
%}

5.7 An Interface Building Strategy

This section describes the general approach for building interfaces with SWIG. The specifics related to a particular scripting language are found in later chapters.

5.7.1 Preparing a C program for SWIG

SWIG doesn't require modifications to your C code, but if you feed it a collection of raw C header files or source code, the results might not be what you expect---in fact, they might be awful. Here's a series of steps you can follow to make an interface for a C program :

Although this may sound complicated, the process turns out to be fairly easy once you get the hang of it.

In the process of building an interface, SWIG may encounter syntax errors or other problems. The best way to deal with this is to simply copy the offending code into a separate interface file and edit it. However, the SWIG developers have worked very hard to improve the SWIG parser--you should report parsing errors to the swig-devel mailing list or to the SWIG bug tracker.

5.7.2 The SWIG interface file

The preferred method of using SWIG is to generate a separate interface file. Suppose you have the following C header file :

/* File : header.h */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <math.h>

extern int foo(double);
extern double bar(int, int);
extern void dump(FILE *f);

A typical SWIG interface file for this header file would look like the following :

/* File : interface.i */
%module mymodule
%{
#include "header.h"
%}
extern int foo(double);
extern double bar(int, int);
extern void dump(FILE *f);

Of course, in this case, our header file is pretty simple so we could use a simpler approach and use an interface file like this:

/* File : interface.i */
%module mymodule
%{
#include "header.h"
%}
%include "header.h"

The main advantage of this approach is minimal maintenance of an interface file for when the header file changes in the future. In more complex projects, an interface file containing numerous %include and #include statements like this is one of the most common approaches to interface file design due to lower maintenance overhead.

5.7.3 Why use separate interface files?

Although SWIG can parse many header files, it is more common to write a special .i file defining the interface to a package. There are several reasons why you might want to do this:

5.7.4 Getting the right header files

Sometimes, it is necessary to use certain header files in order for the code generated by SWIG to compile properly. Make sure you include certain header files by using a %{,%} block like this:

%module graphics
%{
#include <GL/gl.h>
#include <GL/glu.h>
%}

// Put the rest of the declarations here
...

5.7.5 What to do with main()

If your program defines a main() function, you may need to get rid of it or rename it in order to use a scripting language. Most scripting languages define their own main() procedure that is called instead. main() also makes no sense when working with dynamic loading. There are a few approaches to solving the main() conflict :

Getting rid of main() may cause potential initialization problems of a program. To handle this problem, you may consider writing a special function called program_init() that initializes your program upon startup. This function could then be called either from the scripting language as the first operation, or when the SWIG generated module is loaded.

As a general note, many C programs only use the main() function to parse command line options and to set parameters. However, by using a scripting language, you are probably trying to create a program that is more interactive. In many cases, the old main() program can be completely replaced by a Perl, Python, or Tcl script.

Note: In some cases, you might be inclined to create a scripting language wrapper for main(). If you do this, the compilation will probably work and your module might even load correctly. The only trouble is that when you call your main() wrapper, you will find that it actually invokes the main() of the scripting language interpreter itself! This behavior is a side effect of the symbol binding mechanism used in the dynamic linker. The bottom line: don't do this.


6 SWIG and C++

This chapter describes SWIG's support for wrapping C++. As a prerequisite, you should first read the chapter SWIG Basics to see how SWIG wraps ANSI C. Support for C++ builds upon ANSI C wrapping and that material will be useful in understanding this chapter.

6.1 Comments on C++ Wrapping

Because of its complexity and the fact that C++ can be difficult to integrate with itself let alone other languages, SWIG only provides support for a subset of C++ features. Fortunately, this is now a rather large subset.

In part, the problem with C++ wrapping is that there is no semantically obvious (or automatic ) way to map many of its advanced features into other languages. As a simple example, consider the problem of wrapping C++ multiple inheritance to a target language with no such support. Similarly, the use of overloaded operators and overloaded functions can be problematic when no such capability exists in a target language.

A more subtle issue with C++ has to do with the way that some C++ programmers think about programming libraries. In the world of SWIG, you are really trying to create binary-level software components for use in other languages. In order for this to work, a "component" has to contain real executable instructions and there has to be some kind of binary linking mechanism for accessing its functionality. In contrast, C++ has increasingly relied upon generic programming and templates for much of its functionality. Although templates are a powerful feature, they are largely orthogonal to the whole notion of binary components and libraries. For example, an STL vector does not define any kind of binary object for which SWIG can just create a wrapper. To further complicate matters, these libraries often utilize a lot of behind the scenes magic in which the semantics of seemingly basic operations (e.g., pointer dereferencing, procedure call, etc.) can be changed in dramatic and sometimes non-obvious ways. Although this "magic" may present few problems in a C++-only universe, it greatly complicates the problem of crossing language boundaries and provides many opportunities to shoot yourself in the foot. You will just have to be careful.

6.2 Approach

To wrap C++, SWIG uses a layered approach to code generation. At the lowest level, SWIG generates a collection of procedural ANSI-C style wrappers. These wrappers take care of basic type conversion, type checking, error handling, and other low-level details of the C++ binding. These wrappers are also sufficient to bind C++ into any target language that supports built-in procedures. In some sense, you might view this layer of wrapping as providing a C library interface to C++. On top of the low-level procedural (flattened) interface, SWIG generates proxy classes that provide a natural object-oriented (OO) interface to the underlying code. The proxy classes are typically written in the target language itself. For instance, in Python, a real Python class is used to provide a wrapper around the underlying C++ object.

It is important to emphasize that SWIG takes a deliberately conservative and non-intrusive approach to C++ wrapping. SWIG does not encapsulate C++ classes inside a special C++ adaptor, it does not rely upon templates, nor does it add in additional C++ inheritance when generating wrappers. The last thing that most C++ programs need is even more compiler magic. Therefore, SWIG tries to maintain a very strict and clean separation between the implementation of your C++ application and the resulting wrapper code. You might say that SWIG has been written to follow the principle of least surprise--it does not play sneaky tricks with the C++ type system, it doesn't mess with your class hierarchies, and it doesn't introduce new semantics. Although this approach might not provide the most seamless integration with C++, it is safe, simple, portable, and debuggable.

Some of this chapter focuses on the low-level procedural interface to C++ that is used as the foundation for all language modules. Keep in mind that the target languages also provide the high-level OO interface via proxy classes. More detailed coverage can be found in the documentation for each target language.

6.3 Supported C++ features

SWIG currently supports most C++ features including the following:

The following C++ features are not currently supported:

As a rule of thumb, SWIG should not be used on raw C++ source files, use header files only.

SWIG's C++ support is an ongoing project so some of these limitations may be lifted in future releases. However, we make no promises. Also, submitting a bug report is a very good way to get problems fixed (wink).

6.4 Command line options and compilation

When wrapping C++ code, it is critical that SWIG be called with the `-c++' option. This changes the way a number of critical features such as memory management are handled. It also enables the recognition of C++ keywords. Without the -c++ flag, SWIG will either issue a warning or a large number of syntax errors if it encounters C++ code in an interface file.

When compiling and linking the resulting wrapper file, it is normal to use the C++ compiler. For example:

$ swig -c++ -tcl example.i
$ c++ -fPIC -c example_wrap.cxx 
$ c++ example_wrap.o $(OBJS) -o example.so

Unfortunately, the process varies slightly on each platform. Make sure you refer to the documentation on each target language for further details. The SWIG Wiki also has further details.

Compatibility Note: Early versions of SWIG generated just a flattened low-level C style API to C++ classes by default. The -noproxy commandline option is recognised by many target languages and will generate just this interface as in earlier versions.

6.5 Proxy classes

In order to provide a natural mapping from C++ classes to the target language classes, SWIG's target languages mostly wrap C++ classes with special proxy classes. These proxy classes are typically implemented in the target language itself. For example, if you're building a Python module, each C++ class is wrapped by a Python proxy class. Or if you're building a Java module, each C++ class is wrapped by a Java proxy class.

6.5.1 Construction of proxy classes

Proxy classes are always constructed as an extra layer of wrapping that uses low-level accessor functions. To illustrate, suppose you had a C++ class like this:

class Foo {
public:
      Foo();
     ~Foo();
      int  bar(int x);
      int  x;
};

Using C++ as pseudocode, a proxy class looks something like this:

class FooProxy {
private:
      Foo    *self;
public:
      FooProxy() {
            self = new_Foo();
      }
     ~FooProxy() {
            delete_Foo(self);
      }
      int bar(int x) {
            return Foo_bar(self,x);
      }
      int x_get() {
            return Foo_x_get(self);
      }
      void x_set(int x) {
            Foo_x_set(self,x);
      }
};

Of course, always keep in mind that the real proxy class is written in the target language. For example, in Python, the proxy might look roughly like this:

class Foo:
    def __init__(self):
         self.this = new_Foo()
    def __del__(self):
         delete_Foo(self.this)
    def bar(self,x):
         return Foo_bar(self.this,x)
    def __getattr__(self,name):
         if name == 'x':
              return Foo_x_get(self.this)
         ...
    def __setattr__(self,name,value):
         if name == 'x':
              Foo_x_set(self.this,value)
         ...

Again, it's important to emphasize that the low-level accessor functions are always used by the proxy classes. Whenever possible, proxies try to take advantage of language features that are similar to C++. This might include operator overloading, exception handling, and other features.

6.5.2 Resource management in proxies

A major issue with proxies concerns the memory management of wrapped objects. Consider the following C++ code:

class Foo {
public:
      Foo();
     ~Foo();
      int bar(int x);
      int x;
};

class Spam {
public:
      Foo *value;
      ...
};

Consider some script code that uses these classes:

f = Foo()               # Creates a new Foo
s = Spam()              # Creates a new Spam
s.value = f             # Stores a reference to f inside s
g = s.value             # Returns stored reference
g = 4                   # Reassign g to some other value
del f                   # Destroy f 

Now, ponder the resulting memory management issues. When objects are created in the script, the objects are wrapped by newly created proxy classes. That is, there is both a new proxy class instance and a new instance of the underlying C++ class. In this example, both f and s are created in this way. However, the statement s.value is rather curious---when executed, a pointer to f is stored inside another object. This means that the scripting proxy class AND another C++ class share a reference to the same object. To make matters even more interesting, consider the statement g = s.value. When executed, this creates a new proxy class g that provides a wrapper around the C++ object stored in s.value . In general, there is no way to know where this object came from---it could have been created by the script, but it could also have been generated internally. In this particular example, the assignment of g results in a second proxy class for f. In other words, a reference to f is now shared by two proxy classes and a C++ class.

Finally, consider what happens when objects are destroyed. In the statement, g=4, the variable g is reassigned. In many languages, this makes the old value of g available for garbage collection. Therefore, this causes one of the proxy classes to be destroyed. Later on, the statement del f destroys the other proxy class. Of course, there is still a reference to the original object stored inside another C++ object. What happens to it? Is the object still valid?

To deal with memory management problems, proxy classes provide an API for controlling ownership. In C++ pseudocode, ownership control might look roughly like this:

class FooProxy {
public:
      Foo    *self;
      int     thisown;

      FooProxy() {
            self = new_Foo();
            thisown = 1;       // Newly created object
      }
     ~FooProxy() {
            if (thisown) delete_Foo(self);
      }
      ...
      // Ownership control API
      void disown() {
           thisown = 0;
      }
      void acquire() {
           thisown = 1;
      }
};

class FooPtrProxy: public FooProxy {
public:
      FooPtrProxy(Foo *s) {
          self = s;
          thisown = 0;
      }
};

class SpamProxy {
     ...
     FooProxy *value_get() {
          return FooPtrProxy(Spam_value_get(self));
     }
     void value_set(FooProxy *v) {
          Spam_value_set(self,v->self);
          v->disown();
     }
     ...
};

Looking at this code, there are a few central features:

Given the tricky nature of C++ memory management, it is impossible for proxy classes to automatically handle every possible memory management problem. However, proxies do provide a mechanism for manual control that can be used (if necessary) to address some of the more tricky memory management problems.

6.5.3 Language specific details

Language specific details on proxy classes are contained in the chapters describing each target language. This chapter has merely introduced the topic in a very general way.

6.6 Simple C++ wrapping

The following code shows a SWIG interface file for a simple C++ class.

%module list
%{
#include "list.h"
%}

// Very simple C++ example for linked list

class List {
public:
  List();
  ~List();
  int  search(char *value);
  void insert(char *);
  void remove(char *);
  char *get(int n);
  int  length;
static void print(List *l);
};

To generate wrappers for this class, SWIG first reduces the class to a collection of low-level C-style accessor functions which are then used by the proxy classes.

6.6.1 Constructors and destructors

C++ constructors and destructors are translated into accessor functions such as the following :

List * new_List(void) {
	return new List;
}
void delete_List(List *l) {
	delete l;
}

6.6.2 Default constructors, copy constructors and implicit destructors

Following the C++ rules for implicit constructor and destructors, SWIG will automatically assume there is one even when they are not explicitly declared in the class interface.

In general then:

And as in C++, a few rules that alters the previous behavior:

SWIG should never generate a default constructor, copy constructor or default destructor wrapper for a class in which it is illegal to do so. In some cases, however, it could be necessary (if the complete class declaration is not visible from SWIG, and one of the above rules is violated) or desired (to reduce the size of the final interface) by manually disabling the implicit constructor/destructor generation.

To manually disable these, the %nodefaultctor and %nodefaultdtor feature flag directives can be used. Note that these directives only affects the implicit generation, and they have no effect if the default/copy constructors or destructor are explicitly declared in the class interface.

For example:

%nodefaultctor Foo;  // Disable the default constructor for class Foo.
class Foo {          // No default constructor is generated, unless one is declared
...
};
class Bar {          // A default constructor is generated, if possible
...
};

The directive %nodefaultctor can also be applied "globally", as in:

%nodefaultctor; // Disable creation of default constructors
class Foo {     // No default constructor is generated, unless one is declared
...
};
class Bar {   
public:
  Bar();        // The default constructor is generated, since one is declared
};
%clearnodefaultctor; // Enable the creation of default constructors again

The corresponding %nodefaultdtor directive can be used to disable the generation of the default or implicit destructor, if needed. Be aware, however, that this could lead to memory leaks in the target language. Hence, it is recommended to use this directive only in well known cases. For example:

%nodefaultdtor Foo;   // Disable the implicit/default destructor for class Foo.
class Foo {           // No destructor is generated, unless one is declared
...
};

Compatibility Note: The generation of default constructors/implicit destructors was made the default behavior in SWIG 1.3.7. This may break certain older modules, but the old behavior can be easily restored using %nodefault or the -nodefault command line option. Furthermore, in order for SWIG to properly generate (or not generate) default constructors, it must be able to gather information from both the private and protected sections (specifically, it needs to know if a private or protected constructor/destructor is defined). In older versions of SWIG, it was fairly common to simply remove or comment out the private and protected sections of a class due to parser limitations. However, this removal may now cause SWIG to erroneously generate constructors for classes that define a constructor in those sections. Consider restoring those sections in the interface or using %nodefault to fix the problem.

Note: The %nodefault directive/-nodefault options described above, which disable both the default constructor and the implicit destructors, could lead to memory leaks, and so it is strongly recommended to not use them.

6.6.3 When constructor wrappers aren't created

If a class defines a constructor, SWIG normally tries to generate a wrapper for it. However, SWIG will not generate a constructor wrapper if it thinks that it will result in illegal wrapper code. There are really two cases where this might show up.

First, SWIG won't generate wrappers for protected or private constructors. For example:

class Foo {
protected:
     Foo();         // Not wrapped.
public:
      ...
};

Next, SWIG won't generate wrappers for a class if it appears to be abstract--that is, it has undefined pure virtual methods. Here are some examples:

class Bar {
public:
     Bar();               // Not wrapped.  Bar is abstract.
     virtual void spam(void) = 0; 
};

class Grok : public Bar {
public:
      Grok();            // Not wrapped. No implementation of abstract spam().
};

Some users are surprised (or confused) to find missing constructor wrappers in their interfaces. In almost all cases, this is caused when classes are determined to be abstract. To see if this is the case, run SWIG with all of its warnings turned on:

% swig -Wall -python module.i

In this mode, SWIG will issue a warning for all abstract classes. It is possible to force a class to be non-abstract using this:

%feature("notabstract") Foo;

class Foo : public Bar {
public:
     Foo();    // Generated no matter what---not abstract. 
     ...
};

More information about %feature can be found in the Customization features chapter.

6.6.4 Copy constructors

If a class defines more than one constructor, its behavior depends on the capabilities of the target language. If overloading is supported, the copy constructor is accessible using the normal constructor function. For example, if you have this:

class List {
public:
    List();    
    List(const List &);      // Copy constructor
    ...
};

then the copy constructor can be used as follows:

x = List()               # Create a list
y = List(x)              # Copy list x

If the target language does not support overloading, then the copy constructor is available through a special function like this:

List *copy_List(List *f) {
    return new List(*f);
}

Note: For a class X, SWIG only treats a constructor as a copy constructor if it can be applied to an object of type X or X *. If more than one copy constructor is defined, only the first definition that appears is used as the copy constructor--other definitions will result in a name-clash. Constructors such as X(const X &), X(X &), and X(X *) are handled as copy constructors in SWIG.

Note: SWIG does not generate a copy constructor wrapper unless one is explicitly declared in the class. This differs from the treatment of default constructors and destructors. However, copy constructor wrappers can be generated if using the copyctor feature flag. For example:

%copyctor List;

class List {
public:
    List();    
};

Will generate a copy constructor wrapper for List.

Compatibility note: Special support for copy constructors was not added until SWIG-1.3.12. In previous versions, copy constructors could be wrapped, but they had to be renamed. For example:

class Foo {
public:
    Foo();
  %name(CopyFoo) Foo(const Foo &);
    ...
};

For backwards compatibility, SWIG does not perform any special copy-constructor handling if the constructor has been manually renamed. For instance, in the above example, the name of the constructor is set to new_CopyFoo(). This is the same as in older versions.

6.6.5 Member functions

All member functions are roughly translated into accessor functions like this :

int List_search(List *obj, char *value) {
	return obj->search(value);
}

This translation is the same even if the member function has been declared as virtual.

It should be noted that SWIG does not actually create a C accessor function in the code it generates. Instead, member access such as obj->search(value) is directly inlined into the generated wrapper functions. However, the name and calling convention of the low-level procedural wrappers match the accessor function prototype described above.

6.6.6 Static members

Static member functions are called directly without making any special transformations. For example, the static member function print(List *l) directly invokes List::print(List *l) in the generated wrapper code.

6.6.7 Member data

Member data is handled in exactly the same manner as for C structures. A pair of accessor functions are effectively created. For example :

int List_length_get(List *obj) {
	return obj->length;
}
int List_length_set(List *obj, int value) {
	obj->length = value;
	return value;
}

A read-only member can be created using the %immutable and %mutable feature flag directive. For example, we probably wouldn't want the user to change the length of a list so we could do the following to make the value available, but read-only.

class List {
public:
...
%immutable;
	int length;
%mutable;
...
};

Alternatively, you can specify an immutable member in advance like this:

%immutable List::length;
...
class List {
   ...
   int length;         // Immutable by above directive
   ...
};

Similarly, all data attributes declared as const are wrapped as read-only members.

By default, SWIG uses the const reference typemaps for members that are primitive types. There are some subtle issues when wrapping data members that are not primitive types, such as classes. For instance, if you had another class like this,

class Foo {
public:
    List items;
    ...

then the low-level accessor to the items member actually uses pointers. For example:

List *Foo_items_get(Foo *self) {
    return &self->items;
}
void Foo_items_set(Foo *self, List *value) {
    self->items = *value;
}

More information about this can be found in the SWIG Basics chapter, Structure data members section.

The wrapper code to generate the accessors for classes comes from the pointer typemaps. This can be somewhat unnatural for some types. For example, a user would expect the STL std::string class member variables to be wrapped as a string in the target language, rather than a pointer to this class. The const reference typemaps offer this type of marshalling, so there is a feature to tell SWIG to use the const reference typemaps rather than the pointer typemaps. It is the naturalvar feature and can be used to effectively change the way accessors are generated to the following:

const List &Foo_items_get(Foo *self) {
    return self->items;
}
void Foo_items_set(Foo *self, const List &value) {
    self->items = value;
}

The %naturalvar directive is a macro for, and hence equivalent to, %feature("naturalvar"). It can be used as follows:

// All List variables will use const List& typemaps
%naturalvar List;

// Only Foo::myList will use const List& typemaps
%naturalvar Foo::myList;
struct Foo {
  List myList;
};

// All non-primitive types will use const reference typemaps
%naturalvar;

The observant reader will notice that %naturalvar works like any other feature flag directive but with some extra flexibility. The first of the example usages above shows %naturalvar attaching to the myList 's variable type, that is the List class. The second usage shows %naturalvar attaching to the variable name. Hence the naturalvar feature can be used on either the variable's name or type. Note that using the naturalvar feature on a variable's name overrides any naturalvar feature attached to the variable's type.

It is generally a good idea to use this feature globally as the reference typemaps have extra NULL checking compared to the pointer typemaps. A pointer can be NULL, whereas a reference cannot, so the extra checking ensures that the target language user does not pass in a value that translates to a NULL pointer and thereby preventing any potential NULL pointer dereferences. The %naturalvar feature will apply to global variables in addition to member variables in some language modules, eg C# and Java.

The naturalvar behavior can also be turned on as a global setting via the -naturalvar commandline option or the module mode option, %module(naturalvar=1). However, any use of %feature("naturalvar") will override the global setting.

Compatibility note: The %naturalvar feature was introduced in SWIG-1.3.28, prior to which it was necessary to manually apply the const reference typemaps, eg %apply const std::string & { std::string * }, but this example would also apply the typemaps to methods taking a std::string pointer.

Compatibility note: Read-only access used to be controlled by a pair of directives %readonly and %readwrite. Although these directives still work, they generate a warning message. Simply change the directives to %immutable; and %mutable; to silence the warning. Don't forget the extra semicolon!

Compatibility note: Prior to SWIG-1.3.12, all members of unknown type were wrapped into accessor functions using pointers. For example, if you had a structure like this

struct Foo {
   size_t  len;
};

and nothing was known about size_t, then accessors would be written to work with size_t *. Starting in SWIG-1.3.12, this behavior has been modified. Specifically, pointers will only be used if SWIG knows that a datatype corresponds to a structure or class. Therefore, the above code would be wrapped into accessors involving size_t. This change is subtle, but it smooths over a few problems related to structure wrapping and some of SWIG's customization features.

6.7 Default arguments

SWIG will wrap all types of functions that have default arguments. For example member functions:

class Foo {
public:
    void bar(int x, int y = 3, int z = 4);
};

SWIG handles default arguments by generating an extra overloaded method for each defaulted argument. SWIG is effectively handling methods with default arguments as if it was wrapping the equivalent overloaded methods. Thus for the example above, it is as if we had instead given the following to SWIG:

class Foo {
public:
    void bar(int x, int y, int z);
    void bar(int x, int y);
    void bar(int x);
};

The wrappers produced are exactly the same as if the above code was instead fed into SWIG. Details of this are covered later in the Wrapping Overloaded Functions and Methods section. This approach allows SWIG to wrap all possible default arguments, but can be verbose. For example if a method has ten default arguments, then eleven wrapper methods are generated.

Please see the Features and default arguments section for more information on using %feature with functions with default arguments. The Ambiguity resolution and renaming section also deals with using %rename and %ignore on methods with default arguments. If you are writing your own typemaps for types used in methods with default arguments, you may also need to write a typecheck typemap. See the Typemaps and overloading section for details or otherwise use the compactdefaultargs feature flag as mentioned below.

Compatibility note: Versions of SWIG prior to SWIG-1.3.23 wrapped default arguments slightly differently. Instead a single wrapper method was generated and the default values were copied into the C++ wrappers so that the method being wrapped was then called with all the arguments specified. If the size of the wrappers are a concern then this approach to wrapping methods with default arguments can be re-activated by using the compactdefaultargs feature flag.

%feature("compactdefaultargs") Foo::bar;
class Foo {
public:
    void bar(int x, int y = 3, int z = 4);
};

This is great for reducing the size of the wrappers, but the caveat is it does not work for the statically typed languages, such as C# and Java, which don't have optional arguments in the language, Another restriction of this feature is that it cannot handle default arguments that are not public. The following example illustrates this:

class Foo {
private:
   static const int spam;
public:
   void bar(int x, int y = spam);   // Won't work with %feature("compactdefaultargs") -
                                    // private default value
};

This produces uncompileable wrapper code because default values in C++ are evaluated in the same scope as the member function whereas SWIG evaluates them in the scope of a wrapper function (meaning that the values have to be public).

This feature is automatically turned on when wrapping C code with default arguments and whenever keyword arguments (kwargs) are specified for either C or C++ code. Keyword arguments are a language feature of some scripting languages, for example Ruby and Python. SWIG is unable to support kwargs when wrapping overloaded methods, so the default approach cannot be used.

6.8 Protection

SWIG wraps class members that are public following the C++ conventions, i.e., by explicit public declaration or by the use of the using directive. In general, anything specified in a private or protected section will be ignored, although the internal code generator sometimes looks at the contents of the private and protected sections so that it can properly generate code for default constructors and destructors. Directors could also modify the way non-public virtual protected members are treated.

By default, members of a class definition are assumed to be private until you explicitly give a `public:' declaration (This is the same convention used by C++).

6.9 Enums and constants

Enumerations and constants are handled differently by the different language modules and are described in detail in the appropriate language chapter. However, many languages map enums and constants in a class definition into constants with the classname as a prefix. For example :

class Swig {
public:
	enum {ALE, LAGER, PORTER, STOUT};
};

Generates the following set of constants in the target scripting language :

Swig_ALE = Swig::ALE
Swig_LAGER = Swig::LAGER
Swig_PORTER = Swig::PORTER
Swig_STOUT = Swig::STOUT

Members declared as const are wrapped as read-only members and do not create constants.

6.10 Friends

Friend declarations are recognised by SWIG. For example, if you have this code:

class Foo {
public:
     ...
     friend void blah(Foo *f);
     ...
};

then the friend declaration does result in a wrapper code equivalent to one generated for the following declaration

class Foo {
public:
    ...
};

void blah(Foo *f);    

A friend declaration, as in C++, is understood to be in the same scope where the class is declared, hence, you can have


%ignore bar::blah(Foo *f);

namespace bar {

  class Foo {
  public:
     ...
     friend void blah(Foo *f);
     ...
  };
}

and a wrapper for the method 'blah' will not be generated.

6.11 References and pointers

C++ references are supported, but SWIG transforms them back into pointers. For example, a declaration like this :

class Foo {
public:
	double bar(double &a);
}

has a low-level accessor

double Foo_bar(Foo *obj, double *a) {
	obj->bar(*a);
}

As a special case, most language modules pass const references to primitive datatypes (int, short, float, etc.) by value instead of pointers. For example, if you have a function like this,

void foo(const int &x);

it is called from a script as follows:

foo(3)              # Notice pass by value

Functions that return a reference are remapped to return a pointer instead. For example:

class Bar {
public:
     Foo &spam();
};

Generates an accessor like this:

Foo *Bar_spam(Bar *obj) {
   Foo &result = obj->spam();
   return &result;
}

However, functions that return const references to primitive datatypes (int, short, etc.) normally return the result as a value rather than a pointer. For example, a function like this,

const int &bar();

will return integers such as 37 or 42 in the target scripting language rather than a pointer to an integer.

Don't return references to objects allocated as local variables on the stack. SWIG doesn't make a copy of the objects so this will probably cause your program to crash.

Note: The special treatment for references to primitive datatypes is necessary to provide more seamless integration with more advanced C++ wrapping applications---especially related to templates and the STL. This was first added in SWIG-1.3.12.

6.12 Pass and return by value

Occasionally, a C++ program will pass and return class objects by value. For example, a function like this might appear:

Vector cross_product(Vector a, Vector b);

If no information is supplied about Vector, SWIG creates a wrapper function similar to the following:

Vector *wrap_cross_product(Vector *a, Vector *b) {
   Vector x = *a;
   Vector y = *b;
   Vector r = cross_product(x,y);
   return new Vector(r);
}

In order for the wrapper code to compile, Vector must define a copy constructor and a default constructor.

If Vector is defined as a class in the interface, but it does not support a default constructor, SWIG changes the wrapper code by encapsulating the arguments inside a special C++ template wrapper class, through a process called the "Fulton Transform". This produces a wrapper that looks like this:

Vector cross_product(Vector *a, Vector *b) {
   SwigValueWrapper<Vector> x = *a;
   SwigValueWrapper<Vector> y = *b;
   SwigValueWrapper<Vector> r = cross_product(x,y);
   return new Vector(r);
}

This transformation is a little sneaky, but it provides support for pass-by-value even when a class does not provide a default constructor and it makes it possible to properly support a number of SWIG's customization options. The definition of SwigValueWrapper can be found by reading the SWIG wrapper code. This class is really nothing more than a thin wrapper around a pointer.

Although SWIG usually detects the classes to which the Fulton Transform should be applied, in some situations it's necessary to override it. That's done with %feature("valuewrapper") to ensure it is used and %feature("novaluewrapper") to ensure it is not used:

%feature("novaluewrapper") A;    
class A;

%feature("valuewrapper") B;
struct B { 
    B();
    // ....
};   

It is well worth considering turning this feature on for classes that do have a default constructor. It will remove a redundant constructor call at the point of the variable declaration in the wrapper, so will generate notably better performance for large objects or for classes with expensive construction. Alternatively consider returning a reference or a pointer.

Note: this transformation has no effect on typemaps or any other part of SWIG---it should be transparent except that you may see this code when reading the SWIG output file.

Note: This template transformation is new in SWIG-1.3.11 and may be refined in future SWIG releases. In practice, it is only absolutely necessary to do this for classes that don't define a default constructor.

Note: The use of this template only occurs when objects are passed or returned by value. It is not used for C++ pointers or references.

6.13 Inheritance

SWIG supports C++ inheritance of classes and allows both single and multiple inheritance, as limited or allowed by the target language. The SWIG type-checker knows about the relationship between base and derived classes and allows pointers to any object of a derived class to be used in functions of a base class. The type-checker properly casts pointer values and is safe to use with multiple inheritance.

SWIG treats private or protected inheritance as close to the C++ spirit, and target language capabilities, as possible. In most cases, this means that SWIG will parse the non-public inheritance declarations, but that will have no effect in the generated code, besides the implicit policies derived for constructors and destructors.

The following example shows how SWIG handles inheritance. For clarity, the full C++ code has been omitted.

// shapes.i
%module shapes
%{
#include "shapes.h"
%}

class Shape {
public:
        double x,y;
	virtual double area() = 0;
	virtual double perimeter() = 0;
	void    set_location(double x, double y);
};
class Circle : public Shape {
public:
	Circle(double radius);
	~Circle();
	double area();
	double perimeter();
};
class Square : public Shape {
public:
	Square(double size);
	~Square();
	double area();
	double perimeter();
}

When wrapped into Python, we can perform the following operations (shown using the low level Python accessors):

$ python
>>> import shapes
>>> circle = shapes.new_Circle(7)
>>> square = shapes.new_Square(10)
>>> print shapes.Circle_area(circle)
153.93804004599999757
>>> print shapes.Shape_area(circle)
153.93804004599999757
>>> print shapes.Shape_area(square)
100.00000000000000000
>>> shapes.Shape_set_location(square,2,-3)
>>> print shapes.Shape_perimeter(square)
40.00000000000000000
>>>

In this example, Circle and Square objects have been created. Member functions can be invoked on each object by making calls to Circle_area, Square_area, and so on. However, the same results can be accomplished by simply using the Shape_area function on either object.

One important point concerning inheritance is that the low-level accessor functions are only generated for classes in which they are actually declared. For instance, in the above example, the method set_location() is only accessible as Shape_set_location() and not as Circle_set_location() or Square_set_location() . Of course, the Shape_set_location() function will accept any kind of object derived from Shape. Similarly, accessor functions for the attributes x and y are generated as Shape_x_get(), Shape_x_set(), Shape_y_get(), and Shape_y_set(). Functions such as Circle_x_get() are not available--instead you should use Shape_x_get().

Note that there is a one to one correlation between the low-level accessor functions and the proxy methods and therefore there is also a one to one correlation between the C++ class methods and the generated proxy class methods.

Note: For the best results, SWIG requires all base classes to be defined in an interface. Otherwise, you may get a warning message like this:

example.i:18: Warning 401: Nothing known about base class 'Foo'. Ignored.

If any base class is undefined, SWIG still generates correct type relationships. For instance, a function accepting a Foo * will accept any object derived from Foo regardless of whether or not SWIG actually wrapped the Foo class. If you really don't want to generate wrappers for the base class, but you want to silence the warning, you might consider using the %import directive to include the file that defines Foo. %import simply gathers type information, but doesn't generate wrappers. Alternatively, you could just define Foo as an empty class in the SWIG interface or use warning suppression .

Note: typedef-names can be used as base classes. For example:

class Foo {
...
};

typedef Foo FooObj;
class Bar : public FooObj {     // Ok.  Base class is Foo
...
};

Similarly, typedef allows unnamed structures to be used as base classes. For example:

typedef struct {
   ...
} Foo;

class Bar : public Foo {    // Ok. 
...
};

Compatibility Note: Starting in version 1.3.7, SWIG only generates low-level accessor wrappers for the declarations that are actually defined in each class. This differs from SWIG1.1 which used to inherit all of the declarations defined in base classes and regenerate specialized accessor functions such as Circle_x_get(), Square_x_get(), Circle_set_location(), and Square_set_location(). This behavior resulted in huge amounts of replicated code for large class hierarchies and made it awkward to build applications spread across multiple modules (since accessor functions are duplicated in every single module). It is also unnecessary to have such wrappers when advanced features like proxy classes are used. Note: Further optimizations are enabled when using the -fvirtual option, which avoids the regenerating of wrapper functions for virtual members that are already defined in a base class.

6.14 A brief discussion of multiple inheritance, pointers, and type checking

When a target scripting language refers to a C++ object, it normally uses a tagged pointer object that contains both the value of the pointer and a type string. For example, in Tcl, a C++ pointer might be encoded as a string like this:

_808fea88_p_Circle

A somewhat common question is whether or not the type-tag could be safely removed from the pointer. For instance, to get better performance, could you strip all type tags and just use simple integers instead?

In general, the answer to this question is no. In the wrappers, all pointers are converted into a common data representation in the target language. Typically this is the equivalent of casting a pointer to void *. This means that any C++ type information associated with the pointer is lost in the conversion.

The problem with losing type information is that it is needed to properly support many advanced C++ features--especially multiple inheritance. For example, suppose you had code like this:

class A {
public:
   int x;
};

class B {
public:
   int y;
};

class C : public A, public B {
};

int A_function(A *a) {
   return a->x;
}

int B_function(B *b) {
   return b->y;
}

Now, consider the following code that uses void *.

C *c = new C();
void *p = (void *) c;
...
int x = A_function((A *) p);
int y = B_function((B *) p);

In this code, both A_function() and B_function() may legally accept an object of type C * (via inheritance). However, one of the functions will always return the wrong result when used as shown. The reason for this is that even though p points to an object of type C, the casting operation doesn't work like you would expect. Internally, this has to do with the data representation of C. With multiple inheritance, the data from each base class is stacked together. For example:

             ------------    <--- (C *),  (A *)
            |     A      |
            |------------|   <--- (B *)
            |     B      |
             ------------   

Because of this stacking, a pointer of type C * may change value when it is converted to a A * or B *. However, this adjustment does not occur if you are converting from a void *.

The use of type tags marks all pointers with the real type of the underlying object. This extra information is then used by SWIG generated wrappers to correctly cast pointer values under inheritance (avoiding the above problem).

Some of the language modules are able to solve the problem by storing multiple instances of the pointer, for example, A *, in the A proxy class as well as C * in the C proxy class. The correct cast can then be made by choosing the correct void * pointer to use and is guaranteed to work as the cast to a void pointer and back to the same type does not lose any type information:

C *c = new C();
void *p = (void *) c;
void *pA = (void *) c;
void *pB = (void *) c;
...
int x = A_function((A *) pA);
int y = B_function((B *) pB);

In practice, the pointer is held as an integral number in the target language proxy class.

6.15 Wrapping Overloaded Functions and Methods

In many language modules, SWIG provides partial support for overloaded functions, methods, and constructors. For example, if you supply SWIG with overloaded functions like this:

void foo(int x) {
   printf("x is %d\n", x);
}
void foo(char *x) {
   printf("x is '%s'\n", x);
}

The function is used in a completely natural way. For example:

>>> foo(3)
x is 3
>>> foo("hello")
x is 'hello'
>>>

Overloading works in a similar manner for methods and constructors. For example if you have this code,

class Foo {
public:
     Foo();
     Foo(const Foo &);   // Copy constructor
     void bar(int x);
     void bar(char *s, int y);
};

it might be used like this

>>> f = Foo()          # Create a Foo
>>> f.bar(3)
>>> g = Foo(f)         # Copy Foo
>>> f.bar("hello",2)

6.15.1 Dispatch function generation

The implementation of overloaded functions and methods is somewhat complicated due to the dynamic nature of scripting languages. Unlike C++, which binds overloaded methods at compile time, SWIG must determine the proper function as a runtime check for scripting language targets. This check is further complicated by the typeless nature of certain scripting languages. For instance, in Tcl, all types are simply strings. Therefore, if you have two overloaded functions like this,

void foo(char *x);
void foo(int x);

the order in which the arguments are checked plays a rather critical role.

For statically typed languages, SWIG uses the language's method overloading mechanism. To implement overloading for the scripting languages, SWIG generates a dispatch function that checks the number of passed arguments and their types. To create this function, SWIG first examines all of the overloaded methods and ranks them according to the following rules:

  1. Number of required arguments. Methods are sorted by increasing number of required arguments.
  2. Argument type precedence. All C++ datatypes are assigned a numeric type precedence value (which is determined by the language module).

    Type              Precedence
    ----------------  ----------
    TYPE *            0     (High)
    void *            20
    Integers          40
    Floating point    60
    char              80
    Strings           100   (Low)
    

    Using these precedence values, overloaded methods with the same number of required arguments are sorted in increased order of precedence values.

This may sound very confusing, but an example will help. Consider the following collection of overloaded methods:

void foo(double);
void foo(int);
void foo(Bar *);
void foo();
void foo(int x, int y, int z, int w);
void foo(int x, int y, int z = 3);
void foo(double x, double y);
void foo(double x, Bar *z);

The first rule simply ranks the functions by required argument count. This would produce the following list:

rank
-----
[0]   foo()
[1]   foo(double);
[2]   foo(int);
[3]   foo(Bar *);
[4]   foo(int x, int y, int z = 3);
[5]   foo(double x, double y)
[6]   foo(double x, Bar *z)
[7]   foo(int x, int y, int z, int w);

The second rule, simply refines the ranking by looking at argument type precedence values.

rank
-----
[0]   foo()
[1]   foo(Bar *);
[2]   foo(int);
[3]   foo(double);
[4]   foo(int x, int y, int z = 3);
[5]   foo(double x, Bar *z)
[6]   foo(double x, double y)
[7]   foo(int x, int y, int z, int w);

Finally, to generate the dispatch function, the arguments passed to an overloaded method are simply checked in the same order as they appear in this ranking.

If you're still confused, don't worry about it---SWIG is probably doing the right thing.

6.15.2 Ambiguity in Overloading

Regrettably, SWIG is not able to support every possible use of valid C++ overloading. Consider the following example:

void foo(int x);
void foo(long x);

In C++, this is perfectly legal. However, in a scripting language, there is generally only one kind of integer object. Therefore, which one of these functions do you pick? Clearly, there is no way to truly make a distinction just by looking at the value of the integer itself ( int and long may even be the same precision). Therefore, when SWIG encounters this situation, it may generate a warning message like this for scripting languages:

example.i:4: Warning 509: Overloaded method foo(long) effectively ignored,
example.i:3: Warning 509: as it is shadowed by foo(int).

or for statically typed languages like Java:

example.i:4: Warning 516: Overloaded method foo(long) ignored,
example.i:3: Warning 516: using foo(int) instead.
at example.i:3 used.

This means that the second overloaded function will be inaccessible from a scripting interface or the method won't be wrapped at all. This is done as SWIG does not know how to disambiguate it from an earlier method.

Ambiguity problems are known to arise in the following situations:

When an ambiguity arises, methods are checked in the same order as they appear in the interface file. Therefore, earlier methods will shadow methods that appear later.

When wrapping an overloaded function, there is a chance that you will get an error message like this:

example.i:3: Warning 467: Overloaded foo(int) not supported (no type checking
rule for 'int').

This error means that the target language module supports overloading, but for some reason there is no type-checking rule that can be used to generate a working dispatch function. The resulting behavior is then undefined. You should report this as a bug to the SWIG bug tracking database.

If you get an error message such as the following,

foo.i:6. Overloaded declaration ignored.  Spam::foo(double )
foo.i:5. Previous declaration is Spam::foo(int )
foo.i:7. Overloaded declaration ignored.  Spam::foo(Bar *,Spam *,int )
foo.i:5. Previous declaration is Spam::foo(int )

it means that the target language module has not yet implemented support for overloaded functions and methods. The only way to fix the problem is to read the next section.

6.15.3 Ambiguity resolution and renaming

If an ambiguity in overload resolution occurs or if a module doesn't allow overloading, there are a few strategies for dealing with the problem. First, you can tell SWIG to ignore one of the methods. This is easy---simply use the %ignore directive. For example:

%ignore foo(long);

void foo(int);
void foo(long);       // Ignored.  Oh well.

The other alternative is to rename one of the methods. This can be done using %rename. For example:

%rename("foo_short") foo(short);
%rename(foo_long) foo(long);

void foo(int);
void foo(short);      // Accessed as foo_short()
void foo(long);       // Accessed as foo_long()

Note that the quotes around the new name are optional, however, should the new name be a C/C++ keyword they would be essential in order to avoid a parsing error. The %ignore and %rename directives are both rather powerful in their ability to match declarations. When used in their simple form, they apply to both global functions and methods. For example:

/* Forward renaming declarations */
%rename(foo_i) foo(int); 
%rename(foo_d) foo(double);
...
void foo(int);           // Becomes 'foo_i'
void foo(char *c);       // Stays 'foo' (not renamed)

class Spam {
public:
   void foo(int);      // Becomes 'foo_i'
   void foo(double);   // Becomes 'foo_d'
   ...
};

If you only want the renaming to apply to a certain scope, the C++ scope resolution operator (::) can be used. For example:

%rename(foo_i) ::foo(int);      // Only rename foo(int) in the global scope.
                                // (will not rename class members)

%rename(foo_i) Spam::foo(int);  // Only rename foo(int) in class Spam

When a renaming operator is applied to a class as in Spam::foo(int), it is applied to that class and all derived classes. This can be used to apply a consistent renaming across an entire class hierarchy with only a few declarations. For example:

%rename(foo_i) Spam::foo(int);
%rename(foo_d) Spam::foo(double);

class Spam {
public:
   virtual void foo(int);      // Renamed to foo_i
   virtual void foo(double);   // Renamed to foo_d
   ...
};

class Bar : public Spam {
public:
   virtual void foo(int);      // Renamed to foo_i
   virtual void foo(double);   // Renamed to foo_d
...
};

class Grok : public Bar {
public:
   virtual void foo(int);      // Renamed to foo_i
   virtual void foo(double);   // Renamed to foo_d
...
};

It is also possible to include %rename specifications in the class definition itself. For example:

class Spam {
   %rename(foo_i) foo(int);
   %rename(foo_d) foo(double);
public:
   virtual void foo(int);      // Renamed to foo_i
   virtual void foo(double);   // Renamed to foo_d
   ...
};

class Bar : public Spam {
public:
   virtual void foo(int);      // Renamed to foo_i
   virtual void foo(double);   // Renamed to foo_d
...
};

In this case, the %rename directives still get applied across the entire inheritance hierarchy, but it's no longer necessary to explicitly specify the class prefix Spam::.

A special form of %rename can be used to apply a renaming just to class members (of all classes):

%rename(foo_i) *::foo(int);   // Only rename foo(int) if it appears in a class.

Note: the *:: syntax is non-standard C++, but the '*' is meant to be a wildcard that matches any class name (we couldn't think of a better alternative so if you have a better idea, send email to the swig-devel mailing list.

Although this discussion has primarily focused on %rename all of the same rules also apply to %ignore. For example:

%ignore foo(double);          // Ignore all foo(double)
%ignore Spam::foo;            // Ignore foo in class Spam
%ignore Spam::foo(double);    // Ignore foo(double) in class Spam
%ignore *::foo(double);       // Ignore foo(double) in all classes

When applied to a base class, %ignore forces all definitions in derived classes to disappear. For example, %ignore Spam::foo(double) will eliminate foo(double) in Spam and all classes derived from Spam.

Notes on %rename and %ignore:

6.15.4 Comments on overloading

Support for overloaded methods was first added in SWIG-1.3.14. The implementation is somewhat unusual when compared to similar tools. For instance, the order in which declarations appear is largely irrelevant in SWIG. Furthermore, SWIG does not rely upon trial execution or exception handling to figure out which method to invoke.

Internally, the overloading mechanism is completely configurable by the target language module. Therefore, the degree of overloading support may vary from language to language. As a general rule, statically typed languages like Java are able to provide more support than dynamically typed languages like Perl, Python, Ruby, and Tcl.

6.16 Wrapping overloaded operators

C++ overloaded operator declarations can be wrapped. For example, consider a class like this:

class Complex {
private:
  double rpart, ipart;
public:
  Complex(double r = 0, double i = 0) : rpart(r), ipart(i) { }
  Complex(const Complex &c) : rpart(c.rpart), ipart(c.ipart) { }
  Complex &operator=(const Complex &c) {
    rpart = c.rpart;
    ipart = c.ipart;
    return *this;
  }
  Complex operator+(const Complex &c) const {
    return Complex(rpart+c.rpart, ipart+c.ipart);
  }
  Complex operator-(const Complex &c) const {
    return Complex(rpart-c.rpart, ipart-c.ipart);
  }
  Complex operator*(const Complex &c) const {
    return Complex(rpart*c.rpart - ipart*c.ipart,
		   rpart*c.ipart + c.rpart*ipart);
  }
  Complex operator-() const {
    return Complex(-rpart, -ipart);
  }
  double re() const { return rpart; }
  double im() const { return ipart; }
};

When operator declarations appear, they are handled in exactly the same manner as regular methods. However, the names of these methods are set to strings like "operator +" or "operator -". The problem with these names is that they are illegal identifiers in most scripting languages. For instance, you can't just create a method called "operator +" in Python--there won't be any way to call it.

Some language modules already know how to automatically handle certain operators (mapping them into operators in the target language). However, the underlying implementation of this is really managed in a very general way using the %rename directive. For example, in Python a declaration similar to this is used:

%rename(__add__) Complex::operator+;

This binds the + operator to a method called __add__ (which is conveniently the same name used to implement the Python + operator). Internally, the generated wrapper code for a wrapped operator will look something like this pseudocode:

_wrap_Complex___add__(args) {
   ... get args ...
   obj->operator+(args);
   ...
}

When used in the target language, it may now be possible to use the overloaded operator normally. For example:

>>> a = Complex(3,4)
>>> b = Complex(5,2)
>>> c = a + b           # Invokes __add__ method

It is important to realize that there is nothing magical happening here. The %rename directive really only picks a valid method name. If you wrote this:

%rename(add) operator+;

The resulting scripting interface might work like this:

a = Complex(3,4)
b = Complex(5,2)
c = a.add(b)      # Call a.operator+(b)

All of the techniques described to deal with overloaded functions also apply to operators. For example:

%ignore Complex::operator=;             // Ignore = in class Complex
%ignore *::operator=;                   // Ignore = in all classes
%ignore operator=;                      // Ignore = everywhere.

%rename(__sub__) Complex::operator-; 
%rename(__neg__) Complex::operator-();  // Unary - 

The last part of this example illustrates how multiple definitions of the operator- method might be handled.

Handling operators in this manner is mostly straightforward. However, there are a few subtle issues to keep in mind:

6.17 Class extension

New methods can be added to a class using the %extend directive. This directive is primarily used in conjunction with proxy classes to add additional functionality to an existing class. For example :

%module vector
%{
#include "vector.h"
%}

class Vector {
public:
	double x,y,z;
	Vector();
	~Vector();
	... bunch of C++ methods ...
	%extend {
		char *__str__() {
			static char temp[256];
			sprintf(temp,"[ %g, %g, %g ]", $self->x,$self->y,$self->z);
			return &temp[0];
		}
	}
};

This code adds a __str__ method to our class for producing a string representation of the object. In Python, such a method would allow us to print the value of an object using the print command.

>>>
>>> v = Vector();
>>> v.x = 3
>>> v.y = 4
>>> v.z = 0
>>> print(v)
[ 3.0, 4.0, 0.0 ]
>>>

The C++ 'this' pointer is often needed to access member variables, methods etc. The $self special variable should be used wherever you could use 'this'. The example above demonstrates this for accessing member variables. Note that the members dereferenced by $self must be public members as the code is ultimately generated into a global function and so will not have any access to non-public members. The implicit 'this' pointer that is present in C++ methods is not present in %extend methods. In order to access anything in the extended class or its base class, an explicit 'this' is required. The following example shows how one could access base class members:

struct Base {
  virtual void method(int v) {
    ...
  }
  int value;
};
struct Derived : Base {
};
%extend Derived {
  virtual void method(int v) {
    $self->Base::method(v); // akin to this->Base::method(v);
    $self->value = v;       // akin to this->value = v;
    ...
  }
}

The following special variables are expanded if used within a %extend block: $name, $symname, $overname, $decl, $fulldecl, $parentname and $parentsymname. The Special variables section provides more information each of these special variables.

The %extend directive follows all of the same conventions as its use with C structures. Please refer to the Adding member functions to C structures section for further details.

Compatibility note: The %extend directive is a new name for the %addmethods directive in SWIG1.1. Since %addmethods could be used to extend a structure with more than just methods, a more suitable directive name has been chosen.

6.18 Templates

Template type names may appear anywhere a type is expected in an interface file. For example:

void foo(vector<int> *a, int n);
void bar(list<int,100> *x);

There are some restrictions on the use of non-type arguments. Simple literals are supported, and so are some constant expressions. However, use of '<' and '>' within a constant expressions currently is not supported by SWIG ('<=' and '>=' are though). For example:

void bar(list<int,100> *x);                // OK
void bar(list<int,2*50> *x);               // OK
void bar(list<int,(2>1 ? 100 : 50)> *x)    // Not supported

The type system is smart enough to figure out clever games you might try to play with typedef. For instance, consider this code:

typedef int Integer;
void foo(vector<int> *x, vector<Integer> *y);

In this case, vector<Integer> is exactly the same type as vector<int>. The wrapper for foo() will accept either variant.

Starting with SWIG-1.3.7, simple C++ template declarations can also be wrapped. SWIG-1.3.12 greatly expands upon the earlier implementation. Before discussing this any further, there are a few things you need to know about template wrapping. First, a bare C++ template does not define any sort of runnable object-code for which SWIG can normally create a wrapper. Therefore, in order to wrap a template, you need to give SWIG information about a particular template instantiation (e.g., vector<int>, array<double>, etc.). Second, an instantiation name such as vector<int> is generally not a valid identifier name in most target languages. Thus, you will need to give the template instantiation a more suitable name such as intvector when creating a wrapper.

To illustrate, consider the following template definition:

template<class T> class List {
private:
    T *data;
    int nitems;
    int maxitems;
public:
    List(int max) {
      data = new T [max];
      nitems = 0;
      maxitems = max;
    }
    ~List() {
      delete [] data;
    };
    void append(T obj) {
      if (nitems < maxitems) {
        data[nitems++] = obj;
      }
    }
    int length() {
      return nitems;
    }
    T get(int n) {
      return data[n];
    }
};

By itself, this template declaration is useless--SWIG simply ignores it because it doesn't know how to generate any code until unless a definition of T is provided.

One way to create wrappers for a specific template instantiation is to simply provide an expanded version of the class directly like this:

%rename(intList) List<int>;       // Rename to a suitable identifier
class List<int> {
private:
    int *data;
    int nitems;
    int maxitems;
public:
    List(int max);
    ~List();
    void append(int obj);
    int length();
    int get(int n);
};

The %rename directive is needed to give the template class an appropriate identifier name in the target language (most languages would not recognize C++ template syntax as a valid class name). The rest of the code is the same as what would appear in a normal class definition.

Since manual expansion of templates gets old in a hurry, the %template directive can be used to create instantiations of a template class. Semantically, %template is simply a shortcut---it expands template code in exactly the same way as shown above. Here are some examples:

/* Instantiate a few different versions of the template */
%template(intList) List<int>;
%template(doubleList) List<double>;

The argument to %template() is the name of the instantiation in the target language. The name you choose should not conflict with any other declarations in the interface file with one exception---it is okay for the template name to match that of a typedef declaration. For example:

%template(intList) List<int>;
...
typedef List<int> intList;    // OK

SWIG can also generate wrappers for function templates using a similar technique. For example:

// Function template
template<class T> T max(T a, T b) { return a > b ? a : b; }

// Make some different versions of this function
%template(maxint) max<int>;
%template(maxdouble) max<double>;

In this case, maxint and maxdouble become unique names for specific instantiations of the function.

The number of arguments supplied to %template should match that in the original template definition. Template default arguments are supported. For example:

template vector<typename T, int max=100> class vector {
...
};

%template(intvec) vector<int>;           // OK
%template(vec1000) vector<int,1000>;     // OK

The %template directive should not be used to wrap the same template instantiation more than once in the same scope. This will generate an error. For example:

%template(intList) List<int>;
%template(Listint) List<int>;    // Error.   Template already wrapped.

This error is caused because the template expansion results in two identical classes with the same name. This generates a symbol table conflict. Besides, it probably more efficient to only wrap a specific instantiation only once in order to reduce the potential for code bloat.

Since the type system knows how to handle typedef, it is generally not necessary to instantiate different versions of a template for typenames that are equivalent. For instance, consider this code:

%template(intList) vector<int>;
typedef int Integer;
...
void foo(vector<Integer> *x);

In this case, vector<Integer> is exactly the same type as vector<int>. Any use of Vector<Integer> is mapped back to the instantiation of vector<int> created earlier. Therefore, it is not necessary to instantiate a new class for the type Integer (doing so is redundant and will simply result in code bloat).

When a template is instantiated using %template, information about that class is saved by SWIG and used elsewhere in the program. For example, if you wrote code like this,

...
%template(intList) List<int>;
...
class UltraList : public List<int> {
   ...
};

then SWIG knows that List<int> was already wrapped as a class called intList and arranges to handle the inheritance correctly. If, on the other hand, nothing is known about List<int> , you will get a warning message similar to this:

example.h:42: Warning 401. Nothing known about class 'List<int >'. Ignored. 
example.h:42: Warning 401. Maybe you forgot to instantiate 'List<int >' using %template. 

If a template class inherits from another template class, you need to make sure that base classes are instantiated before derived classes. For example:

template<class T> class Foo {
...
};

template<class T> class Bar : public Foo<T> {
...
};

// Instantiate base classes first 
%template(intFoo) Foo<int>;
%template(doubleFoo) Foo<double>;

// Now instantiate derived classes
%template(intBar) Bar<int>;
%template(doubleBar) Bar<double>;

The order is important since SWIG uses the instantiation names to properly set up the inheritance hierarchy in the resulting wrapper code (and base classes need to be wrapped before derived classes). Don't worry--if you get the order wrong, SWIG should generate a warning message.

Occasionally, you may need to tell SWIG about base classes that are defined by templates, but which aren't supposed to be wrapped. Since SWIG is not able to automatically instantiate templates for this purpose, you must do it manually. To do this, simply use the empty template instantiation, that is, %template with no name. For example:

// Instantiate traits<double,double>, but don't wrap it.
%template() traits<double,double>;

If you have to instantiate a lot of different classes for many different types, you might consider writing a SWIG macro. For example:

%define TEMPLATE_WRAP(prefix, T...) 
%template(prefix ## Foo) Foo<T >;
%template(prefix ## Bar) Bar<T >;
...
%enddef

TEMPLATE_WRAP(int, int)
TEMPLATE_WRAP(double, double)
TEMPLATE_WRAP(String, char *)
TEMPLATE_WRAP(PairStringInt, std::pair<string, int>)
...

Note the use of a vararg macro for the type T. If this wasn't used, the comma in the templated type in the last example would not be possible.

The SWIG template mechanism does support specialization. For instance, if you define a class like this,

template<> class List<int> {
private:
    int *data;
    int nitems;
    int maxitems;
public:
    List(int max);
    ~List();
    void append(int obj);
    int length();
    int get(int n);
};

then SWIG will use this code whenever the user expands List<int> . In practice, this may have very little effect on the underlying wrapper code since specialization is often used to provide slightly modified method bodies (which are ignored by SWIG). However, special SWIG directives such as %typemap, %extend, and so forth can be attached to a specialization to provide customization for specific types.

Partial template specialization is partially supported by SWIG. For example, this code defines a template that is applied when the template argument is a pointer.

template<class T> class List<T*> {
private:
    T *data;
    int nitems;
    int maxitems;
public:
    List(int max);
    ~List();
    void append(int obj);
    int length();
    T get(int n);
};

SWIG supports both template explicit specialization and partial specialization. Consider:

template<class T1, class T2> class Foo { };                     // (1) primary template
template<>                   class Foo<double *, int *> { };    // (2) explicit specialization
template<class T1, class T2> class Foo<T1, T2 *> { };           // (3) partial specialization

SWIG is able to properly match explicit instantiations:

Foo<double *, int *>     // explicit specialization matching (2)

SWIG implements template argument deduction so that the following partial specialization examples work just like they would with a C++ compiler:

Foo<int *, int *>        // partial specialization matching (3)
Foo<int *, const int *>  // partial specialization matching (3)
Foo<int *, int **>       // partial specialization matching (3)

Member function templates are supported. The underlying principle is the same as for normal templates--SWIG can't create a wrapper unless you provide more information about types. For example, a class with a member template might look like this:

class Foo {
public:
     template<class T> void bar(T x, T y) { ... };
     ...
};

To expand the template, simply use %template inside the class.

class Foo {
public:
     template<class T> void bar(T x, T y) { ... };
     ...
     %template(barint)    bar<int>;
     %template(bardouble) bar<double>;
};

Or, if you want to leave the original class definition alone, just do this:

class Foo {
public:
     template<class T> void bar(T x, T y) { ... };
     ...
};
...
%extend Foo {
     %template(barint)    bar<int>;
     %template(bardouble) bar<double>;
};

or simply

class Foo {
public:
     template<class T> void bar(T x, T y) { ... };
     ...
};
...

%template(bari) Foo::bar<int>;
%template(bard) Foo::bar<double>;

In this case, the %extend directive is not needed, and %template does exactly the same job, i.e., it adds two new methods to the Foo class.

Note: because of the way that templates are handled, the %template directive must always appear after the definition of the template to be expanded.

Now, if your target language supports overloading, you can even try

%template(bar) Foo::bar<int>;
%template(bar) Foo::bar<double>;

and since the two new wrapped methods have the same name 'bar', they will be overloaded, and when called, the correct method will be dispatched depending on the argument type.

When used with members, the %template directive may be placed in another template class. Here is a slightly perverse example:

// A template
template<class T> class Foo {
public:
     // A member template
     template<class S> T bar(S x, S y) { ... };
     ...
};

// Expand a few member templates
%extend Foo {
  %template(bari) bar<int>;
  %template(bard) bar<double>;
}

// Create some wrappers for the template
%template(Fooi) Foo<int>;
%template(Food) Foo<double>;

Miraculously, you will find that each expansion of Foo has member functions bari() and bard() added.

A common use of member templates is to define constructors for copies and conversions. For example:

template<class T1, class T2> struct pair {
   T1 first;
   T2 second;
   pair() : first(T1()), second(T2()) { }
   pair(const T1 &x, const T2 &y) : first(x), second(y) { }
   template<class U1, class U2> pair(const pair<U1,U2> &x) 
                                        : first(x.first),second(x.second) { }
};

This declaration is perfectly acceptable to SWIG, but the constructor template will be ignored unless you explicitly expand it. To do that, you could expand a few versions of the constructor in the template class itself. For example:

%extend pair {
   %template(pair) pair<T1,T2>;        // Generate default copy constructor
};

When using %extend in this manner, notice how you can still use the template parameters in the original template definition.

Alternatively, you could expand the constructor template in selected instantiations. For example:

// Instantiate a few versions
%template(pairii) pair<int,int>;
%template(pairdd) pair<double,double>;

// Create a default constructor only 
%extend pair<int,int> {
   %template(paird) pair<int,int>;         // Default constructor
};

// Create default and conversion constructors 
%extend pair<double,double> {
   %template(paird) pair<double,dobule>;   // Default constructor
   %template(pairc) pair<int,int>;         // Conversion constructor
};

And if your target language supports overloading, then you can try instead:

// Create default and conversion constructors 
%extend pair<double,double> {
   %template(pair) pair<double,dobule>;   // Default constructor
   %template(pair) pair<int,int>;         // Conversion constructor
};

In this case, the default and conversion constructors have the same name. Hence, SWIG will overload them and define an unique visible constructor, that will dispatch the proper call depending on the argument type.

If all of this isn't quite enough and you really want to make someone's head explode, SWIG directives such as %rename, %extend, and %typemap can be included directly in template definitions. For example:

// File : list.h
template<class T> class List {
   ...
public:
    %rename(__getitem__) get(int);
    List(int max);
    ~List();
    ...
    T get(int index);
    %extend {
        char *__str__() {
            /* Make a string representation */
            ...
        }
    }
};

In this example, the extra SWIG directives are propagated to every template instantiation.

It is also possible to separate these declarations from the template class. For example:

%rename(__getitem__) List::get;
%extend List {
    char *__str__() {
        /* Make a string representation */
        ...
    }
    /* Make a copy */
    T *__copy__() {
       return new List<T>(*$self);
    }
};

...
template<class T> class List {
    ...
    public:
    List() { };
    T get(int index);
    ...
};

When %extend is decoupled from the class definition, it is legal to use the same template parameters as provided in the class definition. These are replaced when the template is expanded. In addition, the %extend directive can be used to add additional methods to a specific instantiation. For example:

%template(intList) List<int>;

%extend List<int> {
    void blah() {
          printf("Hey, I'm an List<int>!\n");
    }
};

SWIG even supports overloaded templated functions. As usual the %template directive is used to wrap templated functions. For example:

template<class T> void foo(T x) { };
template<class T> void foo(T x, T y) { };

%template(foo) foo<int>;

This will generate two overloaded wrapper methods, the first will take a single integer as an argument and the second will take two integer arguments.

Needless to say, SWIG's template support provides plenty of opportunities to break the universe. That said, an important final point is that SWIG does not perform extensive error checking of templates! Specifically, SWIG does not perform type checking nor does it check to see if the actual contents of the template declaration make any sense. Since the C++ compiler will hopefully check this when it compiles the resulting wrapper file, there is no practical reason for SWIG to duplicate this functionality (besides, none of the SWIG developers are masochistic enough to want to implement this right now).

Compatibility Note: The first implementation of template support relied heavily on macro expansion in the preprocessor. Templates have been more tightly integrated into the parser and type system in SWIG-1.3.12 and the preprocessor is no longer used. Code that relied on preprocessing features in template expansion will no longer work. However, SWIG still allows the # operator to be used to generate a string from a template argument.

Compatibility Note: In earlier versions of SWIG, the %template directive introduced a new class name. This name could then be used with other directives. For example:

%template(vectori) vector<int>;
%extend vectori {
    void somemethod() { }
};

This behavior is no longer supported. Instead, you should use the original template name as the class name. For example:

%template(vectori) vector<int>;
%extend vector<int> {
    void somemethod() { }
};

Similar changes apply to typemaps and other customization features.

6.19 Namespaces

Support for C++ namespaces is comprehensive, but by default simple, however, some target languages can turn on more advanced namespace support via the nspace feature, described later. Code within unnamed namespaces is ignored as there is no external access to symbols declared within the unnamed namespace. Before detailing the default implementation for named namespaces, it is worth noting that the semantics of C++ namespaces is extremely non-trivial--especially with regard to the C++ type system and class machinery. At a most basic level, namespaces are sometimes used to encapsulate common functionality. For example:

namespace math {
   double sin(double);
   double cos(double);

   class Complex {
      double im,re;
   public:
      ...
   };
   ...
};

Members of the namespace are accessed in C++ by prepending the namespace prefix to names. For example:

double x = math::sin(1.0);
double magnitude(math::Complex *c);
math::Complex c;
...

At this level, namespaces are relatively easy to manage. However, things start to get very ugly when you throw in the other ways a namespace can be used. For example, selective symbols can be exported from a namespace with using.

using math::Complex;
double magnitude(Complex *c);       // Namespace prefix stripped

Similarly, the contents of an entire namespace can be made available like this:

using namespace math;
double x = sin(1.0);
double magnitude(Complex *c);

Alternatively, a namespace can be aliased:

namespace M = math;
double x = M::sin(1.0);
double magnitude(M::Complex *c);

Using combinations of these features, it is possible to write head-exploding code like this:

namespace A {
  class Foo {
  };
}

namespace B {
   namespace C {
      using namespace A;
   }
   typedef C::Foo FooClass;
}

namespace BIGB = B;

namespace D {
   using BIGB::FooClass;
   class Bar : public FooClass {
   }
};

class Spam : public D::Bar {
};

void evil(A::Foo *a, B::FooClass *b, B::C::Foo *c, BIGB::FooClass *d,
          BIGB::C::Foo *e, D::FooClass *f);

Given the possibility for such perversion, it's hard to imagine how every C++ programmer might want such code wrapped into the target language. Clearly this code defines three different classes. However, one of those classes is accessible under at least six different names!

SWIG fully supports C++ namespaces in its internal type system and class handling code. If you feed SWIG the above code, it will be parsed correctly, it will generate compilable wrapper code, and it will produce a working scripting language module. However, the default wrapping behavior is to flatten namespaces in the target language. This means that the contents of all namespaces are merged together in the resulting scripting language module. For example, if you have code like this,

%module foo
namespace foo {
   void bar(int);
   void spam();
}

namespace bar {
   void blah();
}

then SWIG simply creates three wrapper functions bar(), spam(), and blah() in the target language. SWIG does not prepend the names with a namespace prefix nor are the functions packaged in any kind of nested scope.

There is some rationale for taking this approach. Since C++ namespaces are often used to define modules in C++, there is a natural correlation between the likely contents of a SWIG module and the contents of a namespace. For instance, it would not be unreasonable to assume that a programmer might make a separate extension module for each C++ namespace. In this case, it would be redundant to prepend everything with an additional namespace prefix when the module itself already serves as a namespace in the target language. Or put another way, if you want SWIG to keep namespaces separate, simply wrap each namespace with its own SWIG interface.

Because namespaces are flattened, it is possible for symbols defined in different namespaces to generate a name conflict in the target language. For example:

namespace A {
   void foo(int);
}
namespace B {
   void foo(double);
}

When this conflict occurs, you will get an error message that resembles this:

example.i:26. Error. 'foo' is multiply defined in the generated target language module.
example.i:23. Previous declaration of 'foo'

To resolve this error, simply use %rename to disambiguate the declarations. For example:

%rename(B_foo) B::foo;
...
namespace A {
   void foo(int);
}
namespace B {
   void foo(double);     // Gets renamed to B_foo
}

Similarly, %ignore can be used to ignore declarations.

using declarations do not have any effect on the generated wrapper code. They are ignored by SWIG language modules and they do not result in any code. However, these declarations are used by the internal type system to track type-names. Therefore, if you have code like this:

namespace A {
   typedef int Integer;
}
using namespace A;
void foo(Integer x);

SWIG knows that Integer is the same as A::Integer which is the same as int.

Namespaces may be combined with templates. If necessary, the %template directive can be used to expand a template defined in a different namespace. For example:

namespace foo {
    template<typename T> T max(T a, T b) { return a > b ? a : b; }
}

using foo::max;

%template(maxint)   max<int>;           // Okay.
%template(maxfloat) foo::max<float>;    // Okay (qualified name).

namespace bar {
    using namespace foo;
    %template(maxdouble)  max<double>;    // Okay.
}

The combination of namespaces and other SWIG directives may introduce subtle scope-related problems. The key thing to keep in mind is that all SWIG generated wrappers are produced in the global namespace. Symbols from other namespaces are always accessed using fully qualified names---names are never imported into the global space unless the interface happens to do so with a using declaration. In almost all cases, SWIG adjusts typenames and symbols to be fully qualified. However, this is not done in code fragments such as function bodies, typemaps, exception handlers, and so forth. For example, consider the following:

namespace foo {
    typedef int Integer;
    class bar {
    public:
       ...
    };
}

%extend foo::bar {
   Integer add(Integer x, Integer y) {
       Integer r = x + y;        // Error. Integer not defined in this scope
       return r;
   }
};

In this case, SWIG correctly resolves the added method parameters and return type to foo::Integer. However, since function bodies aren't parsed and such code is emitted in the global namespace, this code produces a compiler error about Integer. To fix the problem, make sure you use fully qualified names. For example:

%extend foo::bar {
   Integer add(Integer x, Integer y) {
       foo::Integer r = x + y;        // Ok.
       return r;
   }
};

Note: SWIG does not propagate using declarations to the resulting wrapper code. If these declarations appear in an interface, they should also appear in any header files that might have been included in a %{ ... %} section. In other words, don't insert extra using declarations into a SWIG interface unless they also appear in the underlying C++ code.

Note: Code inclusion directives such as %{ ... %} or %inline %{ ... %} should not be placed inside a namespace declaration. The code emitted by these directives will not be enclosed in a namespace and you may get very strange results. If you need to use namespaces with these directives, consider the following:

// Good version
%inline %{
namespace foo {
     void bar(int) { ... }
     ...
}
%}

// Bad version.  Emitted code not placed in namespace.
namespace foo {
%inline %{
     void bar(int) { ... }   /* I'm bad */
     ...
%}
}

Note: When the %extend directive is used inside a namespace, the namespace name is included in the generated functions. For example, if you have code like this,

namespace foo {
   class bar {
   public:
        %extend {
           int blah(int x);
        };
   };
}

the added method blah() is mapped to a function int foo_bar_blah(foo::bar *self, int x). This function resides in the global namespace.

Note: Although namespaces are flattened in the target language, the SWIG generated wrapper code observes the same namespace conventions as used in the input file. Thus, if there are no symbol conflicts in the input, there will be no conflicts in the generated code.

Note: In the same way that no resolution is performed on parameters, a conversion operator name must match exactly to how it is defined. Do not change the qualification of the operator. For example, suppose you had an interface like this:

namespace foo {
   class bar;
   class spam {
   public:
        ...
        operator bar();      // Conversion of spam -> bar
        ...
   };
}

The following is how the feature is expected to be written for a successful match:

%rename(tofoo) foo::spam::operator bar();

The following does not work as no namespace resolution is performed in the matching of conversion operator names:

%rename(tofoo) foo::spam::operator foo::bar();

Note, however, that if the operator is defined using a qualifier in its name, then the feature must use it too...

%rename(tofoo) foo::spam::operator bar();      // will not match
%rename(tofoo) foo::spam::operator foo::bar(); // will match
namespace foo {
   class bar;
   class spam {
   public:
        ...
        operator foo::bar();
        ...
   };
}

Compatibility Note: Versions of SWIG prior to 1.3.32 were inconsistent in this approach. A fully qualified name was usually required, but would not work in some situations.

Note: The flattening of namespaces is only intended to serve as a basic namespace implementation. None of the target language modules are currently programmed with any namespace awareness. In the future, language modules may or may not provide more advanced namespace support.

6.19.1 The nspace feature for namespaces

Some target languages provide support for the nspace feature. The feature can be applied to any class, struct, union or enum declared within a named namespace. The feature wraps the type within the target language specific concept of a namespace, for example, a Java package or C# namespace. Please see the language specific sections to see if the target language you are interested in supports the nspace feature.

The feature is demonstrated below for C# using the following example:

%feature("nspace") MyWorld::Material::Color;
%nspace MyWorld::Wrapping::Color; // %nspace is a macro for %feature("nspace")

namespace MyWorld {
  namespace Material {
    class Color {
    ...
    };
  }
  namespace Wrapping {
    class Color {
    ...
    };
  }
}

Without the nspace feature directives above or %rename , you would get the following warning resulting in just one of the Color classes being available for use from the target language:

example.i:9: Error: 'Color' is multiply defined in the generated target language module.
example.i:5: Error: Previous declaration of 'Color'

With the nspace feature the two Color classes are wrapped into the equivalent C# namespaces. A fully qualified constructor call of each these two types in C# is then:

MyWorld.Material.Color materialColor = new MyWorld.Material.Color();
MyWorld.Wrapping.Color wrappingColor = new MyWorld.Wrapping.Color();

Note that the nspace feature does not apply to variables and functions simply declared in a namespace. For example, the following symbols cannot co-exist in the target language without renaming. This may change in a future version.

namespace MyWorld {
  namespace Material {
    int quantity;
    void dispatch();
  }
  namespace Wrapping {
    int quantity;
    void dispatch();
  }
}

Compatibility Note: The nspace feature was first introduced in SWIG-2.0.0.

6.20 Renaming templated types in namespaces

As has been mentioned, when %rename includes parameters, the parameter types must match exactly (no typedef or namespace resolution is performed). SWIG treats templated types slightly differently and has an additional matching rule so unlike non-templated types, an exact match is not always required. If the fully qualified templated type is specified, it will have a higher precedence over the generic template type. In the example below, the generic template type is used to rename to bbb and the fully qualified type is used to rename to ccc.

%rename(bbb) Space::ABC::aaa(T t);                  // will match but with lower precedence than ccc
%rename(ccc) Space::ABC<Space::XYZ>::aaa(Space::XYZ t);// will match but with higher precedence
                                                             // than bbb

namespace Space {
  class XYZ {};
  template<typename T> struct ABC {
    void aaa(T t) {}
  };
}
%template(ABCXYZ) Space::ABC<Space::XYZ>;

It should now be apparent that there are many ways to achieve a renaming with %rename. This is demonstrated by the following two examples, which are effectively the same as the above example. Below shows how %rename can be placed inside a namespace.

namespace Space {
  %rename(bbb) ABC::aaa(T t);                     // will match but with lower precedence than ccc
  %rename(ccc) ABC<Space::XYZ>::aaa(Space::XYZ t);// will match but with higher precedence than bbb
  %rename(ddd) ABC<Space::XYZ>::aaa(XYZ t);       // will not match
}

namespace Space {
  class XYZ {};
  template<typename T> struct ABC {
    void aaa(T t) {}
  };
}
%template(ABCXYZ) Space::ABC<Space::XYZ>;

Note that ddd does not match as there is no namespace resolution for parameter types and the fully qualified type must be specified for template type expansion. The following example shows how %rename can be placed within %extend.

namespace Space {
  %extend ABC {
    %rename(bbb) aaa(T t);         // will match but with lower precedence than ccc
  }
  %extend ABC<Space::XYZ> {
    %rename(ccc) aaa(Space::XYZ t);// will match but with higher precedence than bbb
    %rename(ddd) aaa(XYZ t);       // will not match
  }
}

namespace Space {
  class XYZ {};
  template<typename T> struct ABC {
    void aaa(T t) {}
  };
}
%template(ABCXYZ) Space::ABC<Space::XYZ>;

6.21 Exception specifications

When C++ programs utilize exceptions, exceptional behavior is sometimes specified as part of a function or method declaration. For example:

class Error { };

class Foo {
public:
    ...
    void blah() throw(Error);
    ...
};

If an exception specification is used, SWIG automatically generates wrapper code for catching the indicated exception and, when possible, rethrowing it into the target language, or converting it into an error in the target language otherwise. For example, in Python, you can write code like this:

f = Foo()
try:
    f.blah()
except Error,e:
     # e is a wrapped instance of "Error"

Details of how to tailor code for handling the caught C++ exception and converting it into the target language's exception/error handling mechanism is outlined in the "throws" typemap section.

Since exception specifications are sometimes only used sparingly, this alone may not be enough to properly handle C++ exceptions. To do that, a different set of special SWIG directives are used. Consult the "Exception handling with %exception " section for details. The next section details a way of simulating an exception specification or replacing an existing one.

6.22 Exception handling with %catches

Exceptions are automatically handled for methods with an exception specification. Similar handling can be achieved for methods without exception specifications through the %catches feature. It is also possible to replace any declared exception specification using the %catches feature. In fact, %catches uses the same "throws" typemaps that SWIG uses for exception specifications in handling exceptions. The %catches feature must contain a list of possible types that can be thrown. For each type that is in the list, SWIG will generate a catch handler, in the same way that it would for types declared in the exception specification. Note that the list can also include the catch all specification "...". For example,

struct EBase { virtual ~EBase(); };
struct Error1 : EBase { };
struct Error2 : EBase { };
struct Error3 : EBase { };
struct Error4 : EBase { };

%catches(Error1,Error2,...) Foo::bar();
%catches(EBase) Foo::blah();

class Foo {
public:
    ...
    void bar();
    void blah() throw(Error1,Error2,Error3,Error4);
    ...
};

For the Foo::bar() method, which can throw anything, SWIG will generate catch handlers for Error1, Error2 as well as a catch all handler (...). Each catch handler will convert the caught exception and convert it into a target language error/exception. The catch all handler will convert the caught exception into an unknown error/exception.

Without the %catches feature being attached to Foo::blah(), SWIG will generate catch handlers for all of the types in the exception specification, that is, Error1, Error2, Error3, Error4. However, with the %catches feature above, just a single catch handler for the base class, EBase will be generated to convert the C++ exception into a target language error/exception.

6.23 Pointers to Members

Starting with SWIG-1.3.7, there is limited parsing support for pointers to C++ class members. For example:

double do_op(Object *o, double (Object::*callback)(double,double));
extern double (Object::*fooptr)(double,double);
%constant double (Object::*FOO)(double,double) = &Object::foo;

Although these kinds of pointers can be parsed and represented by the SWIG type system, few language modules know how to handle them due to implementation differences from standard C pointers. Readers are strongly advised to consult an advanced text such as the "The Annotated C++ Manual" for specific details.

When pointers to members are supported, the pointer value might appear as a special string like this:

>>> print example.FOO
_ff0d54a800000000_m_Object__f_double_double__double
>>>

In this case, the hexadecimal digits represent the entire value of the pointer which is usually the contents of a small C++ structure on most machines.

SWIG's type-checking mechanism is also more limited when working with member pointers. Normally SWIG tries to keep track of inheritance when checking types. However, no such support is currently provided for member pointers.

6.24 Smart pointers and operator->()

In some C++ programs, objects are often encapsulated by smart-pointers or proxy classes. This is sometimes done to implement automatic memory management (reference counting) or persistence. Typically a smart-pointer is defined by a template class where the -> operator has been overloaded. This class is then wrapped around some other class. For example:

// Smart-pointer class
template<class T> class SmartPtr {
    T *pointee;
public:
    SmartPtr(T *p) : pointee(p) { ... }
    T *operator->() {
        return pointee;
    }
    ...
};

// Ordinary class
class Foo_Impl {
public:
    int x;
    virtual void bar();
    ...
};

// Smart-pointer wrapper
typedef SmartPtr<Foo_Impl> Foo;

// Create smart pointer Foo
Foo make_Foo() {
    return SmartPtr<Foo_Impl>(new Foo_Impl());
}

// Do something with smart pointer Foo
void do_something(Foo f) {
    printf("x = %d\n", f->x);
    f->bar();
}

// Call the wrapped smart pointer proxy class in the target language 'Foo'
%template(Foo) SmartPtr<Foo_Impl>;

A key feature of this approach is that by defining operator-> the methods and attributes of the object wrapped by a smart pointer are transparently accessible. For example, expressions such as these (from the previous example),

f->x
f->bar()

are transparently mapped to the following

(f.operator->())->x;
(f.operator->())->bar();

When generating wrappers, SWIG tries to emulate this functionality to the extent that it is possible. To do this, whenever operator->() is encountered in a class, SWIG looks at its returned type and uses it to generate wrappers for accessing attributes of the underlying object. For example, wrapping the above code produces wrappers like this:

int Foo_x_get(Foo *f) {
   return (*f)->x;
}
void Foo_x_set(Foo *f, int value) {
   (*f)->x = value;
}
void Foo_bar(Foo *f) {
   (*f)->bar();
}

These wrappers take a smart-pointer instance as an argument, but dereference it in a way to gain access to the object returned by operator->(). You should carefully compare these wrappers to those in the first part of this chapter (they are slightly different).

The end result is that access looks very similar to C++. For example, you could do this in Python:

>>> f = make_Foo()
>>> print f.x
0
>>> f.bar()
>>>

When generating wrappers through a smart-pointer, SWIG tries to generate wrappers for all methods and attributes that might be accessible through operator->(). This includes any methods that might be accessible through inheritance. However, there are a number of restrictions:

If your intent is to only expose the smart-pointer class in the interface, it is not necessary to wrap both the smart-pointer class and the class for the underlying object. However, you must still tell SWIG about both classes if you want the technique described in this section to work. To only generate wrappers for the smart-pointer class, you can use the %ignore directive. For example:

%ignore Foo;
class Foo {       // Ignored
};

class Bar {
public:
   Foo *operator->();
   ...
};

Alternatively, you can import the definition of Foo from a separate file using %import.

Note: When a class defines operator->(), the operator itself is wrapped as a method __deref__(). For example:

f = Foo()               # Smart-pointer
p = f.__deref__()       # Raw pointer from operator->

Note: To disable the smart-pointer behavior, use %ignore to ignore operator->(). For example:

%ignore Bar::operator->;

Note: Smart pointer support was first added in SWIG-1.3.14.

6.25 C++ reference counted objects - ref/unref feature

Another similar idiom in C++ is the use of reference counted objects. Consider for example:

class RCObj  {
  // implement the ref counting mechanism
  int add_ref();
  int del_ref();
  int ref_count();

public:
  virtual ~RCObj() = 0;

  int ref() const {
    return add_ref();
  }

  int unref() const   {
    if (ref_count() == 0 || del_ref() == 0 ) {
	delete this;
	return 0;
      } 
    return ref_count();
  }
};


class A : RCObj {
public:
  A();
  int foo();
};


class B {
  A *_a;

public:
  B(A *a) : _a(a) { 
    a->ref(); 
  }

  ~B() { 
    a->unref(); 
  }
};

int main() {
  A *a  = new A();       // (count: 0)
  a->ref();           // 'a' ref here (count: 1)

  B *b1 = new B(a);   // 'a' ref here (count: 2)
  if (1 + 1 == 2) {
    B *b2 = new B(a); // 'a' ref here (count: 3)
    delete b2;        // 'a' unref, but not deleted (count: 2)
  }

  delete b1;          // 'a' unref, but not deleted (count: 1)
  a->unref();         // 'a' unref and deleted (count: 0)
}

In the example above, the 'A' class instance 'a' is a reference counted object, which can't be deleted arbitrarily since it is shared between the objects 'b1' and 'b2'. 'A' is derived from a Reference Counted Object 'RCObj', which implements the ref/unref idiom.

To tell SWIG that 'RCObj' and all its derived classes are reference counted objects, use the "ref" and "unref" features. These are also available as %refobject and %unrefobject, respectively. For example:

%module example
...

%feature("ref")   RCObj "$this->ref();"
%feature("unref") RCObj "$this->unref();"

%include "rcobj.h"
%include "A.h"
...

where the code passed to the "ref" and "unref" features will be executed as needed whenever a new object is passed to python, or when python tries to release the proxy object instance, respectively.

On the python side, the use of a reference counted object is no different to any other regular instance:

def create_A():
  a = A()         # SWIG ref 'a' - new object is passed to python (count: 1)
  b1 = B(a)       # C++ ref 'a (count: 2)
  if 1 + 1 == 2:
     b2 = B(a)    # C++ ref 'a' (count: 3)
  return a        # 'b1' and 'b2' are released and deleted, C++ unref 'a' twice (count: 1)

a = create_A()    # (count: 1)
exit              # 'a' is released, SWIG unref 'a' called in the destructor wrapper (count: 0)

Note that the user doesn't explicitly need to call 'a->ref()' nor 'a->unref()' (and neither 'delete a'). Instead, SWIG takes cares of executing the "ref" and "unref" calls as needed. If the user doesn't specify the "ref/unref" feature for a type, SWIG will produce code equivalent to defining these features:

%feature("ref")   ""
%feature("unref") "delete $this;"

In other words, SWIG will not do anything special when a new object is passed to python, and it will always 'delete' the underlying object when python releases the proxy instance.

The %newobject feature is designed to indicate to the target language that it should take ownership of the returned object. When used in conjunction with a type that has the "ref" feature associated with it, it additionally emits the code in the "ref" feature into the C++ wrapper. Consider wrapping the following factory function in addition to the above:

%newobject AFactory;
A *AFactory() {
  return new A();
}

The AFactory function now acts much like a call to the A constructor with respect to memory handling:

a = AFactory()    # SWIG ref 'a' due to %newobject (count: 1)
exit              # 'a' is released, SWIG unref 'a' called in the destructor wrapper (count: 0)

6.26 Using declarations and inheritance

using declarations are sometimes used to adjust access to members of base classes. For example:

class Foo {
public:
      int  blah(int x);
};

class Bar {
public:
      double blah(double x);
};

class FooBar : public Foo, public Bar {
public:
      using Foo::blah;  
      using Bar::blah;
      char *blah(const char *x);
};

In this example, the using declarations make different versions of the overloaded blah() method accessible from the derived class. For example:

FooBar *f;
f->blah(3);         // Ok. Invokes Foo::blah(int)
f->blah(3.5);       // Ok. Invokes Bar::blah(double)
f->blah("hello");   // Ok. Invokes FooBar::blah(const char *);

SWIG emulates the same functionality when creating wrappers. For example, if you wrap this code in Python, the module works just like you would expect:

>>> import example
>>> f = example.FooBar()
>>> f.blah(3)
>>> f.blah(3.5)
>>> f.blah("hello")

using declarations can also be used to change access when applicable. For example:

class Foo {
protected:
    int x;
    int blah(int x);
};

class Bar : public Foo {
public:
    using Foo::x;       // Make x public
    using Foo::blah;    // Make blah public
};

This also works in SWIG---the exposed declarations will be wrapped normally.

When using declarations are used as shown in these examples, declarations from the base classes are copied into the derived class and wrapped normally. When copied, the declarations retain any properties that might have been attached using %rename , %ignore, or %feature. Thus, if a method is ignored in a base class, it will also be ignored by a using declaration.

Because a using declaration does not provide fine-grained control over the declarations that get imported, it may be difficult to manage such declarations in applications that make heavy use of SWIG customization features. If you can't get using to work correctly, you can always change the interface to the following:


class FooBar : public Foo, public Bar {
public:
#ifndef SWIG
      using Foo::blah;  
      using Bar::blah;
#else
      int blah(int x);         // explicitly tell SWIG about other declarations
      double blah(double x);
#endif

      char *blah(const char *x);
};

Notes:

6.27 Nested classes

If the target language supports the nested classes concept (like Java), the nested C++ classes are wrapped as nested target language proxy classes. (In case of Java - "static" nested classes.) Only public nested classes are wrapped. Otherwise there is little difference between nested and normal classes.

If the target language doesn't support nested classes directly, or the support is not implemented in the language module (like for python currently), then the visible nested classes are moved to the same name space as the containing class (nesting hierarchy is "flattened"). The same behaviour may be turned on for C# and Java by the %feature ("flatnested"); If there is a class with the same name in the outer namespace the inner class (or the global one) may be renamed or ignored:

%rename (Bar_Foo) Bar::Foo;
class Foo {};
class Bar {
  public:
  class Foo {};
};

Compatibility Note: Prior to SWIG-3.0.0, there was limited nested class support. Nested classes were treated as opaque pointers. However, there was a workaround for nested class support in these older versions requiring the user to replicate the nested class in the global scope, adding in a typedef for the nested class in the global scope and using the "nestedworkaround" feature on the nested class. This resulted in approximately the same behaviour as the "flatnested" feature. With proper nested class support now available in SWIG-3.0.0, this feature has been deprecated and no longer works requiring code changes. If you see the following warning:

example.i:8: Warning 126: The nestedworkaround feature is deprecated

consider using the "flatnested" feature discussed above which generates a non-nested proxy class, like the "nestedworkaround" feature did. Alternatively, use the default nested class code generation, which may generate an equivalent to a nested proxy class in the target language, depending on the target language support.

SWIG-1.3.40 and earlier versions did not have the nestedworkaround feature and the generated code resulting from parsing nested classes did not always compile. Nested class warnings could also not be suppressed using %warnfilter.

6.28 A brief rant about const-correctness

A common issue when working with C++ programs is dealing with all possible ways in which the const qualifier (or lack thereof) will break your program, all programs linked against your program, and all programs linked against those programs.

Although SWIG knows how to correctly deal with const in its internal type system and it knows how to generate wrappers that are free of const-related warnings, SWIG does not make any attempt to preserve const-correctness in the target language. Thus, it is possible to pass const qualified objects to non-const methods and functions. For example, consider the following code in C++:

const Object * foo();
void bar(Object *);

...
// C++ code
void blah() {
   bar(foo());         // Error: bar discards const
};

Now, consider the behavior when wrapped into a Python module:

>>> bar(foo())         # Okay
>>> 

Although this is clearly a violation of the C++ type-system, fixing the problem doesn't seem to be worth the added implementation complexity that would be required to support it in the SWIG run-time type system. There are no plans to change this in future releases (although we'll never rule anything out entirely).

The bottom line is that this particular issue does not appear to be a problem for most SWIG projects. Of course, you might want to consider using another tool if maintaining constness is the most important part of your project.

6.29 Where to go for more information

If you're wrapping serious C++ code, you might want to pick up a copy of "The Annotated C++ Reference Manual" by Ellis and Stroustrup. This is the reference document we use to guide a lot of SWIG's C++ support.


7 SWIG and C++11

7.1 Introduction

This chapter gives you a brief overview about the SWIG implementation of the C++11 standard. This part of SWIG is still a work in progress.

SWIG supports the new C++ syntax changes with some minor limitations in some areas such as decltype expressions and variadic templates. Wrappers for the new STL types (unordered_ containers, result_of, tuples) are incomplete. The wrappers for the new containers would work much like the C++03 containers and users are welcome to help by adapting the existing container interface files and submitting them as a patch for inclusion in future versions of SWIG.

7.2 Core language changes

7.2.1 Rvalue reference and move semantics

SWIG correctly parses the rvalue reference syntax '&&', for example the typical usage of it in the move constructor and move assignment operator below:

class MyClass {
...
  std::vector<int> numbers;
public:
  MyClass(MyClass &&other) : numbers(std::move(other.numbers)) {}
  MyClass & operator=(MyClass &&other) {
    numbers = std::move(other.numbers);
    return *this;
  }
};

Rvalue references are designed for C++ temporaries and so are not very useful when used from non-C++ target languages. Generally you would just ignore them via %ignore before parsing the class. For example, ignore the move constructor:

%ignore MyClass::MyClass(MyClass &&);

The plan is to ignore move constructors by default in a future version of SWIG. Note that both normal assignment operators as well as move assignment operators are ignored by default in most target languages with the following warning:

example.i:18: Warning 503: Can't wrap 'operator =' unless renamed to a valid identifier.

7.2.2 Generalized constant expressions

SWIG parses and identifies the keyword constexpr, but cannot fully utilise it. These C++ compile time constants are usable as runtime constants from the target languages. Below shows example usage for assigning a C++ compile time constant from a compile time constant function:

constexpr int XXX() { return 10; }
constexpr int YYY = XXX() + 100;

When either of these is used from a target language, a runtime call is made to obtain the underlying constant.

7.2.3 Extern template

SWIG correctly parses the keywords extern template. However, this template instantiation suppression in a translation unit has no relevance outside of the C++ compiler and so is not used by SWIG. SWIG only uses %template for instantiating and wrapping templates.

template class std::vector<int>;        // C++03 explicit instantiation in C++
extern template class std::vector<int>; // C++11 explicit instantiation suppression in C++
%template(VectorInt) std::vector<int>;  // SWIG instantiation

7.2.4 Initializer lists

Initializer lists are very much a C++ compiler construct and are not very accessible from wrappers as they are intended for compile time initialization of classes using the special std::initializer_list type. SWIG detects usage of initializer lists and will emit a special informative warning each time one is used:

example.i:33: Warning 476: Initialization using std::initializer_list.

Initializer lists usually appear in constructors but can appear in any function or method. They often appear in constructors which are overloaded with alternative approaches to initializing a class, such as the std container's push_back method for adding elements to a container. The recommended approach then is to simply ignore the initializer-list constructor, for example:

%ignore Container::Container(std::initializer_list<int>);
class Container {
public:
  Container(std::initializer_list<int>); // initializer-list constructor
  Container();
  void push_back(const int &);
  ...
};

Alternatively you could modify the class and add another constructor for initialization by some other means, for example by a std::vector:

%include <std_vector.i>
class Container {
public:
  Container(const std::vector<int> &);
  Container(std::initializer_list<int>); // initializer-list constructor
  Container();
  void push_back(const int &);
  ...
};

And then call this constructor from your target language, for example, in Python, the following will call the constructor taking the std::vector:

>>> c = Container( [1,2,3,4] )

If you are unable to modify the class being wrapped, consider ignoring the initializer-list constructor and using %extend to add in an alternative constructor:

%include <std_vector.i>
%extend Container {
  Container(const std::vector<int> &elements) {
    Container *c = new Container();
    for (int element : elements)
      c->push_back(element);
    return c;
  }
}

%ignore Container::Container(std::initializer_list<int>);

class Container {
public:
  Container(std::initializer_list<int>); // initializer-list constructor
  Container();
  void push_back(const int &);
  ...
};

The above makes the wrappers look is as if the class had been declared as follows:

%include <std_vector.i>
class Container {
public:
  Container(const std::vector<int> &);
//  Container(std::initializer_list<int>); // initializer-list constructor (ignored)
  Container();
  void push_back(const int &);
  ...
};

std::initializer_list is simply a container that can only be initialized at compile time. As it is just a C++ type, it is possible to write typemaps for a target language container to map onto std::initializer_list. However, this can only be done for a fixed number of elements as initializer lists are not designed to be constructed with a variable number of arguments at runtime. The example below is a very simple approach which ignores any parameters passed in and merely initializes with a fixed list of fixed integer values chosen at compile time:

%typemap(in) std::initializer_list<int> {
  $1 = {10, 20, 30, 40, 50};
}
class Container {
public:
  Container(std::initializer_list<int>); // initializer-list constructor
  Container();
  void push_back(const int &);
  ...
};

Any attempt at passing in values from the target language will be ignored and be replaced by {10, 20, 30, 40, 50}. Needless to say, this approach is very limited, but could be improved upon, but only slightly. A typemap could be written to map a fixed number of elements on to the std::initializer_list, but with values decided at runtime. The typemaps would be target language specific.

Note that the default typemap for std::initializer_list does nothing but issue the warning and hence any user supplied typemaps will override it and suppress the warning.

7.2.5 Uniform initialization

The curly brackets {} for member initialization are fully supported by SWIG:

struct BasicStruct {
 int x;
 double y;
};
 
struct AltStruct {
  AltStruct(int x, double y) : x_{x}, y_{y} {}
 
  int x_;
  double y_;
};

BasicStruct var1{5, 3.2}; // only fills the struct components
AltStruct var2{2, 4.3};   // calls the constructor

Uniform initialization does not affect usage from the target language, for example in Python:

>>> a = AltStruct(10, 142.15)
>>> a.x_
10
>>> a.y_
142.15

7.2.6 Type inference

SWIG supports decltype() with some limitations. Single variables are allowed, however, expressions are not supported yet. For example, the following code will work:

int i;
decltype(i) j;

However, using an expression inside the decltype results in syntax error:

int i; int j;
decltype(i+j) k;  // syntax error

7.2.7 Range-based for-loop

This feature is part of the implementation block only. SWIG ignores it.

7.2.8 Lambda functions and expressions

SWIG correctly parses most of the Lambda functions syntax. For example:

auto val = [] { return something; };
auto sum = [](int x, int y) { return x+y; };
auto sum = [](int x, int y) -> int { return x+y; };

The lambda functions are removed from the wrappers for now, because of the lack of support for closures (scope of the lambda functions) in the target languages.

Lambda functions used to create variables can also be parsed, but due to limited support of auto when the type is deduced from the expression, the variables are simply ignored.

auto six = [](int x, int y) { return x+y; }(4, 2);

Better support should be available in a later release.

7.2.9 Alternate function syntax

SWIG fully supports the new definition of functions. For example:

struct SomeStruct {
  int FuncName(int x, int y);
};

can now be written as in C++11:

struct SomeStruct {
  auto FuncName(int x, int y) -> int;
};
 
auto SomeStruct::FuncName(int x, int y) -> int {
  return x + y;
}

The usage in the target languages remains the same, for example in Python:

>>> a = SomeStruct()
>>> a.FuncName(10,5)
15

SWIG will also deal with type inference for the return type, as per the limitations described earlier. For example:

auto square(float a, float b) -> decltype(a);

7.2.10 Object construction improvement

There are three parts to object construction improvement. The first improvement is constructor delegation such as the following:

class A {
public:
  int a;
  int b;
  int c;

  A() : A(10) {}
  A(int aa) : A(aa, 20) {}
  A(int aa, int bb) : A(aa, bb, 30) {}
  A(int aa, int bb, int cc) { a=aa; b=bb; c=cc; }
};

where peer constructors can be called. SWIG handles this without any issue.

The second improvement is constructor inheritance via a using declaration. This is parsed correctly, but the additional constructors are not currently added to the derived proxy class in the target language. An example is shown below:

class BaseClass {
public:
  BaseClass(int iValue);
};

class DerivedClass: public BaseClass {
  public:
  using BaseClass::BaseClass; // Adds DerivedClass(int) constructor
};

The final part is member initialization at the site of the declaration. This kind of initialization is handled by SWIG.

class SomeClass {
public:
    SomeClass() {}
    explicit SomeClass(int new_value) : value(new_value) {}

    int value = 5;
};

7.2.11 Explicit overrides and final

The special identifiers final and override can be used on methods and destructors, such as in the following example:

struct BaseStruct {
  virtual void ab() const = 0;
  virtual void cd();
  virtual void ef();
  virtual ~BaseStruct();
};
struct DerivedStruct : BaseStruct {
  virtual void ab() const override;
  virtual void cd() final;
  virtual void ef() final override;
  virtual ~DerivedStruct() override;
};

7.2.12 Null pointer constant

The nullptr constant is mostly unimportant in wrappers. In the few places it has an effect, it is treated like NULL.

7.2.13 Strongly typed enumerations

SWIG parses the new enum class syntax and forward declarator for the enums:

enum class MyEnum : unsigned int;

The strongly typed enumerations are treated the same as the ordinary and anonymous enums. This is because the required nested class support in SWIG is new and has not yet been incorporated into the wrapping of these strongly typed enum classes. This is usually not a problem, however, there may be some name clashes. For example, the following code:

class Color {
  enum class PrintingColors : unsigned int {
    Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black
  };
  
  enum class BasicColors {
    Red, Green, Blue
  };
  
  enum class AllColors {
    // produces warnings because of duplicate names
    Yellow, Orange, Red, Magenta, Blue, Cyan, Green, Pink, Black, White
  };
};

A workaround is to write these as a series of separate classes containing anonymous enums:

class PrintingColors {
  enum : unsigned int {
    Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black
  };
};

class BasicColors {
  enum : unsigned int {
    Red, Green, Blue
  };
};

class AllColors {
  enum : unsigned int {
    Yellow, Orange, Red, Magenta, Blue, Cyan, Green, Pink, Black, White
  };
};

Expect to see this improved in a future version of SWIG.

7.2.14 Double angle brackets

SWIG correctly parses the symbols >> as closing the template block, if found inside it at the top level, or as the right shift operator >> otherwise.

std::vector<std::vector<int>> myIntTable;

7.2.15 Explicit conversion operators

SWIG correctly parses the keyword explicit for operators in addition to constructors now. For example:

class U {
public:
  int u;
};

class V {
public:
  int v;
};

class TestClass {
public:
  //implicit converting constructor
  TestClass(U const &val) { t=val.u; }

  // explicit constructor
  explicit TestClass(V const &val) { t=val.v; }

  int t;
};

struct Testable {
  // explicit conversion operator
  explicit operator bool() const {
    return false;
  }
};

The effect of explicit constructors and operators has little relevance for the proxy classes as target languages don't have the same concepts of implicit conversions as C++. Conversion operators either with or without explicit need renaming to a valid identifier name in order to make them available as a normal proxy method.

7.2.16 Alias templates

The following is an example of an alias template:

template< typename T1, typename T2, int >
class SomeType {
  T1 a;
  T2 b;
  int c;
};

template< typename T2 >
using TypedefName = SomeType<char*, T2, 5>;

These are partially supported as SWIG will parse these and identify them, however, they are ignored as they are not added to the type system. A warning such as the following is issued:

example.i:13: Warning 342: The 'using' keyword in template aliasing is not fully supported yet.

Similarly for non-template type aliasing:

using PFD = void (*)(double); // New introduced syntax

A warning will be issued:

example.i:17: Warning 341: The 'using' keyword in type aliasing is not fully supported yet.

The equivalent old style typedefs can be used as a workaround:

typedef void (*PFD)(double);  // The old style

7.2.17 Unrestricted unions

SWIG fully supports any type inside a union even if it does not define a trivial constructor. For example, the wrapper for the following code correctly provides access to all members in the union:

struct point {
  point() {}
  point(int x, int y) : x_(x), y_(y) {}
  int x_, y_;
};

#include <new> // For placement 'new' in the constructor below
union P {
  int z;
  double w;
  point p; // Illegal in C++03; legal in C++11.
  // Due to the point member, a constructor definition is required.
  P() {
    new(&p) point();
  }
} p1;

7.2.18 Variadic templates

SWIG supports the variadic templates syntax (inside the <> block, variadic class inheritance and variadic constructor and initializers) with some limitations. The following code is correctly parsed:

template <typename... BaseClasses> class ClassName : public BaseClasses... {
public:
   ClassName (BaseClasses &&... baseClasses) : BaseClasses(baseClasses)... {}
}

For now however, the %template directive only accepts one parameter substitution for the variable template parameters.

%template(MyVariant1) ClassName<>         // zero argument not supported yet
%template(MyVariant2) ClassName<int>      // ok
%template(MyVariant3) ClassName<int, int> // too many arguments not supported yet

Support for the variadic sizeof() function is correctly parsed:

const int SIZE = sizeof...(ClassName<int, int>);

In the above example SIZE is of course wrapped as a constant.

7.2.19 New string literals

SWIG supports wide string and Unicode string constants and raw string literals.

// New string literals
wstring         aa =  L"Wide string";
const char     *bb = u8"UTF-8 string";
const char16_t *cc =  u"UTF-16 string";
const char32_t *dd =  U"UTF-32 string";

// Raw string literals
const char      *xx =        ")I'm an \"ascii\" \\ string.";
const char      *ee =   R"XXX()I'm an "ascii" \ string.)XXX"; // same as xx
wstring          ff =  LR"XXX(I'm a "raw wide" \ string.)XXX";
const char      *gg = u8R"XXX(I'm a "raw UTF-8" \ string.)XXX";
const char16_t  *hh =  uR"XXX(I'm a "raw UTF-16" \ string.)XXX";
const char32_t  *ii =  UR"XXX(I'm a "raw UTF-32" \ string.)XXX";

Non-ASCII string support varies quite a bit among the various target languages though.

Note: There is a bug currently where SWIG's preprocessor incorrectly parses an odd number of double quotes inside raw string literals.

7.2.20 User-defined literals

SWIG parses the declaration of user-defined literals, that is, the operator "" _mysuffix() function syntax.

Some examples are the raw literal:

OutputType operator "" _myRawLiteral(const char * value);

numeric cooked literals:

OutputType operator "" _mySuffixIntegral(unsigned long long);
OutputType operator "" _mySuffixFloat(long double);

and cooked string literals:

OutputType operator "" _mySuffix(const char * string_values, size_t num_chars);
OutputType operator "" _mySuffix(const wchar_t * string_values, size_t num_chars);
OutputType operator "" _mySuffix(const char16_t * string_values, size_t num_chars);
OutputType operator "" _mySuffix(const char32_t * string_values, size_t num_chars);

Like other operators that SWIG parses, a warning is given about renaming the operator in order for it to be wrapped:

example.i:27: Warning 503: Can't wrap 'operator "" _myRawLiteral' unless renamed to a valid identifier.

If %rename is used, then it can be called like any other wrapped method. Currently you need to specify the full declaration including parameters for %rename:

%rename(MyRawLiteral)  operator"" _myRawLiteral(const char * value);

Or if you just wish to ignore it altogether:

%ignore operator "" _myRawLiteral(const char * value);

Note that use of user-defined literals such as the following still give a syntax error:

OutputType var1 = "1234"_suffix;
OutputType var2 = 1234_suffix;
OutputType var3 = 3.1416_suffix;

7.2.21 Thread-local storage

SWIG correctly parses the thread_local keyword. For example, variables reachable by the current thread can be defined as:

struct A {
   static thread_local int val;
};
thread_local int global_val;

The use of the thread_local storage specifier does not affect the wrapping process; it does not modify the wrapper code compared to when it is not specified. A variable will be thread local if accessed from different threads from the target language in the same way that it will be thread local if accessed from C++ code.

7.2.22 Explicitly defaulted functions and deleted functions

SWIG handles explicitly defaulted functions, that is, = default added to a function declaration. Deleted definitions, which are also called deleted functions, have = delete added to the function declaration. For example:

struct NonCopyable {
  NonCopyable & operator=(const NonCopyable &) = delete; /* Removes operator= */
  NonCopyable(const NonCopyable &) = delete;             /* Removes copy constructor */
  NonCopyable() = default;                               /* Explicitly allows the empty constructor */
};

Wrappers for deleted functions will not be available in the target language. Wrappers for defaulted functions will of course be available in the target language. Explicitly defaulted functions have no direct effect for SWIG wrapping as the declaration is handled much like any other method declaration parsed by SWIG.

Deleted functions are also designed to prevent implicit conversions when calling the function. For example, the C++ compiler will not compile any code which attempts to use an int as the type of the parameter passed to f below:

struct NoInt {
    void f(double i);
    void f(int) = delete;
};

This is a C++ compile time check and SWIG does not make any attempt to detect if the target language is using an int instead of a double though, so in this case it is entirely possible to pass an int instead of a double to f from Java, Python etc.

7.2.23 Type long long int

SWIG correctly parses and uses the new long long type already introduced in C99 some time ago.

7.2.24 Static assertions

SWIG correctly parses the new static_assert declarations. This is a C++ compile time directive so there isn't anything useful that SWIG can do with it.

template <typename T>
struct Check {
  static_assert(sizeof(int) <= sizeof(T), "not big enough");
};

7.2.25 Allow sizeof to work on members of classes without an explicit object

SWIG can parse the new sizeof() on types as well as on objects. For example:

struct A {
  int member;
};

const int SIZE = sizeof(A::member); // does not work with C++03. Okay with C++11

In Python:

>>> SIZE
8

7.2.26 Exception specifications and noexcept

C++11 added in the noexcept specification to exception specifications to indicate that a function simply may or may not throw an exception, without actually naming any exception. SWIG understands these, although there isn't any useful way that this information can be taken advantage of by target languages, so it is as good as ignored during the wrapping process. Below are some examples of noexcept in function declarations:

static void noex1() noexcept;
int noex2(int) noexcept(true);
int noex3(int, bool) noexcept(false);

7.2.27 Control and query object alignment

An alignof operator is used mostly within C++ to return alignment in number of bytes, but could be used to initialize a variable as shown below. The variable's value will be available for access by the target language as any other variable's compile time initialised value.

const int align1 = alignof(A::member);

The alignas specifier for variable alignment is not yet supported. Example usage:

struct alignas(16) S {
  int num;
};
alignas(double) unsigned char c[sizeof(double)];

Use the preprocessor to work around this for now:

#define alignas(T)

7.2.28 Attributes

Attributes such as those shown below, are not yet supported and will give a syntax error.

int [[attr1]] i [[attr2, attr3]];

[[noreturn, nothrow]] void f [[noreturn]] ();

7.3 Standard library changes

7.3.1 Threading facilities

SWIG does not currently wrap or use any of the new threading classes introduced (thread, mutex, locks, condition variables, task). The main reason is that SWIG target languages offer their own threading facilities so there is limited use for them.

7.3.2 Tuple types

SWIG does not provide library files for the new tuple types yet. Variadic template support requires further work to provide substantial tuple wrappers.

7.3.3 Hash tables

The new hash tables in the STL are unordered_set, unordered_multiset, unordered_map, unordered_multimap . These are not available in SWIG, but in principle should be easily implemented by adapting the current STL containers.

7.3.4 Regular expressions

While SWIG could provide wrappers for the new C++11 regular expressions classes, there is little need as the target languages have their own regular expression facilities.

7.3.5 General-purpose smart pointers

SWIG provides special smart pointer handling for std::shared_ptr in the same way it has support for boost::shared_ptr. Please see the shared_ptr smart pointer library section. There is no special smart pointer handling available for std::weak_ptr and std::unique_ptr yet.

7.3.6 Extensible random number facility

This feature extends and standardizes the standard library only and does not effect the C++ language nor SWIG.

7.3.7 Wrapper reference

Wrapper references are similar to normal C++ references but are copy-constructible and copy-assignable. They could conceivably be used in public APIs. There is no special support for std::reference_wrapper in SWIG though. Users would need to write their own typemaps if wrapper references are being used and these would be similar to the plain C++ reference typemaps.

7.3.8 Polymorphous wrappers for function objects

SWIG supports functor classes in a few languages in a very natural way. However nothing is provided yet for the new std::function template. SWIG will parse usage of the template like any other template.

%rename(__call__) Test::operator(); // Default renaming used for Python

struct Test {
  bool operator()(int x, int y); // function object
};

#include <functional>
std::function<void (int, int)> pF = Test;   // function template wrapper

Example of supported usage of the plain functor from Python is shown below. It does not involve std::function.

t = Test()
b = t(1,2) # invoke C++ function object

7.3.9 Type traits for metaprogramming

The type_traits functions to support C++ metaprogramming is useful at compile time and is aimed specifically at C++ development:

#include <type_traits>

// First way of operating.
template< bool B > struct algorithm {
  template< class T1, class T2 > static int do_it(T1 &, T2 &)  { /*...*/ return 1; }
};

// Second way of operating.
template<> struct algorithm<true> {
  template< class T1, class T2 > static int do_it(T1, T2)  { /*...*/ return 2; }
};

// Instantiating 'elaborate' will automatically instantiate the correct way to operate, depending on the types used.
template< class T1, class T2 > int elaborate(T1 A, T2 B) {
  // Use the second way only if 'T1' is an integer and if 'T2' is a floating point,
  // otherwise use the first way.
  return algorithm< std::is_integral<T1>::value && std::is_floating_point<T2>::value >::do_it(A, B);
}

SWIG correctly parses the template specialization, template types etc. However, metaprogramming and the additional support in the type_traits header is really for compile time and is not much use at runtime for the target languages. For example, as SWIG requires explicit instantiation of templates via %template, there isn't much that std::is_integral<int> is going to provide by itself. However, template functions using such metaprogramming techniques might be useful to wrap. For example, the following instantiations could be made:

%template(Elaborate) elaborate<int, int>;
%template(Elaborate) elaborate<int, double>;

Then the appropriate algorithm can be called for the subset of types given by the above %template instantiations from a target language, such as Python:

>>> Elaborate(0, 0)
1
>>> Elaborate(0, 0.0)
2

7.3.10 Uniform method for computing return type of function objects

The new std::result_of class introduced in the <functional> header provides a generic way to obtain the return type of a function type via std::result_of::type. There isn't any library interface file to support this type. With a bit of work, SWIG will deduce the return type of functions when used in std::result_of using the approach shown below. The technique basically forward declares the std::result_of template class, then partially specializes it for the function types of interest. SWIG will use the partial specialization and hence correctly use the std::result_of::type provided in the partial specialization.

%inline %{
#include <functional>
typedef double(*fn_ptr)(double);
%}

namespace std {
  // Forward declaration of result_of
  template<typename Func> struct result_of;
  // Add in a partial specialization of result_of
  template<> struct result_of< fn_ptr(double) > {
    typedef double type;
  };
}

%template() std::result_of< fn_ptr(double) >;

%inline %{

double square(double x) {
  return (x * x);
}

template<class Fun, class Arg>
typename std::result_of<Fun(Arg)>::type test_result_impl(Fun fun, Arg arg) {
  return fun(arg);
}
%}

%template(test_result) test_result_impl< fn_ptr, double >;
%constant double (*SQUARE)(double) = square;

Note the first use of %template which SWIG requires to instantiate the template. The empty template instantiation suffices as no proxy class is required for std::result_of<Fun(Arg)>::type as this type is really just a double. The second %template instantiates the template function which is being wrapped for use as a callback. The %constant can then be used for any callback function as described in Pointers to functions and callbacks.

Example usage from Python should give the not too surprising result:

>>> test_result(SQUARE, 5.0)
25.0

Phew, that is a lot of hard work to get a callback working. You could just go with the more attractive option of just using double as the return type in the function declaration instead of result_of !


8 Preprocessing

SWIG includes its own enhanced version of the C preprocessor. The preprocessor supports the standard preprocessor directives and macro expansion rules. However, a number of modifications and enhancements have been made. This chapter describes some of these modifications.

8.1 File inclusion

To include another file into a SWIG interface, use the %include directive like this:

%include "pointer.i"

Unlike, #include, %include includes each file once (and will not reload the file on subsequent %include declarations). Therefore, it is not necessary to use include-guards in SWIG interfaces.

By default, the #include is ignored unless you run SWIG with the -includeall option. The reason for ignoring traditional includes is that you often don't want SWIG to try and wrap everything included in standard header system headers and auxiliary files.

8.2 File imports

SWIG provides another file inclusion directive with the %import directive. For example:

%import "foo.i"

The purpose of %import is to collect certain information from another SWIG interface file or a header file without actually generating any wrapper code. Such information generally includes type declarations (e.g., typedef) as well as C++ classes that might be used as base-classes for class declarations in the interface. The use of %import is also important when SWIG is used to generate extensions as a collection of related modules. This is an advanced topic and is described in later in the Working with Modules chapter.

The -importall directive tells SWIG to follow all #include statements as imports. This might be useful if you want to extract type definitions from system header files without generating any wrappers.

8.3 Conditional Compilation

SWIG fully supports the use of #if, #ifdef, #ifndef, #else, #endif to conditionally include parts of an interface. The following symbols are predefined by SWIG when it is parsing the interface:

SWIG                            Always defined when SWIG is processing a file
SWIGIMPORTED                    Defined when SWIG is importing a file with %import
SWIG_VERSION                    Hexadecimal (binary-coded decimal) number containing SWIG version,
                                such as 0x010311 (corresponding to SWIG-1.3.11).

SWIGALLEGROCL                   Defined when using Allegro CL
SWIGCFFI                        Defined when using CFFI
SWIGCHICKEN                     Defined when using CHICKEN
SWIGCLISP                       Defined when using CLISP
SWIGCSHARP                      Defined when using C#
SWIGGUILE                       Defined when using Guile
SWIGJAVA                        Defined when using Java
SWIGJAVASCRIPT                  Defined when using Javascript
SWIG_JAVASCRIPT_JSC             Defined when using Javascript for JavascriptCore
SWIG_JAVASCRIPT_V8              Defined when using Javascript for v8 or node.js 
SWIGLUA                         Defined when using Lua
SWIGMODULA3                     Defined when using Modula-3
SWIGMZSCHEME                    Defined when using Mzscheme        
SWIGOCAML                       Defined when using Ocaml
SWIGOCTAVE                      Defined when using Octave
SWIGPERL                        Defined when using Perl
SWIGPHP                         Defined when using PHP
SWIGPIKE                        Defined when using Pike
SWIGPYTHON                      Defined when using Python
SWIGR                           Defined when using R
SWIGRUBY                        Defined when using Ruby
SWIGSEXP                        Defined when using S-expressions
SWIGTCL                         Defined when using Tcl
SWIGXML                         Defined when using XML

In addition, SWIG defines the following set of standard C/C++ macros:

__LINE__                        Current line number
__FILE__                        Current file name
__STDC__                        Defined to indicate ANSI C
__cplusplus                     Defined when -c++ option used

Interface files can look at these symbols as necessary to change the way in which an interface is generated or to mix SWIG directives with C code. These symbols are also defined within the C code generated by SWIG (except for the symbol `SWIG' which is only defined within the SWIG compiler).

8.4 Macro Expansion

Traditional preprocessor macros can be used in SWIG interfaces. Be aware that the #define statement is also used to try and detect constants. Therefore, if you have something like this in your file,

#ifndef _FOO_H 1
#define _FOO_H 1
...
#endif

you may get some extra constants such as _FOO_H showing up in the scripting interface.

More complex macros can be defined in the standard way. For example:

#define EXTERN extern
#ifdef __STDC__
#define _ANSI(args)   (args)
#else
#define _ANSI(args) ()
#endif

The following operators can appear in macro definitions:

8.5 SWIG Macros

SWIG provides an enhanced macro capability with the %define and %enddef directives. For example:

%define ARRAYHELPER(type,name)
%inline %{
type *new_ ## name (int nitems) {
   return (type *) malloc(sizeof(type)*nitems);
}
void delete_ ## name(type *t) {
   free(t);
}
type name ## _get(type *t, int index) {
   return t[index];
}
void name ## _set(type *t, int index, type val) {
   t[index] = val;
}
%}
%enddef

ARRAYHELPER(int, IntArray)
ARRAYHELPER(double, DoubleArray)

The primary purpose of %define is to define large macros of code. Unlike normal C preprocessor macros, it is not necessary to terminate each line with a continuation character (\)--the macro definition extends to the first occurrence of %enddef. Furthermore, when such macros are expanded, they are reparsed through the C preprocessor. Thus, SWIG macros can contain all other preprocessor directives except for nested %define statements.

The SWIG macro capability is a very quick and easy way to generate large amounts of code. In fact, many of SWIG's advanced features and libraries are built using this mechanism (such as C++ template support).

8.6 C99 and GNU Extensions

SWIG-1.3.12 and newer releases support variadic preprocessor macros. For example:

#define DEBUGF(fmt,...)   fprintf(stderr,fmt,__VA_ARGS__)

When used, any extra arguments to ... are placed into the special variable __VA_ARGS__. This also works with special SWIG macros defined using %define.

SWIG allows a variable number of arguments to be empty. However, this often results in an extra comma (,) and syntax error in the resulting expansion. For example:

DEBUGF("hello");   --> fprintf(stderr,"hello",);

To get rid of the extra comma, use ## like this:

#define DEBUGF(fmt,...)   fprintf(stderr,fmt, ##__VA_ARGS__)

SWIG also supports GNU-style variadic macros. For example:

#define DEBUGF(fmt, args...)  fprintf(stdout,fmt,args)

Comment: It's not entirely clear how variadic macros might be useful to interface building. However, they are used internally to implement a number of SWIG directives and are provided to make SWIG more compatible with C99 code.

8.7 Preprocessing and delimiters

The preprocessor handles { }, " " and %{ %} delimiters differently.

8.7.1 Preprocessing and %{ ... %} & " ... " delimiters

The SWIG preprocessor does not process any text enclosed in a code block %{ ... %}. Therefore, if you write code like this,

%{
#ifdef NEED_BLAH
int blah() {
   ...
}
#endif
%}

the contents of the %{ ... %} block are copied without modification to the output (including all preprocessor directives).

8.7.2 Preprocessing and { ... } delimiters

SWIG always runs the preprocessor on text appearing inside { ... }. However, sometimes it is desirable to make a preprocessor directive pass through to the output file. For example:

%extend Foo {
   void bar() {
      #ifdef DEBUG
       printf("I'm in bar\n");
      #endif
   }
}

By default, SWIG will interpret the #ifdef DEBUG statement. However, if you really wanted that code to actually go into the wrapper file, prefix the preprocessor directives with % like this:

%extend Foo {
   void bar() {
      %#ifdef DEBUG
       printf("I'm in bar\n");
      %#endif
   }
}

SWIG will strip the extra % and leave the preprocessor directive in the code.

8.8 Preprocessor and Typemaps

Typemaps support a special attribute called noblock where the { ... } delimiters can be used, but the delimiters are not actually generated into the code. The effect is then similar to using "" or %{ %} delimiters but the code is run through the preprocessor. For example:

#define SWIG_macro(CAST) (CAST)$input
%typemap(in) Int {$1= SWIG_macro(int);}

might generate

  {
    arg1=(int)jarg1;
  }

whereas

#define SWIG_macro(CAST) (CAST)$input
%typemap(in,noblock=1) Int {$1= SWIG_macro(int);}

might generate

  arg1=(int)jarg1;

and

#define SWIG_macro(CAST) (CAST)$input
%typemap(in) Int %{$1=SWIG_macro(int);%}

would generate

  arg1=SWIG_macro(int);

8.9 Viewing preprocessor output

Like many compilers, SWIG supports a -E command line option to display the output from the preprocessor. When the -E switch is used, SWIG will not generate any wrappers. Instead the results after the preprocessor has run are displayed. This might be useful as an aid to debugging and viewing the results of macro expansions.

8.10 The #error and #warning directives

SWIG supports the commonly used #warning and #error preprocessor directives. The #warning directive will cause SWIG to issue a warning then continue processing. The #error directive will cause SWIG to exit with a fatal error. Example usage:

#error "This is a fatal error message"
#warning "This is a warning message"

The #error behaviour can be made to work like #warning if the -cpperraswarn commandline option is used. Alternatively, the #pragma directive can be used to the same effect, for example:

  /* Modified behaviour: #error does not cause SWIG to exit with error */
  #pragma SWIG cpperraswarn=1
  /* Normal behaviour: #error does cause SWIG to exit with error */
  #pragma SWIG cpperraswarn=0

9 SWIG library

To help build extension modules, SWIG is packaged with a library of support files that you can include in your own interfaces. These files often define new SWIG directives or provide utility functions that can be used to access parts of the standard C and C++ libraries. This chapter provides a reference to the current set of supported library files.

Compatibility note: Older versions of SWIG included a number of library files for manipulating pointers, arrays, and other structures. Most these files are now deprecated and have been removed from the distribution. Alternative libraries provide similar functionality. Please read this chapter carefully if you used the old libraries.

9.1 The %include directive and library search path

Library files are included using the %include directive. When searching for files, directories are searched in the following order:

  1. The current directory
  2. Directories specified with the -I command line option
  3. ./swig_lib
  4. SWIG library install location as reported by swig -swiglib, for example /usr/local/share/swig/1.3.30
  5. On Windows, a directory Lib relative to the location of swig.exe is also searched.

Within directories mentioned in points 3-5, SWIG first looks for a subdirectory corresponding to a target language (e.g., python, tcl, etc.). If found, SWIG will search the language specific directory first. This allows for language-specific implementations of library files.

You can ignore the installed SWIG library by setting the SWIG_LIB environment variable. Set the environment variable to hold an alternative library directory.

The directories that are searched are displayed when using -verbose commandline option.

9.2 C Arrays and Pointers

This section describes library modules for manipulating low-level C arrays and pointers. The primary use of these modules is in supporting C declarations that manipulate bare pointers such as int *, double *, or void *. The modules can be used to allocate memory, manufacture pointers, dereference memory, and wrap pointers as class-like objects. Since these functions provide direct access to memory, their use is potentially unsafe and you should exercise caution.

9.2.1 cpointer.i

The cpointer.i module defines macros that can be used to used to generate wrappers around simple C pointers. The primary use of this module is in generating pointers to primitive datatypes such as int and double.

%pointer_functions(type,name)

Generates a collection of four functions for manipulating a pointer type *:

type *new_name()

Creates a new object of type type and returns a pointer to it. In C, the object is created using calloc(). In C++, new is used.

type *copy_name(type value)

Creates a new object of type type and returns a pointer to it. An initial value is set by copying it from value. In C, the object is created using calloc(). In C++, new is used.

type *delete_name(type *obj)

Deletes an object type type.

void name_assign(type *obj, type value)

Assigns *obj = value.

type name_value(type *obj)

Returns the value of *obj.

When using this macro, type may be any type and name must be a legal identifier in the target language. name should not correspond to any other name used in the interface file.

Here is a simple example of using %pointer_functions():

%module example
%include "cpointer.i"

/* Create some functions for working with "int *" */
%pointer_functions(int, intp);

/* A function that uses an "int *" */
void add(int x, int y, int *result);

Now, in Python:

>>> import example
>>> c = example.new_intp()     # Create an "int" for storing result
>>> example.add(3,4,c)         # Call function
>>> example.intp_value(c)      # Dereference
7
>>> example.delete_intp(c)     # Delete

%pointer_class(type,name)

Wraps a pointer of type * inside a class-based interface. This interface is as follows:

struct name {
   name();                            // Create pointer object
  ~name();                            // Delete pointer object
   void assign(type value);           // Assign value
   type value();                      // Get value
   type *cast();                      // Cast the pointer to original type
   static name *frompointer(type *);  // Create class wrapper from existing
                                      // pointer
};

When using this macro, type is restricted to a simple type name like int, float, or Foo. Pointers and other complicated types are not allowed. name must be a valid identifier not already in use. When a pointer is wrapped as a class, the "class" may be transparently passed to any function that expects the pointer.

If the target language does not support proxy classes, the use of this macro will produce the example same functions as %pointer_functions() macro.

It should be noted that the class interface does introduce a new object or wrap a pointer inside a special structure. Instead, the raw pointer is used directly.

Here is the same example using a class instead:

%module example
%include "cpointer.i"

/* Wrap a class interface around an "int *" */
%pointer_class(int, intp);

/* A function that uses an "int *" */
void add(int x, int y, int *result);

Now, in Python (using proxy classes)

>>> import example
>>> c = example.intp()         # Create an "int" for storing result
>>> example.add(3,4,c)         # Call function
>>> c.value()                  # Dereference
7

Of the two macros, %pointer_class is probably the most convenient when working with simple pointers. This is because the pointers are access like objects and they can be easily garbage collected (destruction of the pointer object destroys the underlying object).

%pointer_cast(type1, type2, name)

Creates a casting function that converts type1 to type2 . The name of the function is name. For example:

%pointer_cast(int *, unsigned int *, int_to_uint);

In this example, the function int_to_uint() would be used to cast types in the target language.

Note: None of these macros can be used to safely work with strings (char * or char **).

Note: When working with simple pointers, typemaps can often be used to provide more seamless operation.

9.2.2 carrays.i

This module defines macros that assist in wrapping ordinary C pointers as arrays. The module does not provide any safety or an extra layer of wrapping--it merely provides functionality for creating, destroying, and modifying the contents of raw C array data.

%array_functions(type,name)

Creates four functions.

type *new_name(int nelements)

Creates a new array of objects of type type. In C, the array is allocated using calloc(). In C++, new [] is used.

type *delete_name(type *ary)

Deletes an array. In C, free() is used. In C++, delete [] is used.

type name_getitem(type *ary, int index)

Returns the value ary[index].

void name_setitem(type *ary, int index, type value)

Assigns ary[index] = value.

When using this macro, type may be any type and name must be a legal identifier in the target language. name should not correspond to any other name used in the interface file.

Here is an example of %array_functions(). Suppose you had a function like this:

void print_array(double x[10]) {
   int i;
   for (i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
      printf("[%d] = %g\n", i, x[i]);
   }
}

To wrap it, you might write this:

%module example

%include "carrays.i"
%array_functions(double, doubleArray);

void print_array(double x[10]);

Now, in a scripting language, you might write this:

a = new_doubleArray(10)           # Create an array
for i in range(0,10):
    doubleArray_setitem(a,i,2*i)  # Set a value
print_array(a)                    # Pass to C
delete_doubleArray(a)             # Destroy array

%array_class(type,name)

Wraps a pointer of type * inside a class-based interface. This interface is as follows:

struct name {
   name(int nelements);                  // Create an array
  ~name();                               // Delete array
   type getitem(int index);              // Return item
   void setitem(int index, type value);  // Set item
   type *cast();                         // Cast to original type
   static name *frompointer(type *);     // Create class wrapper from
                                         // existing pointer
};

When using this macro, type is restricted to a simple type name like int or float. Pointers and other complicated types are not allowed. name must be a valid identifier not already in use. When a pointer is wrapped as a class, it can be transparently passed to any function that expects the pointer.

When combined with proxy classes, the %array_class() macro can be especially useful. For example:

%module example
%include "carrays.i"
%array_class(double, doubleArray);

void print_array(double x[10]);

Allows you to do this:

import example
c = example.doubleArray(10)  # Create double[10]
for i in range(0,10):
    c[i] = 2*i               # Assign values
example.print_array(c)       # Pass to C

Note: These macros do not encapsulate C arrays inside a special data structure or proxy. There is no bounds checking or safety of any kind. If you want this, you should consider using a special array object rather than a bare pointer.

Note: %array_functions() and %array_class() should not be used with types of char or char *.

9.2.3 cmalloc.i

This module defines macros for wrapping the low-level C memory allocation functions malloc(), calloc(), realloc(), and free().

%malloc(type [,name=type])

Creates a wrapper around malloc() with the following prototype:

type *malloc_name(int nbytes = sizeof(type));

If type is void, then the size parameter nbytes is required. The name parameter only needs to be specified when wrapping a type that is not a valid identifier (e.g., " int *", "double **", etc.).

%calloc(type [,name=type])

Creates a wrapper around calloc() with the following prototype:

type *calloc_name(int nobj =1, int sz = sizeof(type));

If type is void, then the size parameter sz is required.

%realloc(type [,name=type])

Creates a wrapper around realloc() with the following prototype:

type *realloc_name(type *ptr, int nitems);

Note: unlike the C realloc(), the wrapper generated by this macro implicitly includes the size of the corresponding type. For example, realloc_int(p, 100) reallocates p so that it holds 100 integers.

%free(type [,name=type])

Creates a wrapper around free() with the following prototype:

void free_name(type *ptr);

%sizeof(type [,name=type])

Creates the constant:

%constant int sizeof_name = sizeof(type);

%allocators(type [,name=type])

Generates wrappers for all five of the above operations.

Here is a simple example that illustrates the use of these macros:

// SWIG interface
%module example
%include "cmalloc.i"

%malloc(int);
%free(int);

%malloc(int *, intp);
%free(int *, intp);

%allocators(double);

Now, in a script:

>>> from example import *
>>> a = malloc_int()
>>> a
'_000efa70_p_int'
>>> free_int(a)
>>> b = malloc_intp()
>>> b
'_000efb20_p_p_int'
>>> free_intp(b)
>>> c = calloc_double(50)
>>> c
'_000fab98_p_double'
>>> c = realloc_double(100000)
>>> free_double(c)
>>> print sizeof_double
8
>>>

9.2.4 cdata.i

The cdata.i module defines functions for converting raw C data to and from strings in the target language. The primary applications of this module would be packing/unpacking of binary data structures---for instance, if you needed to extract data from a buffer. The target language must support strings with embedded binary data in order for this to work.

const char *cdata(void *ptr, size_t nbytes)

Converts nbytes of data at ptr into a string. ptr can be any pointer.

void memmove(void *ptr, const char *s)

Copies all of the string data in s into the memory pointed to by ptr. The string may contain embedded NULL bytes. This is actually a wrapper to the standard C library memmove function, which is declared as void memmove(void *ptr, const void *src, size_t n). The src and length n parameters are extracted from the language specific string s in the underlying wrapper code.

One use of these functions is packing and unpacking data from memory. Here is a short example:

// SWIG interface
%module example
%include "carrays.i"
%include "cdata.i"

%array_class(int, intArray);

Python example:

>>> a = intArray(10)
>>> for i in range(0,10):
...    a[i] = i
>>> b = cdata(a,40)
>>> b
'\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x01\x00\x00\x00\x02\x00\x00\x00\x03\x00\x00\x00\x04
\x00\x00\x00\x05\x00\x00\x00\x06\x00\x00\x00\x07\x00\x00\x00\x08\x00\x00\x00\t'
>>> c = intArray(10)
>>> memmove(c,b)
>>> print c[4]
4
>>>

Since the size of data is not always known, the following macro is also defined:

%cdata(type [,name=type])

Generates the following function for extracting C data for a given type.

char *cdata_name(type* ptr, int nitems)

nitems is the number of items of the given type to extract.

Note: These functions provide direct access to memory and can be used to overwrite data. Clearly they are unsafe.

9.3 C String Handling

A common problem when working with C programs is dealing with functions that manipulate raw character data using char *. In part, problems arise because there are different interpretations of char *---it could be a NULL-terminated string or it could point to binary data. Moreover, functions that manipulate raw strings may mutate data, perform implicit memory allocations, or utilize fixed-sized buffers.

The problems (and perils) of using char * are well-known. However, SWIG is not in the business of enforcing morality. The modules in this section provide basic functionality for manipulating raw C strings.

9.3.1 Default string handling

Suppose you have a C function with this prototype:

char *foo(char *s);

The default wrapping behavior for this function is to set s to a raw char * that refers to the internal string data in the target language. In other words, if you were using a language like Tcl, and you wrote this,

% foo Hello

then s would point to the representation of "Hello" inside the Tcl interpreter. When returning a char *, SWIG assumes that it is a NULL-terminated string and makes a copy of it. This gives the target language its own copy of the result.

There are obvious problems with the default behavior. First, since a char * argument points to data inside the target language, it is NOT safe for a function to modify this data (doing so may corrupt the interpreter and lead to a crash). Furthermore, the default behavior does not work well with binary data. Instead, strings are assumed to be NULL-terminated.

9.3.2 Passing binary data

If you have a function that expects binary data,

size_t parity(char *str, size_t len, size_t initial);

you can wrap the parameters (char *str, size_t len) as a single argument using a typemap. Just do this:

%apply (char *STRING, size_t LENGTH) { (char *str, size_t len) };
...
size_t parity(char *str, size_t len, size_t initial);

Now, in the target language, you can use binary string data like this:

>>> s = "H\x00\x15eg\x09\x20"
>>> parity(s,0)

In the wrapper function, the passed string will be expanded to a pointer and length parameter. The (char *STRING, int LENGTH) multi-argument typemap is also available in addition to (char *STRING, size_t LENGTH).

9.3.3 Using %newobject to release memory

If you have a function that allocates memory like this,

char *foo() {
   char *result = (char *) malloc(...);
   ...
   return result;
}

then the SWIG generated wrappers will have a memory leak--the returned data will be copied into a string object and the old contents ignored.

To fix the memory leak, use the %newobject directive.

%newobject foo;
...
char *foo();

This will release the result if the appropriate target language support is available. SWIG provides the appropriate "newfree" typemap for char * so that the memory is released, however, you may need to provide your own "newfree" typemap for other types. See Object ownership and %newobject for more details.

9.3.4 cstring.i

The cstring.i library file provides a collection of macros for dealing with functions that either mutate string arguments or which try to output string data through their arguments. An example of such a function might be this rather questionable implementation:

void get_path(char *s) {
    // Potential buffer overflow---uh, oh.
    sprintf(s,"%s/%s", base_directory, sub_directory);
}
...
// Somewhere else in the C program
{
    char path[1024];
    ...
    get_path(path);
    ...
}

(Off topic rant: If your program really has functions like this, you would be well-advised to replace them with safer alternatives involving bounds checking).

The macros defined in this module all expand to various combinations of typemaps. Therefore, the same pattern matching rules and ideas apply.

%cstring_bounded_output(parm, maxsize)

Turns parameter parm into an output value. The output string is assumed to be NULL-terminated and smaller than maxsize characters. Here is an example:

%cstring_bounded_output(char *path, 1024);
...
void get_path(char *path);

In the target language:

>>> get_path()
/home/beazley/packages/Foo/Bar
>>>

Internally, the wrapper function allocates a small buffer (on the stack) of the requested size and passes it as the pointer value. Data stored in the buffer is then returned as a function return value. If the function already returns a value, then the return value and the output string are returned together (multiple return values). If more than maxsize bytes are written, your program will crash with a buffer overflow!

%cstring_chunk_output(parm, chunksize)

Turns parameter parm into an output value. The output string is always chunksize and may contain binary data. Here is an example:

%cstring_chunk_output(char *packet, PACKETSIZE);
...
void get_packet(char *packet);

In the target language:

>>> get_packet()
'\xa9Y:\xf6\xd7\xe1\x87\xdbH;y\x97\x7f\xd3\x99\x14V\xec\x06\xea\xa2\x88'
>>>

This macro is essentially identical to %cstring_bounded_output . The only difference is that the result is always chunksize characters. Furthermore, the result can contain binary data. If more than maxsize bytes are written, your program will crash with a buffer overflow!

%cstring_bounded_mutable(parm, maxsize)

Turns parameter parm into a mutable string argument. The input string is assumed to be NULL-terminated and smaller than maxsize characters. The output string is also assumed to be NULL-terminated and less than maxsize characters.

%cstring_bounded_mutable(char *ustr, 1024);
...
void make_upper(char *ustr);

In the target language:

>>> make_upper("hello world")
'HELLO WORLD'
>>>

Internally, this macro is almost exactly the same as %cstring_bounded_output. The only difference is that the parameter accepts an input value that is used to initialize the internal buffer. It is important to emphasize that this function does not mutate the string value passed---instead it makes a copy of the input value, mutates it, and returns it as a result. If more than maxsize bytes are written, your program will crash with a buffer overflow!

%cstring_mutable(parm [, expansion])

Turns parameter parm into a mutable string argument. The input string is assumed to be NULL-terminated. An optional parameter expansion specifies the number of extra characters by which the string might grow when it is modified. The output string is assumed to be NULL-terminated and less than the size of the input string plus any expansion characters.

%cstring_mutable(char *ustr);
...
void make_upper(char *ustr);

%cstring_mutable(char *hstr, HEADER_SIZE);
...
void attach_header(char *hstr);

In the target language:

>>> make_upper("hello world")
'HELLO WORLD'
>>> attach_header("Hello world")
'header: Hello world'
>>>

This macro differs from %cstring_bounded_mutable() in that a buffer is dynamically allocated (on the heap using malloc/new ). This buffer is always large enough to store a copy of the input value plus any expansion bytes that might have been requested. It is important to emphasize that this function does not directly mutate the string value passed---instead it makes a copy of the input value, mutates it, and returns it as a result. If the function expands the result by more than expansion extra bytes, then the program will crash with a buffer overflow!

%cstring_output_maxsize(parm, maxparm)

This macro is used to handle bounded character output functions where both a char * and a maximum length parameter are provided. As input, a user simply supplies the maximum length. The return value is assumed to be a NULL-terminated string.

%cstring_output_maxsize(char *path, int maxpath);
...
void get_path(char *path, int maxpath);

In the target language:

>>> get_path(1024)
'/home/beazley/Packages/Foo/Bar'
>>>

This macro provides a safer alternative for functions that need to write string data into a buffer. User supplied buffer size is used to dynamically allocate memory on heap. Results are placed into that buffer and returned as a string object.

%cstring_output_withsize(parm, maxparm)

This macro is used to handle bounded character output functions where both a char * and a pointer int * are passed. Initially, the int * parameter points to a value containing the maximum size. On return, this value is assumed to contain the actual number of bytes. As input, a user simply supplies the maximum length. The output value is a string that may contain binary data.

%cstring_output_withsize(char *data, int *maxdata);
...
void get_data(char *data, int *maxdata);

In the target language:

>>> get_data(1024)
'x627388912'
>>> get_data(1024)
'xyzzy'
>>>

This macro is a somewhat more powerful version of %cstring_output_chunk(). Memory is dynamically allocated and can be arbitrary large. Furthermore, a function can control how much data is actually returned by changing the value of the maxparm argument.

%cstring_output_allocate(parm, release)

This macro is used to return strings that are allocated within the program and returned in a parameter of type char **. For example:

void foo(char **s) {
    *s = (char *) malloc(64);
    sprintf(*s, "Hello world\n");
}

The returned string is assumed to be NULL-terminated. release specifies how the allocated memory is to be released (if applicable). Here is an example:

%cstring_output_allocate(char **s, free(*$1));
...
void foo(char **s);

In the target language:

>>> foo()
'Hello world\n'
>>>

%cstring_output_allocate_size(parm, szparm, release)

This macro is used to return strings that are allocated within the program and returned in two parameters of type char ** and int *. For example:

void foo(char **s, int *sz) {
    *s = (char *) malloc(64);
    *sz = 64;
    // Write some binary data
    ...
}

The returned string may contain binary data. release specifies how the allocated memory is to be released (if applicable). Here is an example:

%cstring_output_allocate_size(char **s, int *slen, free(*$1));
...
void foo(char **s, int *slen);

In the target language:

>>> foo()
'\xa9Y:\xf6\xd7\xe1\x87\xdbH;y\x97\x7f\xd3\x99\x14V\xec\x06\xea\xa2\x88'
>>>

This is the safest and most reliable way to return binary string data in SWIG. If you have functions that conform to another prototype, you might consider wrapping them with a helper function. For example, if you had this:

char  *get_data(int *len);

You could wrap it with a function like this:

void my_get_data(char **result, int *len) {
   *result = get_data(len);
}

Comments:

9.4 STL/C++ Library

The library modules in this section provide access to parts of the standard C++ library including the STL. SWIG support for the STL is an ongoing effort. Support is quite comprehensive for some language modules but some of the lesser used modules do not have quite as much library code written.

The following table shows which C++ classes are supported and the equivalent SWIG interface library file for the C++ library.

C++ classC++ Library file SWIG Interface library file
std::auto_ptrmemorystd_auto_ptr.i
std::dequedequestd_deque.i
std::listliststd_list.i
std::mapmapstd_map.i
std::pairutilitystd_pair.i
std::setsetstd_set.i
std::stringstringstd_string.i
std::vectorvectorstd_vector.i
std::shared_ptrshared_ptrstd_shared_ptr.i

The list is by no means complete; some language modules support a subset of the above and some support additional STL classes. Please look for the library files in the appropriate language library directory.

9.4.1 std::string

The std_string.i library provides typemaps for converting C++ std::string objects to and from strings in the target scripting language. For example:

%module example
%include "std_string.i"

std::string foo();
void        bar(const std::string &x);

In the target language:

x = foo();                # Returns a string object
bar("Hello World");       # Pass string as std::string

A common problem that people encounter is that of classes/structures containing a std::string. This can be overcome by defining a typemap. For example:

%module example
%include "std_string.i"

%apply const std::string& {std::string* foo};

struct my_struct
{
  std::string foo;
};

In the target language:

x = my_struct();
x.foo="Hello World";      # assign with string
print x.foo;              # print as string

This module only supports types std::string and const std::string &. Pointers and non-const references are left unmodified and returned as SWIG pointers.

This library file is fully aware of C++ namespaces. If you export std::string or rename it with a typedef, make sure you include those declarations in your interface. For example:

%module example
%include "std_string.i"

using namespace std;
typedef std::string String;
...
void foo(string s, const String &t);     // std_string typemaps still applied

9.4.2 std::vector

The std_vector.i library provides support for the C++ std::vector class in the STL. Using this library involves the use of the %template directive. All you need to do is to instantiate different versions of vector for the types that you want to use. For example:

%module example
%include "std_vector.i"

namespace std {
   %template(vectori) vector<int>;
   %template(vectord) vector<double>;
};

When a template vector<X> is instantiated a number of things happen:

To illustrate the use of this library, consider the following functions:

/* File : example.h */

#include <vector>
#include <algorithm>
#include <functional>
#include <numeric>

double average(std::vector<int> v) {
    return std::accumulate(v.begin(),v.end(),0.0)/v.size();
}

std::vector<double> half(const std::vector<double>& v) {
    std::vector<double> w(v);
    for (unsigned int i=0; i<w.size(); i++)
        w[i] /= 2.0;
    return w;
}

void halve_in_place(std::vector<double>& v) {
    std::transform(v.begin(),v.end(),v.begin(),
                   std::bind2nd(std::divides<double>(),2.0));
}

To wrap with SWIG, you might write the following:

%module example
%{
#include "example.h"
%}

%include "std_vector.i"
// Instantiate templates used by example
namespace std {
   %template(IntVector) vector<int>;
   %template(DoubleVector) vector<double>;
}

// Include the header file with above prototypes
%include "example.h"

Now, to illustrate the behavior in the scripting interpreter, consider this Python example:

>>> from example import *
>>> iv = IntVector(4)         # Create an vector<int>
>>> for i in range(0,4):
...      iv[i] = i
>>> average(iv)               # Call method
1.5
>>> average([0,1,2,3])        # Call with list
1.5
>>> half([1,2,3])             # Half a list
(0.5,1.0,1.5)
>>> halve_in_place([1,2,3])   # Oops
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in ?
TypeError: Type error. Expected _p_std__vectorTdouble_t
>>> dv = DoubleVector(4)
>>> for i in range(0,4):
...       dv[i] = i
>>> halve_in_place(dv)       # Ok
>>> for i in dv:
...       print i
...
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
>>> dv[20] = 4.5
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in ?
  File "example.py", line 81, in __setitem__
    def __setitem__(*args): return apply(examplec.DoubleVector___setitem__,args)
IndexError: vector index out of range
>>>

This library module is fully aware of C++ namespaces. If you use vectors with other names, make sure you include the appropriate using or typedef directives. For example:

%include "std_vector.i"

namespace std {
    %template(IntVector) vector<int>;
}

using namespace std;
typedef std::vector Vector;

void foo(vector<int> *x, const Vector &x);

Note: This module makes use of several advanced SWIG features including templatized typemaps and template partial specialization. If you are trying to wrap other C++ code with templates, you might look at the code contained in std_vector.i. Alternatively, you can show them the code if you want to make their head explode.

Note: This module is defined for all SWIG target languages. However argument conversion details and the public API exposed to the interpreter vary.

9.4.3 STL exceptions

Many of the STL wrapper functions add parameter checking and will throw a language dependent error/exception should the values not be valid. The classic example is array bounds checking. The library wrappers are written to throw a C++ exception in the case of error. The C++ exception in turn gets converted into an appropriate error/exception for the target language. By and large this handling should not need customising, however, customisation can easily be achieved by supplying appropriate "throws" typemaps. For example:

%module example
%include "std_vector.i"
%typemap(throws) std::out_of_range {
  // custom exception handler
}
%template(VectInt) std::vector<int>;

The custom exception handler might, for example, log the exception then convert it into a specific error/exception for the target language.

When using the STL it is advisable to add in an exception handler to catch all STL exceptions. The %exception directive can be used by placing the following code before any other methods or libraries to be wrapped:

%include "exception.i"

%exception {
  try {
    $action
  } catch (const std::exception& e) {
    SWIG_exception(SWIG_RuntimeError, e.what());
  }
}

Any thrown STL exceptions will then be gracefully handled instead of causing a crash.

9.4.4 shared_ptr smart pointer

Some target languages have support for handling the shared_ptr reference counted smart pointer. This smart pointer is available in the standard C++11 library as std::shared_ptr. It was also in TR1 as std::tr1::shared_ptr before it was fully standardized. Support for the widely used boost::shared_ptr is also available.

In order to use std::shared_ptr, the std_shared_ptr.i library file should be included:

%include <std_shared_ptr.i>

The pre-standard std::tr1::shared_ptr can be used by including the following macro before including the std_shared_ptr.i library file:

#define SWIG_SHARED_PTR_SUBNAMESPACE tr1
%include <std_shared_ptr.i>

In order to use boost::shared_ptr, the boost_shared_ptr.i library file should be included:

%include <boost_shared_ptr.i>

You can only use one of these variants of shared_ptr in your interface file at a time. and all three variants must be used in conjunction with the %shared_ptr(T) macro, where T is the underlying pointer type equating to usage shared_ptr<T>. The type T must be non-primitive. A simple example demonstrates usage:

%module example
%include <boost_shared_ptr.i>
%shared_ptr(IntValue)

%inline %{
#include <boost/shared_ptr.hpp>

struct IntValue {
  int value;
  IntValue(int v) : value(v) {}
};

static int extractValue(const IntValue &t) {
  return t.value;
}

static int extractValueSmart(boost::shared_ptr<IntValue> t) {
  return t->value;
}
%}

Note that the %shared_ptr(IntValue) declaration occurs after the inclusion of the boost_shared_ptr.i library which provides the macro and, very importantly, before any usage or declaration of the type, IntValue. The %shared_ptr macro provides, a few things for handling this smart pointer, but mostly a number of typemaps. These typemaps override the default typemaps so that the underlying proxy class is stored and passed around as a pointer to a shared_ptr instead of a plain pointer to the underlying type. This approach means that any instantiation of the type can be passed to methods taking the type by value, reference, pointer or as a smart pointer. The interested reader might want to look at the generated code, however, usage is simple and no different handling is required from the target language. For example, a simple use case of the above code from Java would be:

IntValue iv = new IntValue(1234);
int val1 = example.extractValue(iv);
int val2 = example.extractValueSmart(iv);
System.out.println(val1 + " " + val2);

This shared_ptr library works quite differently to SWIG's normal, but somewhat limited, smart pointer handling. The shared_ptr library does not generate extra wrappers, just for smart pointer handling, in addition to the proxy class. The normal proxy class including inheritance relationships is generated as usual. The only real change introduced by the %shared_ptr macro is that the proxy class stores a pointer to the shared_ptr instance instead of a raw pointer to the instance. A proxy class derived from a base which is being wrapped with shared_ptr can and must be wrapped as a shared_ptr too. In other words all classes in an inheritance hierarchy must all be used with the %shared_ptr macro. For example the following code can be used with the base class shown earlier:

%shared_ptr(DerivedIntValue)
%inline %{
struct DerivedIntValue : IntValue {
  DerivedIntValue(int value) : IntValue(value) {}
  ...
};
%}

A shared_ptr of the derived class can now be passed to a method where the base is expected in the target language, just as it can in C++:

DerivedIntValue div = new DerivedIntValue(5678);
int val3 = example.extractValue(div);
int val4 = example.extractValueSmart(div);

If the %shared_ptr macro is omitted for any class in the inheritance hierarchy, SWIG will warn about this and the generated code may or may not result in a C++ compilation error. For example, the following input:

%include "boost_shared_ptr.i"
%shared_ptr(Parent);

%inline %{
  #include <boost/shared_ptr.hpp>
  struct GrandParent {
    virtual ~GrandParent() {}
  };

  struct Parent : GrandParent {
    virtual ~Parent() {}
  };

  struct Child : Parent {
    virtual ~Child() {}
  };
%}

warns about the missing smart pointer information:

example.i:12: Warning 520: Base class 'GrandParent' of 'Parent' is not similarly marked as a smart pointer.
example.i:16: Warning 520: Derived class 'Child' of 'Parent' is not similarly marked as a smart pointer.

Adding the missing %shared_ptr macros will fix this:

%include "boost_shared_ptr.i"
%shared_ptr(GrandParent);
%shared_ptr(Parent);
%shared_ptr(Child);

... as before ...

Note: There is currently no support for %shared_ptr and the director feature.

9.4.5 auto_ptr smart pointer

While std::auto_ptr is deprecated in C++11, some existing code may still be using it, so SWIG provides limited support for this class: std_auto_ptr.i defines the typemaps which apply to the functions returning objects of this type. Any other use of std_auto_ptr.i is not directly supported.

A typical example of use would be

%include <std_auto_ptr.i>

%auto_ptr(Klass)
%inline %{
class Klass {
public:
  // Factory function creating objects of this class:
  static std::auto_ptr<Klass> Create(int value) {
    return std::auto_ptr<Klass>(new Klass(value));
  }

  int getValue() const { return m_value; }

private:
  DerivedIntValue(int value) : m_value(value) {}
  int m_value;
};
%}

The returned objects can be used naturally from the target language, e.g. from C#:

Klass k = Klass.Create(17);
int value = k.getValue();

9.5 Utility Libraries

9.5.1 exception.i

The exception.i library provides a language-independent function for raising a run-time exception in the target language. This library is largely used by the SWIG library writers. If possible, use the error handling scheme available to your target language as there is greater flexibility in what errors/exceptions can be thrown.

SWIG_exception(int code, const char *message)

Raises an exception in the target language. code is one of the following symbolic constants:

SWIG_MemoryError
SWIG_IOError
SWIG_RuntimeError
SWIG_IndexError
SWIG_TypeError
SWIG_DivisionByZero
SWIG_OverflowError
SWIG_SyntaxError
SWIG_ValueError
SWIG_SystemError

message is a string indicating more information about the problem.

The primary use of this module is in writing language-independent exception handlers. For example:

%include "exception.i"
%exception std::vector::getitem {
    try {
        $action
    } catch (std::out_of_range& e) {
        SWIG_exception(SWIG_IndexError,const_cast<char*>(e.what()));
    }
}

10 Argument Handling

In Chapter 3, SWIG's treatment of basic datatypes and pointers was described. In particular, primitive types such as int and double are mapped to corresponding types in the target language. For everything else, pointers are used to refer to structures, classes, arrays, and other user-defined datatypes. However, in certain applications it is desirable to change SWIG's handling of a specific datatype. For example, you might want to return multiple values through the arguments of a function. This chapter describes some of the techniques for doing this.

10.1 The typemaps.i library

This section describes the typemaps.i library file--commonly used to change certain properties of argument conversion.

10.1.1 Introduction

Suppose you had a C function like this:

void add(double a, double b, double *result) {
	*result = a + b;
}

From reading the source code, it is clear that the function is storing a value in the double *result parameter. However, since SWIG does not examine function bodies, it has no way to know that this is the underlying behavior.

One way to deal with this is to use the typemaps.i library file and write interface code like this:

// Simple example using typemaps
%module example
%include "typemaps.i"

%apply double *OUTPUT { double *result };
%inline %{
extern void add(double a, double b, double *result);
%}

The %apply directive tells SWIG that you are going to apply a special type handling rule to a type. The "double *OUTPUT" specification is the name of a rule that defines how to return an output value from an argument of type double *. This rule gets applied to all of the datatypes listed in curly braces-- in this case " double *result".

When the resulting module is created, you can now use the function like this (shown for Python):

>>> a = add(3,4)
>>> print a
7
>>>

In this case, you can see how the output value normally returned in the third argument has magically been transformed into a function return value. Clearly this makes the function much easier to use since it is no longer necessary to manufacture a special double * object and pass it to the function somehow.

Once a typemap has been applied to a type, it stays in effect for all future occurrences of the type and name. For example, you could write the following:

%module example
%include "typemaps.i"

%apply double *OUTPUT { double *result };

%inline %{
extern void add(double a, double b, double *result);
extern void sub(double a, double b, double *result);
extern void mul(double a, double b, double *result);
extern void div(double a, double b, double *result);
%}
...

In this case, the double *OUTPUT rule is applied to all of the functions that follow.

Typemap transformations can even be extended to multiple return values. For example, consider this code:

%include "typemaps.i"
%apply int *OUTPUT { int *width, int *height };

// Returns a pair (width,height)
void getwinsize(int winid, int *width, int *height);

In this case, the function returns multiple values, allowing it to be used like this:

>>> w,h = genwinsize(wid)
>>> print w
400
>>> print h
300
>>>

It should also be noted that although the %apply directive is used to associate typemap rules to datatypes, you can also use the rule names directly in arguments. For example, you could write this:

// Simple example using typemaps
%module example
%include "typemaps.i"

%{
extern void add(double a, double b, double *OUTPUT);
%}
extern void add(double a, double b, double *OUTPUT);

Typemaps stay in effect until they are explicitly deleted or redefined to something else. To clear a typemap, the %clear directive should be used. For example:

%clear double *result;      // Remove all typemaps for double *result

10.1.2 Input parameters

The following typemaps instruct SWIG that a pointer really only holds a single input value:

int *INPUT		
short *INPUT
long *INPUT
unsigned int *INPUT
unsigned short *INPUT
unsigned long *INPUT
double *INPUT
float *INPUT

When used, it allows values to be passed instead of pointers. For example, consider this function:

double add(double *a, double *b) {
	return *a+*b;
}

Now, consider this SWIG interface:

%module example
%include "typemaps.i"
...
%{
extern double add(double *, double *);
%}
extern double add(double *INPUT, double *INPUT);

When the function is used in the scripting language interpreter, it will work like this:

result = add(3,4)

10.1.3 Output parameters

The following typemap rules tell SWIG that pointer is the output value of a function. When used, you do not need to supply the argument when calling the function. Instead, one or more output values are returned.

int *OUTPUT
short *OUTPUT
long *OUTPUT
unsigned int *OUTPUT
unsigned short *OUTPUT
unsigned long *OUTPUT
double *OUTPUT
float *OUTPUT

These methods can be used as shown in an earlier example. For example, if you have this C function :

void add(double a, double b, double *c) {
	*c = a+b;
}

A SWIG interface file might look like this :

%module example
%include "typemaps.i"
...
%inline %{
extern void add(double a, double b, double *OUTPUT);
%}

In this case, only a single output value is returned, but this is not a restriction. An arbitrary number of output values can be returned by applying the output rules to more than one argument (as shown previously).

If the function also returns a value, it is returned along with the argument. For example, if you had this:

extern int foo(double a, double b, double *OUTPUT);

The function will return two values like this:

iresult, dresult = foo(3.5, 2)

10.1.4 Input/Output parameters

When a pointer serves as both an input and output value you can use the following typemaps :

int *INOUT
short *INOUT
long *INOUT
unsigned int *INOUT
unsigned short *INOUT
unsigned long *INOUT
double *INOUT
float *INOUT

A C function that uses this might be something like this:

void negate(double *x) {
	*x = -(*x);
}

To make x function as both and input and output value, declare the function like this in an interface file :

%module example
%include "typemaps.i"
...
%{
extern void negate(double *);
%}
extern void negate(double *INOUT);

Now within a script, you can simply call the function normally :

a = negate(3);         # a = -3 after calling this

One subtle point of the INOUT rule is that many scripting languages enforce mutability constraints on primitive objects (meaning that simple objects like integers and strings aren't supposed to change). Because of this, you can't just modify the object's value in place as the underlying C function does in this example. Therefore, the INOUT rule returns the modified value as a new object rather than directly overwriting the value of the original input object.

Compatibility note : The INOUT rule used to be known as BOTH in earlier versions of SWIG. Backwards compatibility is preserved, but deprecated.

10.1.5 Using different names

As previously shown, the %apply directive can be used to apply the INPUT, OUTPUT, and INOUT typemaps to different argument names. For example:

// Make double *result an output value
%apply double *OUTPUT { double *result };

// Make Int32 *in an input value
%apply int *INPUT { Int32 *in };

// Make long *x inout
%apply long *INOUT {long *x};

To clear a rule, the %clear directive is used:

%clear double *result;
%clear Int32 *in, long *x;

Typemap declarations are lexically scoped so a typemap takes effect from the point of definition to the end of the file or a matching %clear declaration.

10.2 Applying constraints to input values

In addition to changing the handling of various input values, it is also possible to use typemaps to apply constraints. For example, maybe you want to insure that a value is positive, or that a pointer is non-NULL. This can be accomplished including the constraints.i library file.

10.2.1 Simple constraint example

The constraints library is best illustrated by the following interface file :

// Interface file with constraints
%module example
%include "constraints.i"

double exp(double x);
double log(double POSITIVE);         // Allow only positive values
double sqrt(double NONNEGATIVE);     // Non-negative values only
double inv(double NONZERO);          // Non-zero values
void   free(void *NONNULL);          // Non-NULL pointers only

The behavior of this file is exactly as you would expect. If any of the arguments violate the constraint condition, a scripting language exception will be raised. As a result, it is possible to catch bad values, prevent mysterious program crashes and so on.

10.2.2 Constraint methods

The following constraints are currently available

POSITIVE                     Any number > 0 (not zero)
NEGATIVE                     Any number < 0 (not zero)
NONNEGATIVE                  Any number >= 0
NONPOSITIVE                  Any number <= 0
NONZERO                      Nonzero number
NONNULL                      Non-NULL pointer (pointers only).

10.2.3 Applying constraints to new datatypes

The constraints library only supports the primitive C datatypes, but it is easy to apply it to new datatypes using %apply. For example :

// Apply a constraint to a Real variable
%apply Number POSITIVE { Real in };

// Apply a constraint to a pointer type
%apply Pointer NONNULL { Vector * };

The special types of "Number" and "Pointer" can be applied to any numeric and pointer variable type respectively. To later remove a constraint, the %clear directive can be used :

%clear Real in;
%clear Vector *;

11 Typemaps

11.1 Introduction

Chances are, you are reading this chapter for one of two reasons; you either want to customize SWIG's behavior or you overheard someone mumbling some incomprehensible drivel about "typemaps" and you asked yourself "typemaps, what are those?" That said, let's start with a short disclaimer that "typemaps" are an advanced customization feature that provide direct access to SWIG's low-level code generator. Not only that, they are an integral part of the SWIG C++ type system (a non-trivial topic of its own). Typemaps are generally not a required part of using SWIG. Therefore, you might want to re-read the earlier chapters if you have found your way to this chapter with only a vague idea of what SWIG already does by default.

11.1.1 Type conversion

One of the most important problems in wrapper code generation is the conversion or marshalling of datatypes between programming languages. Specifically, for every C/C++ declaration, SWIG must somehow generate wrapper code that allows values to be passed back and forth between languages. Since every programming language represents data differently, this is not a simple of matter of simply linking code together with the C linker. Instead, SWIG has to know something about how data is represented in each language and how it can be manipulated.

To illustrate, suppose you had a simple C function like this:

int factorial(int n);

To access this function from Python, a pair of Python API functions are used to convert integer values. For example:

long PyInt_AsLong(PyObject *obj);      /* Python --> C */
PyObject *PyInt_FromLong(long x);      /* C --> Python */

The first function is used to convert the input argument from a Python integer object to C long. The second function is used to convert a value from C back into a Python integer object.

Inside the wrapper function, you might see these functions used like this:

PyObject *wrap_factorial(PyObject *self, PyObject *args) {
    int       arg1;
    int       result;
    PyObject *obj1;
    PyObject *resultobj;

    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple("O:factorial", &obj1)) return NULL;
    arg1 = PyInt_AsLong(obj1);
    result = factorial(arg1);
    resultobj = PyInt_FromLong(result);
    return resultobj;
}

Every target language supported by SWIG has functions that work in a similar manner. For example, in Perl, the following functions are used:

IV SvIV(SV *sv);                     /* Perl --> C */
void sv_setiv(SV *sv, IV val);       /* C --> Perl */

In Tcl:

int Tcl_GetLongFromObj(Tcl_Interp *interp, Tcl_Obj *obj, long *value);
Tcl_Obj *Tcl_NewIntObj(long value);

The precise details are not so important. What is important is that all of the underlying type conversion is handled by collections of utility functions and short bits of C code like this---you simply have to read the extension documentation for your favorite language to know how it works (an exercise left to the reader).

11.1.2 Typemaps

Since type handling is so central to wrapper code generation, SWIG allows it to be completely defined (or redefined) by the user. To do this, a special %typemap directive is used. For example:

/* Convert from Python --> C */
%typemap(in) int {
    $1 = PyInt_AsLong($input);
}

/* Convert from C --> Python */
%typemap(out) int {
    $result = PyInt_FromLong($1);
}

At first glance, this code will look a little confusing. However, there is really not much to it. The first typemap (the "in" typemap) is used to convert a value from the target language to C. The second typemap (the "out" typemap) is used to convert in the other direction. The content of each typemap is a small fragment of code that is inserted directly into the SWIG generated wrapper functions. The code is usually C or C++ code which will be generated into the C/C++ wrapper functions. Note that this isn't always the case as some target language modules allow target language code within the typemaps which gets generated into target language specific files. Within this code, a number of special variables prefixed with a $ are expanded. These are really just placeholders for C/C++ variables that are generated in the course of creating the wrapper function. In this case, $input refers to an input object that needs to be converted to C/C++ and $result refers to an object that is going to be returned by a wrapper function. $1 refers to a C/C++ variable that has the same type as specified in the typemap declaration (an int in this example).

A short example might make this a little more clear. If you were wrapping a function like this:

int gcd(int x, int y);

A wrapper function would look approximately like this:

PyObject *wrap_gcd(PyObject *self, PyObject *args) {
   int arg1;
   int arg2;
   int result;
   PyObject *obj1;
   PyObject *obj2;
   PyObject *resultobj;

   if (!PyArg_ParseTuple("OO:gcd", &obj1, &obj2)) return NULL;

   /* "in" typemap, argument 1 */   
   {
      arg1 = PyInt_AsLong(obj1);
   }

   /* "in" typemap, argument 2 */
   {
      arg2 = PyInt_AsLong(obj2);
   }

   result = gcd(arg1,arg2);

   /* "out" typemap, return value */
   {
      resultobj = PyInt_FromLong(result);
   }

   return resultobj;
}

In this code, you can see how the typemap code has been inserted into the function. You can also see how the special $ variables have been expanded to match certain variable names inside the wrapper function. This is really the whole idea behind typemaps--they simply let you insert arbitrary code into different parts of the generated wrapper functions. Because arbitrary code can be inserted, it possible to completely change the way in which values are converted.

11.1.3 Pattern matching

As the name implies, the purpose of a typemap is to "map" C datatypes to types in the target language. Once a typemap is defined for a C datatype, it is applied to all future occurrences of that type in the input file. For example:

/* Convert from Perl --> C */
%typemap(in) int {
   $1 = SvIV($input);
}

...
int factorial(int n);
int gcd(int x, int y);
int count(char *s, char *t, int max);

The matching of typemaps to C datatypes is more than a simple textual match. In fact, typemaps are fully built into the underlying type system. Therefore, typemaps are unaffected by typedef, namespaces, and other declarations that might hide the underlying type. For example, you could have code like this:

/* Convert from Ruby--> C */
%typemap(in) int {
   $1 = NUM2INT($input);
}
...
typedef int Integer;
namespace foo {
    typedef Integer Number;
};

int foo(int x);
int bar(Integer y);
int spam(foo::Number a, foo::Number b);

In this case, the typemap is still applied to the proper arguments even though typenames don't always match the text "int". This ability to track types is a critical part of SWIG--in fact, all of the target language modules work merely define a set of typemaps for the basic types. Yet, it is never necessary to write new typemaps for typenames introduced by typedef.

In addition to tracking typenames, typemaps may also be specialized to match against a specific argument name. For example, you could write a typemap like this:

%typemap(in) double nonnegative {
   $1 = PyFloat_AsDouble($input);
   if ($1 < 0) {
        PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError,"argument must be nonnegative.");
        return NULL;
   }
}

...
double sin(double x);
double cos(double x);
double sqrt(double nonnegative);

typedef double Real;
double log(Real nonnegative);
...

For certain tasks such as input argument conversion, typemaps can be defined for sequences of consecutive arguments. For example:

%typemap(in) (char *str, int len) {
    $1 = PyString_AsString($input);   /* char *str */
    $2 = PyString_Size($input);       /* int len   */
}
...
int count(char *str, int len, char c);

In this case, a single input object is expanded into a pair of C arguments. This example also provides a hint to the unusual variable naming scheme involving $1, $2, and so forth.

11.1.4 Reusing typemaps

Typemaps are normally defined for specific type and argument name patterns. However, typemaps can also be copied and reused. One way to do this is to use assignment like this:

%typemap(in) Integer = int;   
%typemap(in) (char *buffer, int size) = (char *str, int len);

A more general form of copying is found in the %apply directive like this:

%typemap(in) int {
   /* Convert an integer argument */
   ...
}
%typemap(out) int {
   /* Return an integer value */
   ...
}

/* Apply all of the integer typemaps to size_t */
%apply int { size_t };    

%apply merely takes all of the typemaps that are defined for one type and applies them to other types. Note: you can include a comma separated set of types in the { ... } part of %apply.

It should be noted that it is not necessary to copy typemaps for types that are related by typedef. For example, if you have this,

typedef int size_t;

then SWIG already knows that the int typemaps apply. You don't have to do anything.

11.1.5 What can be done with typemaps?

The primary use of typemaps is for defining wrapper generation behavior at the level of individual C/C++ datatypes. There are currently six general categories of problems that typemaps address:

Argument handling

int foo(int x, double y, char *s);

Return value handling

int foo(int x, double y, char *s);

Exception handling

int foo(int x, double y, char *s) throw(MemoryError, IndexError);

Global variables

int foo;

Member variables

struct Foo {
    int x[20];
};

Constant creation

#define FOO 3
%constant int BAR = 42;
enum { ALE, LAGER, STOUT };

Details of each of these typemaps will be covered shortly. Also, certain language modules may define additional typemaps that expand upon this list. For example, the Java module defines a variety of typemaps for controlling additional aspects of the Java bindings. Consult language specific documentation for further details.

11.1.6 What can't be done with typemaps?

Typemaps can't be used to define properties that apply to C/C++ declarations as a whole. For example, suppose you had a declaration like this,

Foo *make_Foo(int n);

and you wanted to tell SWIG that make_Foo(int n) returned a newly allocated object (for the purposes of providing better memory management). Clearly, this property of make_Foo(int n) is not a property that would be associated with the datatype Foo * by itself. Therefore, a completely different SWIG customization mechanism (%feature) is used for this purpose. Consult the Customization Features chapter for more information about that.

Typemaps also can't be used to rearrange or transform the order of arguments. For example, if you had a function like this:

void foo(int, char *);

you can't use typemaps to interchange the arguments, allowing you to call the function like this:

foo("hello",3)          # Reversed arguments

If you want to change the calling conventions of a function, write a helper function instead. For example:

%rename(foo) wrap_foo;
%inline %{
void wrap_foo(char *s, int x) {
   foo(x,s);
}
%}

11.1.7 Similarities to Aspect Oriented Programming

SWIG has parallels to Aspect Oriented Software Development (AOP). The AOP terminology with respect to SWIG typemaps can be viewed as follows:

SWIG can also be viewed as has having a second set of aspects based around %feature. Features such as %exception are also cross-cutting concerns as they encapsulate code that can be used to add logging or exception handling to any function.

11.1.8 The rest of this chapter

The rest of this chapter provides detailed information for people who want to write new typemaps. This information is of particular importance to anyone who intends to write a new SWIG target language module. Power users can also use this information to write application specific type conversion rules.

Since typemaps are strongly tied to the underlying C++ type system, subsequent sections assume that you are reasonably familiar with the basic details of values, pointers, references, arrays, type qualifiers (e.g., const), structures, namespaces, templates, and memory management in C/C++. If not, you would be well-advised to consult a copy of "The C Programming Language" by Kernighan and Ritchie or "The C++ Programming Language" by Stroustrup before going any further.

11.2 Typemap specifications

This section describes the behavior of the %typemap directive itself.

11.2.1 Defining a typemap

New typemaps are defined using the %typemap declaration. The general form of this declaration is as follows (parts enclosed in [ ... ] are optional):

%typemap(method [, modifiers]) typelist code ;

method is a simply a name that specifies what kind of typemap is being defined. It is usually a name like "in", "out", or "argout". The purpose of these methods is described later.

modifiers is an optional comma separated list of name="value" values. These are sometimes to attach extra information to a typemap and is often target-language dependent. They are also known as typemap attributes.

typelist is a list of the C++ type patterns that the typemap will match. The general form of this list is as follows:

typelist    :  typepattern [, typepattern, typepattern, ... ] ;

typepattern :  type [ (parms) ]
            |  type name [ (parms) ]
            |  ( typelist ) [ (parms) ]

Each type pattern is either a simple type, a simple type and argument name, or a list of types in the case of multi-argument typemaps. In addition, each type pattern can be parameterized with a list of temporary variables (parms). The purpose of these variables will be explained shortly.

code specifies the code used in the typemap. Usually this is C/C++ code, but in the statically typed target languages, such as Java and C#, this can contain target language code for certain typemaps. It can take any one of the following forms:

code       : { ... }
           | " ... "
           | %{ ... %}

Note that the preprocessor will expand code within the {} delimiters, but not in the last two styles of delimiters, see Preprocessor and Typemaps. Here are some examples of valid typemap specifications:

/* Simple typemap declarations */
%typemap(in) int {
   $1 = PyInt_AsLong($input);
}
%typemap(in) int "$1 = PyInt_AsLong($input);";
%typemap(in) int %{ 
   $1 = PyInt_AsLong($input);
%}

/* Typemap with extra argument name */
%typemap(in) int nonnegative {
   ...
}

/* Multiple types in one typemap */
%typemap(in) int, short, long { 
   $1 = SvIV($input);
}

/* Typemap with modifiers */
%typemap(in,doc="integer") int "$1 = scm_to_int($input);";

/* Typemap applied to patterns of multiple arguments */
%typemap(in) (char *str, int len),
             (char *buffer, int size)
{
   $1 = PyString_AsString($input);
   $2 = PyString_Size($input);
}

/* Typemap with extra pattern parameters */
%typemap(in, numinputs=0) int *output (int temp),
                          long *output (long temp)
{
   $1 = &temp;
}

Admittedly, it's not the most readable syntax at first glance. However, the purpose of the individual pieces will become clear.

11.2.2 Typemap scope

Once defined, a typemap remains in effect for all of the declarations that follow. A typemap may be redefined for different sections of an input file. For example:

// typemap1
%typemap(in) int {
...
}

int fact(int);                    // typemap1
int gcd(int x, int y);            // typemap1

// typemap2
%typemap(in) int {
...
}

int isprime(int);                 // typemap2

One exception to the typemap scoping rules pertains to the %extend declaration. %extend is used to attach new declarations to a class or structure definition. Because of this, all of the declarations in an %extend block are subject to the typemap rules that are in effect at the point where the class itself is defined. For example:

class Foo {
   ...
};

%typemap(in) int {
 ...
}

%extend Foo {
   int blah(int x);    // typemap has no effect.  Declaration is attached to Foo which 
                       // appears before the %typemap declaration.
};

11.2.3 Copying a typemap

A typemap is copied by using assignment. For example:

%typemap(in) Integer = int;

or this:

%typemap(in) Integer, Number, int32_t = int;

Types are often managed by a collection of different typemaps. For example:

%typemap(in)     int { ... }
%typemap(out)    int { ... }
%typemap(varin)  int { ... }
%typemap(varout) int { ... }

To copy all of these typemaps to a new type, use %apply. For example:

%apply int { Integer };            // Copy all int typemaps to Integer
%apply int { Integer, Number };    // Copy all int typemaps to both Integer and Number

The patterns for %apply follow the same rules as for %typemap. For example:

%apply int *output { Integer *output };                    // Typemap with name
%apply (char *buf, int len) { (char *buffer, int size) };  // Multiple arguments

11.2.4 Deleting a typemap

A typemap can be deleted by simply defining no code. For example:

%typemap(in) int;               // Clears typemap for int
%typemap(in) int, long, short;  // Clears typemap for int, long, short
%typemap(in) int *output;       

The %clear directive clears all typemaps for a given type. For example:

%clear int;                     // Removes all types for int
%clear int *output, long *output;

Note: Since SWIG's default behavior is defined by typemaps, clearing a fundamental type like int will make that type unusable unless you also define a new set of typemaps immediately after the clear operation.

11.2.5 Placement of typemaps

Typemap declarations can be declared in the global scope, within a C++ namespace, and within a C++ class. For example:

%typemap(in) int {
   ...
}

namespace std {
    class string;
    %typemap(in) string {
        ...
    }
}

class Bar {
public:
    typedef const int & const_reference;
    %typemap(out) const_reference {
         ...
    }
};

When a typemap appears inside a namespace or class, it stays in effect until the end of the SWIG input (just like before). However, the typemap takes the local scope into account. Therefore, this code

namespace std {
    class string;
    %typemap(in) string {
       ...
    }
}

is really defining a typemap for the type std::string. You could have code like this:

namespace std {
    class string;
    %typemap(in) string {          /* std::string */
       ...
    }
}

namespace Foo {
    class string;
    %typemap(in) string {          /* Foo::string */
       ...
    }
}

In this case, there are two completely distinct typemaps that apply to two completely different types (std::string and Foo::string).

It should be noted that for scoping to work, SWIG has to know that string is a typename defined within a particular namespace. In this example, this is done using the forward class declaration class string.

11.3 Pattern matching rules

The section describes the pattern matching rules by which C/C++ datatypes are associated with typemaps. The matching rules can be observed in practice by using the debugging options also described.

11.3.1 Basic matching rules

Typemaps are matched using both a type and a name (typically the name of a argument). For a given TYPE NAME pair, the following rules are applied, in order, to find a match. The first typemap found is used.

If TYPE includes qualifiers (const, volatile, etc.), each qualifier is stripped one at a time to form a new stripped type and the matching rules above are repeated on the stripped type. The left-most qualifier is stripped first, resulting in the right-most (or top-level) qualifier being stripped last. For example int const*const is first stripped to int *const then int *.

If TYPE is an array. The following transformation is made:

To illustrate, suppose that you had a function like this:

int foo(const char *s);

To find a typemap for the argument const char *s, SWIG will search for the following typemaps:

const char *s           Exact type and name match
const char *            Exact type match
char *s                 Type and name match (qualifier stripped)
char *                  Type match (qualifier stripped)

When more than one typemap rule might be defined, only the first match found is actually used. Here is an example that shows how some of the basic rules are applied:

%typemap(in) int *x {
   ... typemap 1
}

%typemap(in) int * {
   ... typemap 2
}

%typemap(in) const int *z {
   ... typemap 3
}

%typemap(in) int [4] {
   ... typemap 4
}

%typemap(in) int [ANY] {
   ... typemap 5
}

void A(int *x);        // int *x rule       (typemap 1)
void B(int *y);        // int * rule        (typemap 2)
void C(const int *x);  // int *x rule       (typemap 1)
void D(const int *z);  // const int *z rule (typemap 3)
void E(int x[4]);      // int [4] rule      (typemap 4)
void F(int x[1000]);   // int [ANY] rule    (typemap 5)

Compatibility note: SWIG-2.0.0 introduced stripping the qualifiers one step at a time. Prior versions stripped all qualifiers in one step.

11.3.2 Typedef reductions matching

If no match is found using the rules in the previous section, SWIG applies a typedef reduction to the type and repeats the typemap search for the reduced type. To illustrate, suppose you had code like this:

%typemap(in) int {
   ... typemap 1
}

typedef int Integer;
void blah(Integer x);

To find the typemap for Integer x, SWIG will first search for the following typemaps:

Integer x
Integer

Finding no match, it then applies a reduction Integer -> int to the type and repeats the search.

int x
int      --> match: typemap 1

Even though two types might be the same via typedef, SWIG allows typemaps to be defined for each typename independently. This allows for interesting customization possibilities based solely on the typename itself. For example, you could write code like this:

typedef double  pdouble;     // Positive double

// typemap 1
%typemap(in) double {
   ... get a double ...
}
// typemap 2
%typemap(in) pdouble {
   ... get a positive double ...
}
double sin(double x);           // typemap 1
pdouble sqrt(pdouble x);        // typemap 2

When reducing the type, only one typedef reduction is applied at a time. The search process continues to apply reductions until a match is found or until no more reductions can be made.

For complicated types, the reduction process can generate a long list of patterns. Consider the following:

typedef int Integer;
typedef Integer Row4[4];
void foo(Row4 rows[10]);

To find a match for the Row4 rows[10] argument, SWIG would check the following patterns, stopping only when it found a match:

Row4 rows[10]
Row4 [10]
Row4 rows[ANY]
Row4 [ANY]

# Reduce Row4 --> Integer[4]
Integer rows[10][4]
Integer [10][4]
Integer rows[ANY][ANY]
Integer [ANY][ANY]

# Reduce Integer --> int
int rows[10][4]
int [10][4]
int rows[ANY][ANY]
int [ANY][ANY]

For parameterized types like templates, the situation is even more complicated. Suppose you had some declarations like this:

typedef int Integer;
typedef foo<Integer,Integer> fooii;
void blah(fooii *x);

In this case, the following typemap patterns are searched for the argument fooii *x:

fooii *x
fooii *

# Reduce fooii --> foo<Integer,Integer>
foo<Integer,Integer> *x
foo<Integer,Integer> *

# Reduce Integer -> int
foo<int, Integer> *x
foo<int, Integer> *

# Reduce Integer -> int
foo<int, int> *x
foo<int, int> *

Typemap reductions are always applied to the left-most type that appears. Only when no reductions can be made to the left-most type are reductions made to other parts of the type. This behavior means that you could define a typemap for foo<int,Integer>, but a typemap for foo<Integer,int> would never be matched. Admittedly, this is rather esoteric--there's little practical reason to write a typemap quite like that. Of course, you could rely on this to confuse your coworkers even more.

As a point of clarification, it is worth emphasizing that typedef matching is a typedef reduction process only, that is, SWIG does not search for every single possible typedef. Given a type in a declaration, it will only reduce the type, it won't build it up looking for typedefs. For example, given the type Struct, the typemap below will not be used for the aStruct parameter, because Struct is fully reduced:

struct Struct {...};
typedef Struct StructTypedef;

%typemap(in) StructTypedef { 
  ...
}

void go(Struct aStruct);

11.3.3 Default typemap matching rules

If the basic pattern matching rules result in no match being made, even after typedef reductions, the default typemap matching rules are used to look for a suitable typemap match. These rules match a generic typemap based on the reserved SWIGTYPE base type. For example pointers will use SWIGTYPE * and references will use SWIGTYPE &. More precisely, the rules are based on the C++ class template partial specialization matching rules used by C++ compilers when looking for an appropriate partial template specialization. This means that a match is chosen from the most specialized set of generic typemap types available. For example, when looking for a match to int const *, the rules will prefer to match SWIGTYPE const * if available before matching SWIGTYPE *, before matching SWIGTYPE.

Most SWIG language modules use typemaps to define the default behavior of the C primitive types. This is entirely straightforward. For example, a set of typemaps for primitives marshalled by value or const reference are written like this:

%typemap(in) int           "... convert to int ...";
%typemap(in) short         "... convert to short ...";
%typemap(in) float         "... convert to float ...";
...
%typemap(in) const int &   "... convert ...";
%typemap(in) const short & "... convert ...";
%typemap(in) const float & "... convert ...";
...

Since typemap matching follows all typedef declarations, any sort of type that is mapped to a primitive type by value or const reference through typedef will be picked up by one of these primitive typemaps. Most language modules also define typemaps for char pointers and char arrays to handle strings, so these non-default types will also be used in preference as the basic typemap matching rules provide a better match than the default typemap matching rules.

Below is a list of the typical default types supplied by language modules, showing what the "in" typemap would look like:

%typemap(in) SWIGTYPE &            { ... default reference handling ...                       };
%typemap(in) SWIGTYPE *            { ... default pointer handling ...                         };
%typemap(in) SWIGTYPE *const       { ... default pointer const handling ...                   };
%typemap(in) SWIGTYPE *const&      { ... default pointer const reference handling ...         };
%typemap(in) SWIGTYPE[ANY]         { ... 1D fixed size arrays handlling ...                   };
%typemap(in) SWIGTYPE []           { ... unknown sized array handling ...                     };
%typemap(in) enum SWIGTYPE         { ... default handling for enum values ...                 };
%typemap(in) const enum SWIGTYPE & { ... default handling for const enum reference values ... };
%typemap(in) SWIGTYPE (CLASS::*)   { ... default pointer member handling ...                  };
%typemap(in) SWIGTYPE              { ... simple default handling ...                          };

If you wanted to change SWIG's default handling for simple pointers, you would simply redefine the rule for SWIGTYPE *. Note, the simple default typemap rule is used to match against simple types that don't match any other rules:

%typemap(in) SWIGTYPE              { ... simple default handling ...                          } 

This typemap is important because it is the rule that gets triggered when call or return by value is used. For instance, if you have a declaration like this:

double dot_product(Vector a, Vector b);

The Vector type will usually just get matched against SWIGTYPE. The default implementation of SWIGTYPE is to convert the value into pointers (as described in this earlier section).

By redefining SWIGTYPE it may be possible to implement other behavior. For example, if you cleared all typemaps for SWIGTYPE, SWIG simply won't wrap any unknown datatype (which might be useful for debugging). Alternatively, you might modify SWIGTYPE to marshal objects into strings instead of converting them to pointers.

Let's consider an example where the following typemaps are defined and SWIG is looking for the best match for the enum shown below:

%typemap(in) const Hello &          { ... }
%typemap(in) const enum SWIGTYPE &  { ... }
%typemap(in) enum SWIGTYPE &        { ... }
%typemap(in) SWIGTYPE &             { ... }
%typemap(in) SWIGTYPE               { ... }

enum Hello {};
const Hello &hi;

The typemap at the top of the list will be chosen, not because it is defined first, but because it is the closest match for the type being wrapped. If any of the typemaps in the above list were not defined, then the next one on the list would have precedence.

The best way to explore the default typemaps is to look at the ones already defined for a particular language module. Typemap definitions are usually found in the SWIG library in a file such as java.swg , csharp.swg etc. However, for many of the target languages the typemaps are hidden behind complicated macros, so the best way to view the default typemaps, or any typemaps for that matter, is to look at the preprocessed output by running swig -E on any interface file. Finally the best way to view the typemap matching rules in action is via the debugging typemap pattern matching options covered later on.

Compatibility note: The default typemap matching rules were modified in SWIG-2.0.0 from a slightly simpler scheme to match the current C++ class template partial specialization matching rules.

11.3.4 Multi-arguments typemaps

When multi-argument typemaps are specified, they take precedence over any typemaps specified for a single type. For example:

%typemap(in) (char *buffer, int len) {
   // typemap 1
}

%typemap(in) char *buffer {
   // typemap 2
}

void foo(char *buffer, int len, int count); // (char *buffer, int len)
void bar(char *buffer, int blah);           // char *buffer

Multi-argument typemaps are also more restrictive in the way that they are matched. Currently, the first argument follows the matching rules described in the previous section, but all subsequent arguments must match exactly.

11.3.5 Matching rules compared to C++ templates

For those intimately familiar with C++ templates, a comparison of the typemap matching rules and template type deduction is interesting. The two areas considered are firstly the default typemaps and their similarities to partial template specialization and secondly, non-default typemaps and their similarities to full template specialization.

For default (SWIGTYPE) typemaps the rules are inspired by C++ class template partial specialization. For example, given partial specialization for T const& :

template <typename T> struct X             { void a(); };
template <typename T> struct X< T const& > { void b(); };

The full (unspecialized) template is matched with most types, such as:

X< int & >            x1;  x1.a();

and the following all match the T const& partial specialization:

X< int *const& >      x2;  x2.b();
X< int const*const& > x3;  x3.b();
X< int const& >       x4;  x4.b();

Now, given just these two default typemaps, where T is analogous to SWIGTYPE:

%typemap(...) SWIGTYPE        { ... }
%typemap(...) SWIGTYPE const& { ... }

The generic default typemap SWIGTYPE is used with most types, such as

int &

and the following all match the SWIGTYPE const& typemap, just like the partial template matching:

int *const&
int const*const&
int const&

Note that the template and typemap matching rules are not identical for all default typemaps though, for example, with arrays.

For non-default typemaps, one might expect SWIG to follow the fully specialized template rules. This is nearly the case, but not quite. Consider a very similar example to the earlier partially specialized template but this time there is a fully specialized template:

template <typename T> struct Y       { void a(); };
template <> struct Y< int const & >  { void b(); };

Only the one type matches the specialized template exactly:

Y< int & >             y1;  y1.a();
Y< int *const& >       y2;  y2.a();
Y< int const *const& > y3;  y3.a();
Y< int const& >        y4;  y4.b(); // fully specialized match

Given typemaps with the same types used for the template declared above, where T is again analogous to SWIGTYPE:

%typemap(...) SWIGTYPE        { ... }
%typemap(...) int const&      { ... }

The comparison between non-default typemaps and fully specialized single parameter templates turns out to be the same, as just the one type will match the non-default typemap:

int &
int *const&
int const*const&
int const&        // matches non-default typemap int const&

However, if a non-const type is used instead:

%typemap(...) SWIGTYPE        { ... }
%typemap(...) int &           { ... }

then there is a clear difference to template matching as both the const and non-const types match the typemap:

int &             // matches non-default typemap int &
int *const&
int const*const&
int const&        // matches non-default typemap int &

There are other subtle differences such as typedef handling, but at least it should be clear that the typemap matching rules are similar to those for specialized template handling.

11.3.6 Debugging typemap pattern matching

There are two useful debug command line options available for debugging typemaps, -debug-tmsearch and -debug-tmused .

The -debug-tmsearch option is a verbose option for debugging typemap searches. This can be very useful for watching the pattern matching process in action and for debugging which typemaps are used. The option displays all the typemaps and types that are looked for until a successful pattern match is made. As the display includes searches for each and every type needed for wrapping, the amount of information displayed can be large. Normally you would manually search through the displayed information for the particular type that you are interested in.

For example, consider some of the code used in the Typedef reductions section already covered:

typedef int Integer;
typedef Integer Row4[4];
void foo(Row4 rows[10]);

A sample of the debugging output is shown below for the "in" typemap:

swig -perl -debug-tmsearch example.i
...
example.h:3: Searching for a suitable 'in' typemap for: Row4 rows[10]
  Looking for: Row4 rows[10]
  Looking for: Row4 [10]
  Looking for: Row4 rows[ANY]
  Looking for: Row4 [ANY]
  Looking for: Integer rows[10][4]
  Looking for: Integer [10][4]
  Looking for: Integer rows[ANY][ANY]
  Looking for: Integer [ANY][ANY]
  Looking for: int rows[10][4]
  Looking for: int [10][4]
  Looking for: int rows[ANY][ANY]
  Looking for: int [ANY][ANY]
  Looking for: SWIGTYPE rows[ANY][ANY]
  Looking for: SWIGTYPE [ANY][ANY]
  Looking for: SWIGTYPE rows[ANY][]
  Looking for: SWIGTYPE [ANY][]
  Looking for: SWIGTYPE *rows[ANY]
  Looking for: SWIGTYPE *[ANY]
  Looking for: SWIGTYPE rows[ANY]
  Looking for: SWIGTYPE [ANY]
  Looking for: SWIGTYPE rows[]
  Looking for: SWIGTYPE []
  Using: %typemap(in) SWIGTYPE []
...

showing that the best default match supplied by SWIG is the SWIGTYPE [] typemap. As the example shows, the successful match displays the used typemap source including typemap method, type and optional name in one of these simplified formats:

This information might meet your debugging needs, however, you might want to analyze further. If you next invoke SWIG with the -E option to display the preprocessed output, and search for the particular typemap used, you'll find the full typemap contents (example shown below for Python):

%typemap(in, noblock=1) SWIGTYPE [] (void *argp = 0, int res = 0) {
  res = SWIG_ConvertPtr($input, &argp,$descriptor, $disown |  0 );
  if (!SWIG_IsOK(res)) { 
    SWIG_exception_fail(SWIG_ArgError(res), "in method '" "$symname" "', argument "
                       "$argnum"" of type '" "$type""'"); 
  } 
  $1 = ($ltype)(argp);
}

The generated code for the foo wrapper will then contain the snippets of the typemap with the special variables expanded. The rest of this chapter will need reading though to fully understand all of this, however, the relevant parts of the generated code for the above typemap can be seen below:

SWIGINTERN PyObject *_wrap_foo(PyObject *SWIGUNUSEDPARM(self), PyObject *args) {
...
  void *argp1 = 0 ;
  int res1 = 0 ;
...
  res1 = SWIG_ConvertPtr(obj0, &argp1,SWIGTYPE_p_a_4__int, 0 |  0 );
  if (!SWIG_IsOK(res1)) {
    SWIG_exception_fail(SWIG_ArgError(res1), "in method '" "foo" "', argument "
                       "1"" of type '" "int [10][4]""'"); 
  } 
  arg1 = (int (*)[4])(argp1);
...
}

Searches for multi-argument typemaps are not mentioned unless a matching multi-argument typemap does actually exist. For example, the output for the code in the earlier multi-arguments section is as follows:

...
example.h:39: Searching for a suitable 'in' typemap for: char *buffer
  Looking for: char *buffer
  Multi-argument typemap found...
  Using: %typemap(in) (char *buffer,int len)
...

The second option for debugging is -debug-tmused and this displays the typemaps used. This option is a less verbose version of the -debug-tmsearch option as it only displays each successfully found typemap on a separate single line. The output displays the type, and name if present, the typemap method in brackets and then the actual typemap used in the same simplified format output by the -debug-tmsearch option. Below is the output for the example code at the start of this section on debugging.

$ swig -perl -debug-tmused example.i
example.h:3: Typemap for Row4 rows[10] (in) : %typemap(in) SWIGTYPE []
example.h:3: Typemap for Row4 rows[10] (typecheck) : %typemap(typecheck) SWIGTYPE *
example.h:3: Typemap for Row4 rows[10] (freearg) : %typemap(freearg) SWIGTYPE []
example.h:3: Typemap for void foo (out) : %typemap(out) void

Now, consider the following interface file:

%module example

%{
void set_value(const char* val) {}
%}

%typemap(check) char *NON_NULL {
  if (!$1) {
    /* ... error handling ... */
  }
}

// use default pointer handling instead of strings
%apply SWIGTYPE * { const char* val, const char* another_value }

%typemap(check) const char* val = char* NON_NULL;

%typemap(arginit, noblock=1) const char* val {
   $1 = "";
}

void set_value(const char* val);

and the output debug:

swig -perl5 -debug-tmused example.i
example.i:21: Typemap for char const *val (arginit) : %typemap(arginit) char const *val
example.i:21: Typemap for char const *val (in) : %apply SWIGTYPE * { char const *val }
example.i:21: Typemap for char const *val (typecheck) : %apply SWIGTYPE * { char const *val }
example.i:21: Typemap for char const *val (check) : %typemap(check) char const *val = char *NON_NULL
example.i:21: Typemap for char const *val (freearg) : %apply SWIGTYPE * { char const *val }
example.i:21: Typemap for void set_value (out) : %typemap(out) void

The following observations about what is displayed can be noted (the same applies for -debug-tmsearch):

11.4 Code generation rules

This section describes rules by which typemap code is inserted into the generated wrapper code.

11.4.1 Scope

When a typemap is defined like this:

%typemap(in) int {
   $1 = PyInt_AsLong($input);
}

the typemap code is inserted into the wrapper function using a new block scope. In other words, the wrapper code will look like this:

wrap_whatever() {
    ...
    // Typemap code
    {                    
       arg1 = PyInt_AsLong(obj1);
    }
    ...
}

Because the typemap code is enclosed in its own block, it is legal to declare temporary variables for use during typemap execution. For example:

%typemap(in) short {
   long temp;          /* Temporary value */
   if (Tcl_GetLongFromObj(interp, $input, &temp) != TCL_OK) {
      return TCL_ERROR;
   }
   $1 = (short) temp;
}

Of course, any variables that you declare inside a typemap are destroyed as soon as the typemap code has executed (they are not visible to other parts of the wrapper function or other typemaps that might use the same variable names).

Occasionally, typemap code will be specified using a few alternative forms. For example:

%typemap(in) int "$1 = PyInt_AsLong($input);";
%typemap(in) int %{
$1 = PyInt_AsLong($input);
%}
%typemap(in, noblock=1) int {
$1 = PyInt_AsLong($input);
}

These three forms are mainly used for cosmetics--the specified code is not enclosed inside a block scope when it is emitted. This sometimes results in a less complicated looking wrapper function. Note that only the third of the three typemaps have the typemap code passed through the SWIG preprocessor.

11.4.2 Declaring new local variables

Sometimes it is useful to declare a new local variable that exists within the scope of the entire wrapper function. A good example of this might be an application in which you wanted to marshal strings. Suppose you had a C++ function like this

int foo(std::string *s);

and you wanted to pass a native string in the target language as an argument. For instance, in Perl, you wanted the function to work like this:

$x = foo("Hello World");

To do this, you can't just pass a raw Perl string as the std::string * argument. Instead, you have to create a temporary std::string object, copy the Perl string data into it, and then pass a pointer to the object. To do this, simply specify the typemap with an extra parameter like this:

%typemap(in) std::string * (std::string temp) {
    unsigned int len;
    char        *s;
    s = SvPV($input,len);         /* Extract string data */
    temp.assign(s,len);           /* Assign to temp */
    $1 = &temp;                   /* Set argument to point to temp */
}

In this case, temp becomes a local variable in the scope of the entire wrapper function. For example:

wrap_foo() {
   std::string temp;    <--- Declaration of temp goes here
   ...

   /* Typemap code */
   {
      ...
      temp.assign(s,len);
      ...
   } 
   ...
}

When you set temp to a value, it persists for the duration of the wrapper function and gets cleaned up automatically on exit.

It is perfectly safe to use more than one typemap involving local variables in the same declaration. For example, you could declare a function as :

void foo(std::string *x, std::string *y, std::string *z);

This is safely handled because SWIG actually renames all local variable references by appending an argument number suffix. Therefore, the generated code would actually look like this:

wrap_foo() {
   int *arg1;    /* Actual arguments */
   int *arg2;
   int *arg3;
   std::string temp1;    /* Locals declared in the typemap */
   std::string temp2;
   std::string temp3;
   ...
   {
       char *s;
       unsigned int len;
       ...
       temp1.assign(s,len);
       arg1 = *temp1;
   }
   {
       char *s;
       unsigned int len;
       ...
       temp2.assign(s,len);
       arg2 = &temp2;
   }
   {
       char *s;
       unsigned int len;
       ...
       temp3.assign(s,len);
       arg3 = &temp3;
   }
   ...
}

Some typemaps do not recognize local variables (or they may simply not apply). At this time, only typemaps that apply to argument conversion support this (input typemaps such as the "in" typemap).

Note:

When declaring a typemap for multiple types, each type must have its own local variable declaration.

%typemap(in) const std::string *, std::string * (std::string temp) // NO!
// only std::string * has a local variable
// const std::string * does not (oops)
....

%typemap(in) const std::string * (std::string temp), std::string * (std::string temp) // Correct
....

11.4.3 Special variables

Within all typemaps, the following special variables are expanded. This is by no means a complete list as some target languages have additional special variables which are documented in the language specific chapters.

VariableMeaning
$n A C local variable corresponding to type n in the typemap pattern.
$argnumArgument number. Only available in typemaps related to argument conversion
$n_nameArgument name
$n_typeReal C datatype of type n.
$n_ltypeltype of type n
$n_mangleMangled form of type n. For example _p_Foo
$n_descriptorType descriptor structure for type n. For example SWIGTYPE_p_Foo. This is primarily used when interacting with the run-time type checker (described later).
$*n_typeReal C datatype of type n with one pointer removed.
$*n_ltypeltype of type n with one pointer removed.
$*n_mangleMangled form of type n with one pointer removed.
$*n_descriptorType descriptor structure for type n with one pointer removed.
$&n_typeReal C datatype of type n with one pointer added.
$&n_ltypeltype of type n with one pointer added.
$&n_mangleMangled form of type n with one pointer added.
$&n_descriptorType descriptor structure for type n with one pointer added.
$n_basetypeBase typename with all pointers and qualifiers stripped.

Within the table, $n refers to a specific type within the typemap specification. For example, if you write this

%typemap(in) int *INPUT {

}

then $1 refers to int *INPUT. If you have a typemap like this,

%typemap(in) (int argc, char *argv[]) {
  ...
}

then $1 refers to int argc and $2 refers to char *argv[].

Substitutions related to types and names always fill in values from the actual code that was matched. This is useful when a typemap might match multiple C datatype. For example:

%typemap(in)  int, short, long {
   $1 = ($1_ltype) PyInt_AsLong($input);
}

In this case, $1_ltype is replaced with the datatype that is actually matched.

When typemap code is emitted, the C/C++ datatype of the special variables $1 and $2 is always an "ltype." An "ltype" is simply a type that can legally appear on the left-hand side of a C assignment operation. Here are a few examples of types and ltypes:

type              ltype
------            ----------------
int               int
const int         int
const int *       int *
int [4]           int *
int [4][5]        int (*)[5]

In most cases a ltype is simply the C datatype with qualifiers stripped off. In addition, arrays are converted into pointers.

Variables such as $&1_type and $*1_type are used to safely modify the type by removing or adding pointers. Although not needed in most typemaps, these substitutions are sometimes needed to properly work with typemaps that convert values between pointers and values.

If necessary, type related substitutions can also be used when declaring locals. For example:

%typemap(in) int * ($*1_type temp) {
    temp = PyInt_AsLong($input);
    $1 = &temp;
}

There is one word of caution about declaring local variables in this manner. If you declare a local variable using a type substitution such as $1_ltype temp, it won't work like you expect for arrays and certain kinds of pointers. For example, if you wrote this,

%typemap(in) int [10][20] {
   $1_ltype temp;
}

then the declaration of temp will be expanded as

int (*)[20] temp;

This is illegal C syntax and won't compile. There is currently no straightforward way to work around this problem in SWIG due to the way that typemap code is expanded and processed. However, one possible workaround is to simply pick an alternative type such as void * and use casts to get the correct type when needed. For example:

%typemap(in) int [10][20] {
   void *temp;
   ...
   (($1_ltype) temp)[i][j] = x;    /* set a value */
   ...
}

Another approach, which only works for arrays is to use the $1_basetype substitution. For example:

%typemap(in) int [10][20] {
   $1_basetype temp[10][20];
   ...
   temp[i][j] = x;    /* set a value */
   ...
}

11.4.4 Special variable macros

Special variable macros are like macro functions in that they take one or more input arguments which are used for the macro expansion. They look like macro/function calls but use the special variable $ prefix to the macro name. Note that unlike normal macros, the expansion is not done by the preprocessor, it is done during the SWIG parsing/compilation stages. The following special variable macros are available across all language modules.

11.4.4.1 $descriptor(type)

This macro expands into the type descriptor structure for any C/C++ type specified in type. It behaves like the $1_descriptor special variable described above except that the type to expand is taken from the macro argument rather than inferred from the typemap type. For example, $descriptor(std::vector<int> *) will expand into SWIGTYPE_p_std__vectorT_int_t. This macro is mostly used in the scripting target languages and is demonstrated later in the Run-time type checker usage section.

11.4.4.2 $typemap(method, typepattern)

This macro uses the pattern matching rules described earlier to lookup and then substitute the special variable macro with the code in the matched typemap. The typemap to search for is specified by the arguments, where method is the typemap method name and typepattern is a type pattern as per the %typemap specification in the Defining a typemap section.

The special variables within the matched typemap are expanded into those for the matched typemap type, not the typemap within which the macro is called. In practice, there is little use for this macro in the scripting target languages. It is mostly used in the target languages that are statically typed as a way to obtain the target language type given the C/C++ type and more commonly only when the C++ type is a template parameter.

The example below is for C# only and uses some typemap method names documented in the C# chapter, but it shows some of the possible syntax variations.

%typemap(cstype) unsigned long    "uint"
%typemap(cstype) unsigned long bb "bool"
%typemap(cscode) BarClass %{
  void foo($typemap(cstype, unsigned long aa) var1,
           $typemap(cstype, unsigned long bb) var2,
           $typemap(cstype, (unsigned long bb)) var3,
           $typemap(cstype, unsigned long) var4)
  {
    // do something
  }
%}

The result is the following expansion

%typemap(cstype) unsigned long    "uint"
%typemap(cstype) unsigned long bb "bool"
%typemap(cscode) BarClass %{
  void foo(uint var1,
           bool var2,
           bool var3,
           uint var4)
  {
    // do something
  }
%}

11.5 Common typemap methods

The set of typemaps recognized by a language module may vary. However, the following typemap methods are nearly universal:

11.5.1 "in" typemap

The "in" typemap is used to convert function arguments from the target language to C. For example:

%typemap(in) int {
   $1 = PyInt_AsLong($input);
}

The following special variables are available:

$input            - Input object holding value to be converted.
$symname          - Name of function/method being wrapped

This is probably the most commonly redefined typemap because it can be used to implement customized conversions.

In addition, the "in" typemap allows the number of converted arguments to be specified. The numinputs attributes facilitates this. For example:

// Ignored argument.
%typemap(in, numinputs=0) int *out (int temp) {
    $1 = &temp;
}

At this time, only zero or one arguments may be converted. When numinputs is set to 0, the argument is effectively ignored and cannot be supplied from the target language. The argument is still required when making the C/C++ call and the above typemap shows the value used is instead obtained from a locally declared variable called temp. Usually numinputs is not specified, whereupon the default value is 1, that is, there is a one to one mapping of the number of arguments when used from the target language to the C/C++ call. Multi-argument typemaps provide a similar concept where the number of arguments mapped from the target language to C/C++ can be changed for multiple adjacent C/C++ arguments.

Compatibility note: Specifying numinputs=0 is the same as the old "ignore" typemap.

11.5.2 "typecheck" typemap

The "typecheck" typemap is used to support overloaded functions and methods. It merely checks an argument to see whether or not it matches a specific type. For example:

%typemap(typecheck,precedence=SWIG_TYPECHECK_INTEGER) int {
   $1 = PyInt_Check($input) ? 1 : 0;
}

For typechecking, the $1 variable is always a simple integer that is set to 1 or 0 depending on whether or not the input argument is the correct type.

If you define new "in" typemaps and your program uses overloaded methods, you should also define a collection of "typecheck" typemaps. More details about this follow in the Typemaps and overloading section.

11.5.3 "out" typemap

The "out" typemap is used to convert function/method return values from C into the target language. For example:

%typemap(out) int {
   $result = PyInt_FromLong($1);
}

The following special variables are available.

$result           - Result object returned to target language.
$symname          - Name of function/method being wrapped

The "out" typemap supports an optional attribute flag called "optimal". This is for code optimisation and is detailed in the Optimal code generation when returning by value section.

11.5.4 "arginit" typemap

The "arginit" typemap is used to set the initial value of a function argument--before any conversion has occurred. This is not normally necessary, but might be useful in highly specialized applications. For example:

// Set argument to NULL before any conversion occurs
%typemap(arginit) int *data {
   $1 = NULL;
}

11.5.5 "default" typemap

The "default" typemap is used to turn an argument into a default argument. For example:

%typemap(default) int flags {
   $1 = DEFAULT_FLAGS;
}
...
int foo(int x, int y, int flags);

The primary use of this typemap is to either change the wrapping of default arguments or specify a default argument in a language where they aren't supported (like C). Target languages that do not support optional arguments, such as Java and C#, effectively ignore the value specified by this typemap as all arguments must be given.

Once a default typemap has been applied to an argument, all arguments that follow must have default values. See the Default/optional arguments section for further information on default argument wrapping.

11.5.6 "check" typemap

The "check" typemap is used to supply value checking code during argument conversion. The typemap is applied after arguments have been converted. For example:

%typemap(check) int positive {
   if ($1 <= 0) {
       SWIG_exception(SWIG_ValueError,"Expected positive value.");
   }
}

11.5.7 "argout" typemap

The "argout" typemap is used to return values from arguments. This is most commonly used to write wrappers for C/C++ functions that need to return multiple values. The "argout" typemap is almost always combined with an "in" typemap---possibly to ignore the input value. For example:

/* Set the input argument to point to a temporary variable */
%typemap(in, numinputs=0) int *out (int temp) {
   $1 = &temp;
}

%typemap(argout) int *out {
   // Append output value $1 to $result
   ...
}

The following special variables are available.

$result           - Result object returned to target language.
$input            - The original input object passed.
$symname          - Name of function/method being wrapped

The code supplied to the "argout" typemap is always placed after the "out" typemap. If multiple return values are used, the extra return values are often appended to return value of the function.

See the typemaps.i library file for examples.

11.5.8 "freearg" typemap

The "freearg" typemap is used to cleanup argument data. It is only used when an argument might have allocated resources that need to be cleaned up when the wrapper function exits. The "freearg" typemap usually cleans up argument resources allocated by the "in" typemap. For example:

// Get a list of integers
%typemap(in) int *items {
   int nitems = Length($input);    
   $1 = (int *) malloc(sizeof(int)*nitems);
}
// Free the list 
%typemap(freearg) int *items {
   free($1);
}

The "freearg" typemap inserted at the end of the wrapper function, just before control is returned back to the target language. This code is also placed into a special variable $cleanup that may be used in other typemaps whenever a wrapper function needs to abort prematurely.

11.5.9 "newfree" typemap

The "newfree" typemap is used in conjunction with the %newobject directive and is used to deallocate memory used by the return result of a function. For example:

%typemap(newfree) string * {
   delete $1;
}
%typemap(out) string * {
   $result = PyString_FromString($1->c_str());
}
...

%newobject foo;
...
string *foo();

See Object ownership and %newobject for further details.

11.5.10 "memberin" typemap

The "memberin" typemap is used to copy data from an already converted input value into a structure member. It is typically used to handle array members and other special cases. For example:

%typemap(memberin) int [4] {
   memmove($1, $input, 4*sizeof(int));
}

It is rarely necessary to write "memberin" typemaps---SWIG already provides a default implementation for arrays, strings, and other objects.

11.5.11 "varin" typemap

The "varin" typemap is used to convert objects in the target language to C for the purposes of assigning to a C/C++ global variable. This is implementation specific.

11.5.12 "varout" typemap

The "varout" typemap is used to convert a C/C++ object to an object in the target language when reading a C/C++ global variable. This is implementation specific.

11.5.13 "throws" typemap

The "throws" typemap is only used when SWIG parses a C++ method with an exception specification or has the %catches feature attached to the method. It provides a default mechanism for handling C++ methods that have declared the exceptions they will throw. The purpose of this typemap is to convert a C++ exception into an error or exception in the target language. It is slightly different to the other typemaps as it is based around the exception type rather than the type of a parameter or variable. For example:

%typemap(throws) const char * %{
  PyErr_SetString(PyExc_RuntimeError, $1);
  SWIG_fail;
%}
void bar() throw (const char *);

As can be seen from the generated code below, SWIG generates an exception handler with the catch block comprising the "throws" typemap content.

...
try {
    bar();
}
catch(char const *_e) {
    PyErr_SetString(PyExc_RuntimeError, _e);
    SWIG_fail;
    
}
...

Note that if your methods do not have an exception specification yet they do throw exceptions, SWIG cannot know how to deal with them. For a neat way to handle these, see the Exception handling with %exception section.

11.6 Some typemap examples

This section contains a few examples. Consult language module documentation for more examples.

11.6.1 Typemaps for arrays

A common use of typemaps is to provide support for C arrays appearing both as arguments to functions and as structure members.

For example, suppose you had a function like this:

void set_vector(int type, float value[4]);

If you wanted to handle float value[4] as a list of floats, you might write a typemap similar to this:


%typemap(in) float value[4] (float temp[4]) {
  int i;
  if (!PySequence_Check($input)) {
    PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError,"Expected a sequence");
    return NULL;
  }
  if (PySequence_Length($input) != 4) {
    PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError,"Size mismatch. Expected 4 elements");
    return NULL;
  }
  for (i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
    PyObject *o = PySequence_GetItem($input,i);
    if (PyNumber_Check(o)) {
      temp[i] = (float) PyFloat_AsDouble(o);
    } else {
      PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError,"Sequence elements must be numbers");      
      return NULL;
    }
  }
  $1 = temp;
}

In this example, the variable temp allocates a small array on the C stack. The typemap then populates this array and passes it to the underlying C function.

When used from Python, the typemap allows the following type of function call:

>>> set_vector(type, [ 1, 2.5, 5, 20 ])

If you wanted to generalize the typemap to apply to arrays of all dimensions you might write this:

%typemap(in) float value[ANY] (float temp[$1_dim0]) {
  int i;
  if (!PySequence_Check($input)) {
    PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError,"Expected a sequence");
    return NULL;
  }
  if (PySequence_Length($input) != $1_dim0) {
    PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError,"Size mismatch. Expected $1_dim0 elements");
    return NULL;
  }
  for (i = 0; i < $1_dim0; i++) {
    PyObject *o = PySequence_GetItem($input,i);
    if (PyNumber_Check(o)) {
      temp[i] = (float) PyFloat_AsDouble(o);
    } else {
      PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError,"Sequence elements must be numbers");      
      return NULL;
    }
  }
  $1 = temp;
}

In this example, the special variable $1_dim0 is expanded with the actual array dimensions. Multidimensional arrays can be matched in a similar manner. For example:

%typemap(in) float matrix[ANY][ANY] (float temp[$1_dim0][$1_dim1]) {
   ... convert a 2d array ...
}

For large arrays, it may be impractical to allocate storage on the stack using a temporary variable as shown. To work with heap allocated data, the following technique can be used.

%typemap(in) float value[ANY] {
  int i;
  if (!PySequence_Check($input)) {
    PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError,"Expected a sequence");
    return NULL;
  }
  if (PySequence_Length($input) != $1_dim0) {
    PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError,"Size mismatch. Expected $1_dim0 elements");
    return NULL;
  }
  $1 = (float *) malloc($1_dim0*sizeof(float));
  for (i = 0; i < $1_dim0; i++) {
    PyObject *o = PySequence_GetItem($input,i);
    if (PyNumber_Check(o)) {
      $1[i] = (float) PyFloat_AsDouble(o);
    } else {
      PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError,"Sequence elements must be numbers");      
      free($1);
      return NULL;
    }
  }
}
%typemap(freearg) float value[ANY] {
   if ($1) free($1);
}

In this case, an array is allocated using malloc. The freearg typemap is then used to release the argument after the function has been called.

Another common use of array typemaps is to provide support for array structure members. Due to subtle differences between pointers and arrays in C, you can't just "assign" to a array structure member. Instead, you have to explicitly copy elements into the array. For example, suppose you had a structure like this:

struct SomeObject {
	float  value[4];
        ...
};

When SWIG runs, it won't produce any code to set the vec member. You may even get a warning message like this:

$ swig -python  example.i
example.i:10: Warning 462: Unable to set variable of type float [4].

These warning messages indicate that SWIG does not know how you want to set the vec field.

To fix this, you can supply a special "memberin" typemap like this:

%typemap(memberin) float [ANY] {
  int i;
  for (i = 0; i < $1_dim0; i++) {
      $1[i] = $input[i];
  }
}

The memberin typemap is used to set a structure member from data that has already been converted from the target language to C. In this case, $input is the local variable in which converted input data is stored. This typemap then copies this data into the structure.

When combined with the earlier typemaps for arrays, the combination of the "in" and "memberin" typemap allows the following usage:

>>> s = SomeObject()
>>> s.x = [1, 2.5, 5, 10]

Related to structure member input, it may be desirable to return structure members as a new kind of object. For example, in this example, you will get very odd program behavior where the structure member can be set nicely, but reading the member simply returns a pointer:

>>> s = SomeObject()
>>> s.x = [1, 2.5, 5, 10]
>>> print s.x
_1008fea8_p_float
>>> 

To fix this, you can write an "out" typemap. For example:

%typemap(out) float [ANY] {
  int i;
  $result = PyList_New($1_dim0);
  for (i = 0; i < $1_dim0; i++) {
    PyObject *o = PyFloat_FromDouble((double) $1[i]);
    PyList_SetItem($result,i,o);
  }
}

Now, you will find that member access is quite nice:

>>> s = SomeObject()
>>> s.x = [1, 2.5, 5, 10]
>>> print s.x
[ 1, 2.5, 5, 10]

Compatibility Note: SWIG1.1 used to provide a special "memberout" typemap. However, it was mostly useless and has since been eliminated. To return structure members, simply use the "out" typemap.

11.6.2 Implementing constraints with typemaps

One particularly interesting application of typemaps is the implementation of argument constraints. This can be done with the "check" typemap. When used, this allows you to provide code for checking the values of function arguments. For example:

%module math

%typemap(check) double posdouble {
	if ($1 < 0) {
		croak("Expecting a positive number");
	}
}

...
double sqrt(double posdouble);

This provides a sanity check to your wrapper function. If a negative number is passed to this function, a Perl exception will be raised and your program terminated with an error message.

This kind of checking can be particularly useful when working with pointers. For example:

%typemap(check) Vector * {
    if ($1 == 0) {
        PyErr_SetString(PyExc_TypeError,"NULL Pointer not allowed");
        return NULL;
   }
}

will prevent any function involving a Vector * from accepting a NULL pointer. As a result, SWIG can often prevent a potential segmentation faults or other run-time problems by raising an exception rather than blindly passing values to the underlying C/C++ program.

11.7 Typemaps for multiple target languages

The code within typemaps is usually language dependent, however, many target languages support the same typemaps. In order to distinguish typemaps across different languages, the preprocessor should be used. For example, the "in" typemap for Perl and Ruby could be written as:

#if defined(SWIGPERL)
  %typemap(in) int "$1 = ($1_ltype) SvIV($input);"
#elif defined(SWIGRUBY)
  %typemap(in) int "$1 = NUM2INT($input);"
#else
  #warning no "in" typemap defined
#endif

The full set of language specific macros is defined in the Conditional Compilation section. The example above also shows a common approach of issuing a warning for an as yet unsupported language.

Compatibility note: In SWIG-1.1 different languages could be distinguished with the language name being put within the %typemap directive, for example,
%typemap(ruby,in) int "$1 = NUM2INT($input);".

11.8 Optimal code generation when returning by value

The "out" typemap is the main typemap for return types. This typemap supports an optional attribute flag called "optimal", which is for reducing temporary variables and the amount of generated code, thereby giving the compiler the opportunity to use return value optimization for generating faster executing code. It only really makes a difference when returning objects by value and has some limitations on usage, as explained later on.

When a function returns an object by value, SWIG generates code that instantiates the default type on the stack then assigns the value returned by the function call to it. A copy of this object is then made on the heap and this is what is ultimately stored and used from the target language. This will be clearer considering an example. Consider running the following code through SWIG:

%typemap(out) SWIGTYPE %{
  $result = new $1_ltype((const $1_ltype &)$1);
%}

%inline %{
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

struct XX {
  XX() { cout << "XX()" << endl; }
  XX(int i) { cout << "XX(" << i << ")" << endl; }
  XX(const XX &other) { cout << "XX(const XX &)" << endl; }
  XX & operator =(const XX &other) { cout << "operator=(const XX &)" << endl; return *this; }
  ~XX() { cout << "~XX()" << endl; }
  static XX create() { 
    return XX(0);
  }
};
%}

The "out" typemap shown is the default typemap for C# when returning objects by value. When making a call to XX::create() from C#, the output is as follows:

XX()
XX(0)
operator=(const XX &)
~XX()
XX(const XX &)
~XX()
~XX()

Note that three objects are being created as well as an assignment. Wouldn't it be great if the XX::create() method was the only time a constructor was called? As the method returns by value, this is asking a lot and the code that SWIG generates by default makes it impossible for the compiler to use return value optimisation (RVO) . However, this is where the "optimal" attribute in the "out" typemap can help out. If the typemap code is kept the same and just the "optimal" attribute specified like this:

%typemap(out, optimal="1") SWIGTYPE %{
  $result = new $1_ltype((const $1_ltype &)$1);
%}

then when the code is run again, the output is simply:

XX(0)
~XX()

How the "optimal" attribute works is best explained using the generated code. Without "optimal", the generated code is:

SWIGEXPORT void * SWIGSTDCALL CSharp_XX_create() {
  void * jresult ;
  XX result;
  result = XX::create();
  jresult = new XX((const XX &)result);
  return jresult;
}

With the "optimal" attribute, the code is:

SWIGEXPORT void * SWIGSTDCALL CSharp_XX_create() {
  void * jresult ;
  jresult = new XX((const XX &)XX::create());
  return jresult;
}

The major difference is the result temporary variable holding the value returned from XX::create() is no longer generated and instead the copy constructor call is made directly from the value returned by XX::create(). With modern compilers implementing RVO, the copy is not actually done, in fact the object is never created on the stack in XX::create() at all, it is simply created directly on the heap. In the first instance, the $1 special variable in the typemap is expanded into result. In the second instance, $1 is expanded into XX::create() and this is essentially what the "optimal" attribute is telling SWIG to do.

The "optimal" attribute optimisation is not turned on by default as it has a number of restrictions. Firstly, some code cannot be condensed into a simple call for passing into the copy constructor. One common occurrence is when %exception is used. Consider adding the following %exception to the example:

%exception XX::create() %{
try {
  $action
} catch(const std::exception &e) {
  cout << e.what() << endl;
}
%}

SWIG can detect when the "optimal" attribute cannot be used and will ignore it and in this case will issue the following warning:

example.i:28: Warning 474: Method XX::create() usage of the optimal attribute ignored
example.i:14: Warning 474: in the out typemap as the following cannot be used to generate
optimal code: 
try {
  result = XX::create();
} catch(const std::exception &e) {
  cout << e.what() << endl;
}

It should be clear that the above code cannot be used as the argument to the copy constructor call, that is, for the $1 substitution.

Secondly, if the typemaps uses $1 more than once, then multiple calls to the wrapped function will be made. Obviously that is not very optimal. In fact SWIG attempts to detect this and will issue a warning something like:

example.i:21: Warning 475: Multiple calls to XX::create() might be generated due to
example.i:7: Warning 475: optimal attribute usage in the out typemap.

However, it doesn't always get it right, for example when $1 is within some commented out code.

11.9 Multi-argument typemaps

So far, the typemaps presented have focused on the problem of dealing with single values. For example, converting a single input object to a single argument in a function call. However, certain conversion problems are difficult to handle in this manner. As an example, consider the example at the very beginning of this chapter:

int foo(int argc, char *argv[]);

Suppose that you wanted to wrap this function so that it accepted a single list of strings like this:

>>> foo(["ale","lager","stout"])

To do this, you not only need to map a list of strings to char *argv[], but the value of int argc is implicitly determined by the length of the list. Using only simple typemaps, this type of conversion is possible, but extremely painful. Multi-argument typemaps help in this situation.

A multi-argument typemap is a conversion rule that specifies how to convert a single object in the target language to a set of consecutive function arguments in C/C++. For example, the following multi-argument maps perform the conversion described for the above example:

%typemap(in) (int argc, char *argv[]) {
  int i;
  if (!PyList_Check($input)) {
    PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError, "Expecting a list");
    return NULL;
  }
  $1 = PyList_Size($input);
  $2 = (char **) malloc(($1+1)*sizeof(char *));
  for (i = 0; i < $1; i++) {
    PyObject *s = PyList_GetItem($input,i);
    if (!PyString_Check(s)) {
        free($2);
        PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError, "List items must be strings");
        return NULL;
    }
    $2[i] = PyString_AsString(s);
  }
  $2[i] = 0;
}

%typemap(freearg) (int argc, char *argv[]) {
   if ($2) free($2);
}

A multi-argument map is always specified by surrounding the arguments with parentheses as shown. For example:

%typemap(in) (int argc, char *argv[]) { ... }

Within the typemap code, the variables $1, $2, and so forth refer to each type in the map. All of the usual substitutions apply--just use the appropriate $1 or $2 prefix on the variable name (e.g., $2_type, $1_ltype, etc.)

Multi-argument typemaps always have precedence over simple typemaps and SWIG always performs longest-match searching. Therefore, you will get the following behavior:

%typemap(in) int argc                              { ... typemap 1 ... }
%typemap(in) (int argc, char *argv[])              { ... typemap 2 ... }
%typemap(in) (int argc, char *argv[], char *env[]) { ... typemap 3 ... }

int foo(int argc, char *argv[]);                   // Uses typemap 2
int bar(int argc, int x);                          // Uses typemap 1
int spam(int argc, char *argv[], char *env[]);     // Uses typemap 3

It should be stressed that multi-argument typemaps can appear anywhere in a function declaration and can appear more than once. For example, you could write this:

%typemap(in) (int scount, char *swords[]) { ... }
%typemap(in) (int wcount, char *words[]) { ... }

void search_words(int scount, char *swords[], int wcount, char *words[], int maxcount);

Other directives such as %apply and %clear also work with multi-argument maps. For example:

%apply (int argc, char *argv[]) {
    (int scount, char *swords[]),
    (int wcount, char *words[])
};
...
%clear (int scount, char *swords[]), (int wcount, char *words[]);
...

Although multi-argument typemaps may seem like an exotic, little used feature, there are several situations where they make sense. First, suppose you wanted to wrap functions similar to the low-level read() and write() system calls. For example:

typedef unsigned int size_t;

int read(int fd, void *rbuffer, size_t len);
int write(int fd, void *wbuffer, size_t len);

As is, the only way to use the functions would be to allocate memory and pass some kind of pointer as the second argument---a process that might require the use of a helper function. However, using multi-argument maps, the functions can be transformed into something more natural. For example, you might write typemaps like this:

// typemap for an outgoing buffer
%typemap(in) (void *wbuffer, size_t len) {
   if (!PyString_Check($input)) {
       PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError, "Expecting a string");
       return NULL;
   }
   $1 = (void *) PyString_AsString($input);
   $2 = PyString_Size($input);
}

// typemap for an incoming buffer
%typemap(in) (void *rbuffer, size_t len) {
   if (!PyInt_Check($input)) {
       PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError, "Expecting an integer");
       return NULL;
   }
   $2 = PyInt_AsLong($input);
   if ($2 < 0) {
       PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError, "Positive integer expected");
       return NULL;
   }
   $1 = (void *) malloc($2);
}

// Return the buffer.  Discarding any previous return result
%typemap(argout) (void *rbuffer, size_t len) {
   Py_XDECREF($result);   /* Blow away any previous result */
   if (result < 0) {      /* Check for I/O error */
       free($1);
       PyErr_SetFromErrno(PyExc_IOError);
       return NULL;
   }
   $result = PyString_FromStringAndSize($1,result);
   free($1);
}

(note: In the above example, $result and result are two different variables. result is the real C datatype that was returned by the function. $result is the scripting language object being returned to the interpreter.).

Now, in a script, you can write code that simply passes buffers as strings like this:

>>> f = example.open("Makefile")
>>> example.read(f,40)
'TOP        = ../..\nSWIG       = $(TOP)/.'
>>> example.read(f,40)
'./swig\nSRCS       = example.c\nTARGET    '
>>> example.close(f)
0
>>> g = example.open("foo", example.O_WRONLY | example.O_CREAT, 0644)
>>> example.write(g,"Hello world\n")
12
>>> example.write(g,"This is a test\n")
15
>>> example.close(g)
0
>>>

A number of multi-argument typemap problems also arise in libraries that perform matrix-calculations--especially if they are mapped onto low-level Fortran or C code. For example, you might have a function like this:

int is_symmetric(double *mat, int rows, int columns);

In this case, you might want to pass some kind of higher-level object as an matrix. To do this, you could write a multi-argument typemap like this:

%typemap(in) (double *mat, int rows, int columns) {
    MatrixObject *a;
    a = GetMatrixFromObject($input);     /* Get matrix somehow */

    /* Get matrix properties */
    $1 = GetPointer(a);
    $2 = GetRows(a);
    $3 = GetColumns(a);
}

This kind of technique can be used to hook into scripting-language matrix packages such as Numeric Python. However, it should also be stressed that some care is in order. For example, when crossing languages you may need to worry about issues such as row-major vs. column-major ordering (and perform conversions if needed). Note that multi-argument typemaps cannot deal with non-consecutive C/C++ arguments; a workaround such as a helper function re-ordering the arguments to make them consecutive will need to be written.

11.10 Typemap warnings

Warnings can be added to typemaps so that SWIG generates a warning message whenever the typemap is used. See the information in the issuing warnings section.

11.11 Typemap fragments

The primary purpose of fragments is to reduce code bloat that repeated use of typemap code can lead to. Fragments are snippets of code that can be thought of as code dependencies of a typemap. If a fragment is used by more than one typemap, then the snippet of code within the fragment is only generated once. Code bloat is typically reduced by moving typemap code into a support function and then placing the support function into a fragment.

For example, if you have a very long typemap

%typemap(in) MyClass * {
  MyClass *value = 0;

  ... many lines of marshalling code  ...

  $result = value;
}

the same marshalling code is often repeated in several typemaps, such as "in", "varin", "directorout", etc. SWIG copies the code for each argument that requires the typemap code, easily leading to code bloat in the generated code. To eliminate this, define a fragment that includes the common marshalling code:

%fragment("AsMyClass", "header") {
  MyClass *AsMyClass(PyObject *obj) {
    MyClass *value = 0;

    ... many lines of marshalling code  ...

    return value;
  }
}

%typemap(in, fragment="AsMyClass") MyClass * {
  $result = AsMyClass($input);
}

%typemap(varin, fragment="AsMyClass") MyClass * {
  $result = AsMyClass($input);
}

When the "in" or "varin" typemaps for MyClass are required, the contents of the fragment called "AsMyClass" is added to the "header" section within the generated code, and then the typemap code is emitted. Hence, the method AsMyClass will be generated into the wrapper code before any typemap code that calls it.

To define a fragment you need a fragment name, a section name for generating the fragment code into, and the code itself. See Code insertion blocks for a full list of section names. Usually the section name used is "header". Different delimiters can be used:

%fragment("my_name", "header") %{ ... %}
%fragment("my_name", "header") { ... }
%fragment("my_name", "header") " ... "

and these follow the usual preprocessing rules mentioned in the Preprocessing delimiters section. The following are some rules and guidelines for using fragments:

  1. A fragment is added to the wrapping code only once. When using the MyClass * typemaps above and wrapping the method:

    void foo(MyClass *a, MyClass *b);
    

    the generated code will look something like:

    MyClass *AsMyClass(PyObject *obj) {
      ...
    }
    
    void _wrap_foo(...) {
      ....
      arg1 = AsMyClass(obj1);
      arg2 = AsMyClass(obj2);
      ...
      foo(arg1, arg2);
    }
    

    even as there is duplicated typemap code to process both a and b, the AsMyClass method will be defined only once.

  2. A fragment should only be defined once. If there is more than one definition, the first definition is the one used. All other definitions are silently ignored. For example, if you have

    %fragment("AsMyClass", "header") { ...definition 1... }
    ....
    %fragment("AsMyClass", "header") { ...definition 2... }
    

    only the first definition is used. In this way you can override the default fragments in a SWIG library by defining your fragment before the library %include. Note that this behavior is the opposite to typemaps, where the last typemap defined/applied prevails. Fragments follow the first-in-first-out convention since they are intended to be global, while typemaps are intended to be locally specialized.

  3. Fragment names cannot contain commas.

  4. A fragment can use one or more additional fragments, for example:

    %fragment("<limits.h>", "header") {
      %#include <limits.h>
    }
    
    
    %fragment("AsMyClass", "header", fragment="<limits.h>") {
      MyClass *AsMyClass(PyObject *obj) {
        MyClass *value = 0;
    
        ... some marshalling code  ...
    
        if  (ival < CHAR_MIN /*defined in <limits.h>*/) {
           ...
        } else {
           ...
        }
        ...
        return value;
      }
    }
    

    in this case, when the "AsMyClass" fragment is emitted, it also triggers the inclusion of the "<limits.h>" fragment.

  5. A fragment can have dependencies on a number of other fragments, for example:

    %fragment("bigfragment", "header", fragment="frag1", fragment="frag2", fragment="frag3") "";
    

    When the "bigfragment" is used, the three dependent fragments "frag1", "frag2" and "frag3" are also pulled in. Note that as "bigframent" is empty (the empty string - ""), it does not add any code itself, but merely triggers the inclusion of the other fragments.

  6. A typemap can also use more than one fragment, but since the syntax is different, you need to specify the dependent fragments in a comma separated list. Consider:

    %typemap(in, fragment="frag1,frag2,frag3") {...}
    

    which is equivalent to:

    %typemap(in, fragment="bigfragment") {...}
    

    when used with the "bigfragment" defined above.

  7. Finally, you can force the inclusion of a fragment at any point in the generated code as follows:

    %fragment("bigfragment");
    

    which is very useful inside a template class, for example.

Most readers will probably want to skip the next two sub-sections on advanced fragment usage unless a desire to really get to grips with some powerful but tricky macro and fragment usage that is used in parts of the SWIG typemap library.

11.11.1 Fragment type specialization

Fragments can be type specialized. The syntax is as follows:

%fragment("name", "header") { ...a type independent fragment... }
%fragment("name"{type}, "header") { ...a type dependent fragment...  }

where type is a C/C++ type. Like typemaps, fragments can also be used inside templates, for example:

template <class T>
struct A {
  %fragment("incode"{A<T>}, "header") {
    ... 'incode' specialized fragment ...
  }

  %typemap(in, fragment="incode"{A<T>}) {
     ... here we use the 'type specialized' fragment "incode"{A<T>} ...
  }
};

11.11.2 Fragments and automatic typemap specialization

Since fragments can be type specialized, they can be elegantly used to specialize typemaps. For example, if you have something like:

%fragment("incode"{float}, "header") {
  float in_method_float(PyObject *obj) {
    ...
  }
}

%fragment("incode"{long}, "header") {
  float in_method_long(PyObject *obj) {
    ...
  }
}

// %my_typemaps macro definition
%define %my_typemaps(Type) 
%typemap(in, fragment="incode"{Type}) Type {
  value = in_method_##Type(obj);
}
%enddef

%my_typemaps(float);
%my_typemaps(long);

then the proper "incode"{float} or "incode"{long} fragment will be used, and the in_method_float and in_method_long methods will be called whenever the float or long types are used as input parameters.

This feature is used a lot in the typemaps shipped in the SWIG library for some scripting languages. The interested (or very brave) reader can take a look at the fragments.swg file shipped with SWIG to see this in action.

11.12 The run-time type checker

Most scripting languages need type information at run-time. This type information can include how to construct types, how to garbage collect types, and the inheritance relationships between types. If the language interface does not provide its own type information storage, the generated SWIG code needs to provide it.

Requirements for the type system:

11.12.1 Implementation

The run-time type checker is used by many, but not all, of SWIG's supported target languages. The run-time type checker features are not required and are thus not used for statically typed languages such as Java and C#. The scripting and scheme based languages rely on it and it forms a critical part of SWIG's operation for these languages.

When pointers, arrays, and objects are wrapped by SWIG, they are normally converted into typed pointer objects. For example, an instance of Foo * might be a string encoded like this:

_108e688_p_Foo

At a basic level, the type checker simply restores some type-safety to extension modules. However, the type checker is also responsible for making sure that wrapped C++ classes are handled correctly---especially when inheritance is used. This is especially important when an extension module makes use of multiple inheritance. For example:

class Foo {
   int x;
};

class Bar {
   int y;
};

class FooBar : public Foo, public Bar {
   int z;
};

When the class FooBar is organized in memory, it contains the contents of the classes Foo and Bar as well as its own data members. For example:

FooBar --> | -----------|  <-- Foo
           |   int x    |
           |------------|  <-- Bar
           |   int y    |
           |------------|
           |   int z    |
           |------------|

Because of the way that base class data is stacked together, the casting of a Foobar * to either of the base classes may change the actual value of the pointer. This means that it is generally not safe to represent pointers using a simple integer or a bare void * ---type tags are needed to implement correct handling of pointer values (and to make adjustments when needed).

In the wrapper code generated for each language, pointers are handled through the use of special type descriptors and conversion functions. For example, if you look at the wrapper code for Python, you will see code like this:

if ((SWIG_ConvertPtr(obj0,(void **) &arg1, SWIGTYPE_p_Foo,1)) == -1) return NULL;

In this code, SWIGTYPE_p_Foo is the type descriptor that describes Foo *. The type descriptor is actually a pointer to a structure that contains information about the type name to use in the target language, a list of equivalent typenames (via typedef or inheritance), and pointer value handling information (if applicable). The SWIG_ConvertPtr() function is simply a utility function that takes a pointer object in the target language and a type-descriptor objects and uses this information to generate a C++ pointer. However, the exact name and calling conventions of the conversion function depends on the target language (see language specific chapters for details).

The actual type code is in swigrun.swg, and gets inserted near the top of the generated swig wrapper file. The phrase "a type X that can cast into a type Y" means that given a type X, it can be converted into a type Y. In other words, X is a derived class of Y or X is a typedef of Y. The structure to store type information looks like this:

/* Structure to store information on one type */
typedef struct swig_type_info {
  const char *name;             /* mangled name of this type */
  const char *str;              /* human readable name for this type */
  swig_dycast_func dcast;       /* dynamic cast function down a hierarchy */
  struct swig_cast_info *cast;  /* Linked list of types that can cast into this type */
  void *clientdata;             /* Language specific type data */
} swig_type_info;

/* Structure to store a type and conversion function used for casting */
typedef struct swig_cast_info {
  swig_type_info *type;          /* pointer to type that is equivalent to this type */
  swig_converter_func converter; /* function to cast the void pointers */
  struct swig_cast_info *next;   /* pointer to next cast in linked list */
  struct swig_cast_info *prev;   /* pointer to the previous cast */
} swig_cast_info;

Each swig_type_info stores a linked list of types that it is equivalent to. Each entry in this doubly linked list stores a pointer back to another swig_type_info structure, along with a pointer to a conversion function. This conversion function is used to solve the above problem of the FooBar class, correctly returning a pointer to the type we want.

The basic problem we need to solve is verifying and building arguments passed to functions. So going back to the SWIG_ConvertPtr() function example from above, we are expecting a Foo * and need to check if obj0 is in fact a Foo * . From before, SWIGTYPE_p_Foo is just a pointer to the swig_type_info structure describing Foo *. So we loop through the linked list of swig_cast_info structures attached to SWIGTYPE_p_Foo. If we see that the type of obj0 is in the linked list, we pass the object through the associated conversion function and then return a positive. If we reach the end of the linked list without a match, then obj0 can not be converted to a Foo * and an error is generated.

Another issue needing to be addressed is sharing type information between multiple modules. More explicitly, we need to have ONE swig_type_info for each type. If two modules both use the type, the second module loaded must lookup and use the swig_type_info structure from the module already loaded. Because no dynamic memory is used and the circular dependencies of the casting information, loading the type information is somewhat tricky, and not explained here. A complete description is in the Lib/swiginit.swg file (and near the top of any generated file).

Each module has one swig_module_info structure which looks like this:

/* Structure used to store module information
 * Each module generates one structure like this, and the runtime collects
 * all of these structures and stores them in a circularly linked list.*/
typedef struct swig_module_info {
  swig_type_info **types;         /* Array of pointers to swig_type_info structs in this module */
  int size;                       /* Number of types in this module */
  struct swig_module_info *next;  /* Pointer to next element in circularly linked list */
  swig_type_info **type_initial;  /* Array of initially generated type structures */
  swig_cast_info **cast_initial;  /* Array of initially generated casting structures */
  void *clientdata;               /* Language specific module data */
} swig_module_info;

Each module stores an array of pointers to swig_type_info structures and the number of types in this module. So when a second module is loaded, it finds the swig_module_info structure for the first module and searches the array of types. If any of its own types are in the first module and have already been loaded, it uses those swig_type_info structures rather than creating new ones. These swig_module_info structures are chained together in a circularly linked list.

11.12.2 Usage

This section covers how to use these functions from typemaps. To learn how to call these functions from external files (not the generated _wrap.c file), see the External access to the run-time system section.

When pointers are converted in a typemap, the typemap code often looks similar to this:

%typemap(in) Foo * {
  if ((SWIG_ConvertPtr($input, (void **) &$1, $1_descriptor)) == -1) return NULL;
}

The most critical part is the typemap is the use of the $1_descriptor special variable. When placed in a typemap, this is expanded into the SWIGTYPE_* type descriptor object above. As a general rule, you should always use $1_descriptor instead of trying to hard-code the type descriptor name directly.

There is another reason why you should always use the $1_descriptor variable. When this special variable is expanded, SWIG marks the corresponding type as "in use." When type-tables and type information is emitted in the wrapper file, descriptor information is only generated for those datatypes that were actually used in the interface. This greatly reduces the size of the type tables and improves efficiency.

Occasionally, you might need to write a typemap that needs to convert pointers of other types. To handle this, the special variable macro $descriptor(type) covered earlier can be used to generate the SWIG type descriptor name for any C datatype. For example:

%typemap(in) Foo * {
  if ((SWIG_ConvertPtr($input, (void **) &$1, $1_descriptor)) == -1) {
     Bar *temp;
     if ((SWIG_ConvertPtr($input, (void **) &temp, $descriptor(Bar *)) == -1) {
         return NULL;
     }
     $1 = (Foo *) temp;
  }
}

The primary use of $descriptor(type) is when writing typemaps for container objects and other complex data structures. There are some restrictions on the argument---namely it must be a fully defined C datatype. It can not be any of the special typemap variables.

In certain cases, SWIG may not generate type-descriptors like you expect. For example, if you are converting pointers in some non-standard way or working with an unusual combination of interface files and modules, you may find that SWIG omits information for a specific type descriptor. To fix this, you may need to use the %types directive. For example:

%types(int *, short *, long *, float *, double *);

When %types is used, SWIG generates type-descriptor information even if those datatypes never appear elsewhere in the interface file.

Further details about the run-time type checking can be found in the documentation for individual language modules. Reading the source code may also help. The file Lib/swigrun.swg in the SWIG library contains all of the source of the generated code for type-checking. This code is also included in every generated wrapped file so you probably just look at the output of SWIG to get a better sense for how types are managed.

11.13 Typemaps and overloading

This section does not apply to the statically typed languages like Java and C#, where overloading of the types is handled much like C++ by generating overloaded methods in the target language. In many of the other target languages, SWIG still fully supports C++ overloaded methods and functions. For example, if you have a collection of functions like this:

int foo(int x);
int foo(double x);
int foo(char *s, int y);

You can access the functions in a normal way from the scripting interpreter:

# Python
foo(3)           # foo(int)
foo(3.5)         # foo(double)
foo("hello",5)   # foo(char *, int)

# Tcl
foo 3            # foo(int)
foo 3.5          # foo(double)
foo hello 5      # foo(char *, int)

To implement overloading, SWIG generates a separate wrapper function for each overloaded method. For example, the above functions would produce something roughly like this:

// wrapper pseudocode
_wrap_foo_0(argc, args[]) {       // foo(int)
   int arg1;
   int result;
   ...
   arg1 = FromInteger(args[0]);
   result = foo(arg1);
   return ToInteger(result);
}

_wrap_foo_1(argc, args[]) {       // foo(double)
   double arg1;
   int result;
   ...
   arg1 = FromDouble(args[0]);
   result = foo(arg1);
   return ToInteger(result);
}

_wrap_foo_2(argc, args[]) {       // foo(char *, int)
   char *arg1;
   int   arg2;
   int result;
   ...
   arg1 = FromString(args[0]);
   arg2 = FromInteger(args[1]);
   result = foo(arg1,arg2);
   return ToInteger(result);
}

Next, a dynamic dispatch function is generated:

_wrap_foo(argc, args[]) {
   if (argc == 1) {
       if (IsInteger(args[0])) {
           return _wrap_foo_0(argc,args);
       } 
       if (IsDouble(args[0])) {
           return _wrap_foo_1(argc,args);
       }
   }
   if (argc == 2) {
       if (IsString(args[0]) && IsInteger(args[1])) {
          return _wrap_foo_2(argc,args);
       }
   }
   error("No matching function!\n");
}

The purpose of the dynamic dispatch function is to select the appropriate C++ function based on argument types---a task that must be performed at runtime in most of SWIG's target languages.

The generation of the dynamic dispatch function is a relatively tricky affair. Not only must input typemaps be taken into account (these typemaps can radically change the types of arguments accepted), but overloaded methods must also be sorted and checked in a very specific order to resolve potential ambiguity. A high-level overview of this ranking process is found in the "SWIG and C++ " chapter. What isn't mentioned in that chapter is the mechanism by which it is implemented---as a collection of typemaps.

To support dynamic dispatch, SWIG first defines a general purpose type hierarchy as follows:

Symbolic Name                   Precedence Value
------------------------------  ------------------
SWIG_TYPECHECK_POINTER           0  
SWIG_TYPECHECK_VOIDPTR           10 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_BOOL              15 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_UINT8             20 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_INT8              25 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_UINT16            30 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_INT16             35 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_UINT32            40 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_INT32             45 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_UINT64            50 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_INT64             55 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_UINT128           60 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_INT128            65 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_INTEGER           70 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_FLOAT             80 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_DOUBLE            90 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_COMPLEX           100 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_UNICHAR           110 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_UNISTRING         120 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_CHAR              130 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_STRING            140 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_BOOL_ARRAY        1015 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_INT8_ARRAY        1025 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_INT16_ARRAY       1035 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_INT32_ARRAY       1045 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_INT64_ARRAY       1055 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_INT128_ARRAY      1065 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_FLOAT_ARRAY       1080 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_DOUBLE_ARRAY      1090 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_CHAR_ARRAY        1130 
SWIG_TYPECHECK_STRING_ARRAY      1140 

(These precedence levels are defined in swig.swg, a library file that's included by all target language modules.)

In this table, the precedence-level determines the order in which types are going to be checked. Low values are always checked before higher values. For example, integers are checked before floats, single values are checked before arrays, and so forth.

Using the above table as a guide, each target language defines a collection of "typecheck" typemaps. The follow excerpt from the Python module illustrates this:

/* Python type checking rules */
/* Note:  %typecheck(X) is a macro for %typemap(typecheck,precedence=X) */

%typecheck(SWIG_TYPECHECK_INTEGER)
	 int, short, long,
 	 unsigned int, unsigned short, unsigned long,
	 signed char, unsigned char,
	 long long, unsigned long long,
	 const int &, const short &, const long &,
 	 const unsigned int &, const unsigned short &, const unsigned long &,
	 const long long &, const unsigned long long &,
	 enum SWIGTYPE,
         bool, const bool & 
{
  $1 = (PyInt_Check($input) || PyLong_Check($input)) ? 1 : 0;
}

%typecheck(SWIG_TYPECHECK_DOUBLE)
	float, double,
	const float &, const double &
{
  $1 = (PyFloat_Check($input) || PyInt_Check($input) || PyLong_Check($input)) ? 1 : 0;
}

%typecheck(SWIG_TYPECHECK_CHAR) char {
  $1 = (PyString_Check($input) && (PyString_Size($input) == 1)) ? 1 : 0;
}

%typecheck(SWIG_TYPECHECK_STRING) char * {
  $1 = PyString_Check($input) ? 1 : 0;
}

%typecheck(SWIG_TYPECHECK_POINTER) SWIGTYPE *, SWIGTYPE &, SWIGTYPE [] {
  void *ptr;
  if (SWIG_ConvertPtr($input, (void **) &ptr, $1_descriptor, 0) == -1) {
    $1 = 0;
    PyErr_Clear();
  } else {
    $1 = 1;
  }
}

%typecheck(SWIG_TYPECHECK_POINTER) SWIGTYPE {
  void *ptr;
  if (SWIG_ConvertPtr($input, (void **) &ptr, $&1_descriptor, 0) == -1) {
    $1 = 0;
    PyErr_Clear();
  } else {
    $1 = 1;
  }
}

%typecheck(SWIG_TYPECHECK_VOIDPTR) void * {
  void *ptr;
  if (SWIG_ConvertPtr($input, (void **) &ptr, 0, 0) == -1) {
    $1 = 0;
    PyErr_Clear();
  } else {
    $1 = 1;
  }
}

%typecheck(SWIG_TYPECHECK_POINTER) PyObject *
{
  $1 = ($input != 0);
}

It might take a bit of contemplation, but this code has merely organized all of the basic C++ types, provided some simple type-checking code, and assigned each type a precedence value.

Finally, to generate the dynamic dispatch function, SWIG uses the following algorithm:

If you haven't written any typemaps of your own, it is unnecessary to worry about the typechecking rules. However, if you have written new input typemaps, you might have to supply a typechecking rule as well. An easy way to do this is to simply copy one of the existing typechecking rules. Here is an example,

// Typemap for a C++ string
%typemap(in) std::string {
    if (PyString_Check($input)) {
         $1 = std::string(PyString_AsString($input));
     } else {
         SWIG_exception(SWIG_TypeError, "string expected");
     }
}
// Copy the typecheck code for "char *".  
%typemap(typecheck) std::string = char *;

The bottom line: If you are writing new typemaps and you are using overloaded methods, you will probably have to write typecheck code or copy existing code. Since this is a relatively new SWIG feature, there are few examples to work with. However, you might look at some of the existing library files likes 'typemaps.i' for a guide.

Notes:

11.14 More about %apply and %clear

In order to implement certain kinds of program behavior, it is sometimes necessary to write sets of typemaps. For example, to support output arguments, one often writes a set of typemaps like this:

%typemap(in,numinputs=0) int *OUTPUT (int temp) {
   $1 = &temp;
}
%typemap(argout) int *OUTPUT {
   // return value somehow
}

To make it easier to apply the typemap to different argument types and names, the %apply directive performs a copy of all typemaps from one type to another. For example, if you specify this,

%apply int *OUTPUT { int *retvalue, int32 *output };

then all of the int *OUTPUT typemaps are copied to int *retvalue and int32 *output.

However, there is a subtle aspect of %apply that needs more description. Namely, %apply does not overwrite a typemap rule if it is already defined for the target datatype. This behavior allows you to do two things:

For example:

%typemap(in) int *INPUT (int temp) {
   temp = ... get value from $input ...;
   $1 = &temp;
}

%typemap(check) int *POSITIVE {
   if (*$1 <= 0) {
      SWIG_exception(SWIG_ValueError,"Expected a positive number!\n");
      return NULL;
   }
}

...
%apply int *INPUT     { int *invalue };
%apply int *POSITIVE  { int *invalue };

Since %apply does not overwrite or replace any existing rules, the only way to reset behavior is to use the %clear directive. %clear removes all typemap rules defined for a specific datatype. For example:

%clear int *invalue;

11.15 Passing data between typemaps

It is also important to note that the primary use of local variables is to create stack-allocated objects for temporary use inside a wrapper function (this is faster and less-prone to error than allocating data on the heap). In general, the variables are not intended to pass information between different types of typemaps. However, this can be done if you realize that local names have the argument number appended to them. For example, you could do this:

%typemap(in) int *(int temp) {
   temp = (int) PyInt_AsLong($input);
   $1 = &temp;
}

%typemap(argout) int * {
   PyObject *o = PyInt_FromLong(temp$argnum);
   ...
}

In this case, the $argnum variable is expanded into the argument number. Therefore, the code will reference the appropriate local such as temp1 and temp2. It should be noted that there are plenty of opportunities to break the universe here and that accessing locals in this manner should probably be avoided. At the very least, you should make sure that the typemaps sharing information have exactly the same types and names.

11.16 C++ "this" pointer

All the rules discussed for typemaps apply to C++ as well as C. However in addition C++ passes an extra parameter into every non-static class method -- the this pointer. Occasionally it can be useful to apply a typemap to this pointer (for example to check and make sure this is non-null before deferencing). Actually, C also has an the equivalent of the this pointer which is used when accessing variables in a C struct.

In order to customise the this pointer handling, target a variable named self in your typemaps. self is the name SWIG uses to refer to the extra parameter in wrapped functions.

For example, if wrapping for Java generation:

%typemap(check) SWIGTYPE *self %{
if (!$1) {
  SWIG_JavaThrowException(jenv, SWIG_JavaNullPointerException,
    "invalid native object; delete() likely already called");
  return $null;
}
%}

In the above case, the $1 variable is expanded into the argument name that SWIG is using as the this pointer. SWIG will then insert the check code before the actual C++ class method is called, and will raise an exception rather than crash the Java virtual machine. The generated code will look something like:

  if (!arg1) {
    SWIG_JavaThrowException(jenv, SWIG_JavaNullPointerException,
      "invalid native object; delete() likely already called");
    return ;
  }
  (arg1)->wrappedFunction(...);

Note that if you have a parameter named self then it will also match the typemap. One work around is to create an interface file that wraps the method, but gives the argument a name other than self.

11.17 Where to go for more information?

The best place to find out more information about writing typemaps is to look in the SWIG library. Most language modules define all of their default behavior using typemaps. These are found in files such as python.swg, perl5.swg, tcl8.swg and so forth. The typemaps.i file in the library also contains numerous examples. You should look at these files to get a feel for how to define typemaps of your own. Some of the language modules support additional typemaps and further information is available in the individual chapters for each target language. There you may also find more hands-on practical examples.


12 Customization Features

In many cases, it is desirable to change the default wrapping of particular declarations in an interface. For example, you might want to provide hooks for catching C++ exceptions, add assertions, or provide hints to the underlying code generator. This chapter describes some of these customization techniques. First, a discussion of exception handling is presented. Then, a more general-purpose customization mechanism known as "features" is described.

12.1 Exception handling with %exception

The %exception directive allows you to define a general purpose exception handler. For example, you can specify the following:

%exception {
    try {
        $action
    }
    catch (RangeError) {
        ... handle error ...
    }
}

How the exception is handled depends on the target language, for example, Python:

%exception {
    try {
        $action
    }
    catch (RangeError) {
        PyErr_SetString(PyExc_IndexError,"index out-of-bounds");
        SWIG_fail;
    }
}

When defined, the code enclosed in braces is inserted directly into the low-level wrapper functions. The special variable $action is one of a few %exception special variables supported and gets replaced with the actual operation to be performed (a function call, method invocation, attribute access, etc.). An exception handler remains in effect until it is explicitly deleted. This is done by using either %exception or %noexception with no code. For example:

%exception;   // Deletes any previously defined handler

Compatibility note: Previous versions of SWIG used a special directive %except for exception handling. That directive is deprecated--%exception provides the same functionality, but is substantially more flexible.

12.1.1 Handling exceptions in C code

C has no formal exception handling mechanism so there are several approaches that might be used. A somewhat common technique is to simply set a special error code. For example:

/* File : except.c */

static char error_message[256];
static int error_status = 0;

void throw_exception(char *msg) {
	strncpy(error_message,msg,256);
	error_status = 1;
}

void clear_exception() {
	error_status = 0;
}
char *check_exception() {
	if (error_status) return error_message;
	else return NULL;
}

To use these functions, functions simply call throw_exception() to indicate an error occurred. For example :

double inv(double x) {
	if (x != 0) return 1.0/x;
	else {
		throw_exception("Division by zero");
		return 0;
	}
}

To catch the exception, you can write a simple exception handler such as the following (shown for Perl5) :

%exception {
    char *err;
    clear_exception();
    $action
    if ((err = check_exception())) {
       croak(err);
    }
}

In this case, when an error occurs, it is translated into a Perl error. Each target language has its own approach to creating a runtime error/exception in and for Perl it is the croak method shown above.

12.1.2 Exception handling with longjmp()

Exception handling can also be added to C code using the <setjmp.h> library. Here is a minimalistic implementation that relies on the C preprocessor :

/* File : except.c
   Just the declaration of a few global variables we're going to use */

#include <setjmp.h>
jmp_buf exception_buffer;
int exception_status;

/* File : except.h */
#include <setjmp.h>
extern jmp_buf exception_buffer;
extern int exception_status;

#define try if ((exception_status = setjmp(exception_buffer)) == 0)
#define catch(val) else if (exception_status == val)
#define throw(val) longjmp(exception_buffer,val)
#define finally else

/* Exception codes */

#define RangeError     1
#define DivisionByZero 2
#define OutOfMemory    3

Now, within a C program, you can do the following :

double inv(double x) {
	if (x) return 1.0/x;
	else throw(DivisionByZero);
}

Finally, to create a SWIG exception handler, write the following :

%{
#include "except.h"
%}

%exception {
	try {
		$action
	} catch(RangeError) {
		croak("Range Error");
	} catch(DivisionByZero) {
		croak("Division by zero");
	} catch(OutOfMemory) {
		croak("Out of memory");
	} finally {
		croak("Unknown exception");
	}
}

Note: This implementation is only intended to illustrate the general idea. To make it work better, you'll need to modify it to handle nested try declarations.

12.1.3 Handling C++ exceptions

Handling C++ exceptions is also straightforward. For example:

%exception {
	try {
		$action
	} catch(RangeError) {
		croak("Range Error");
	} catch(DivisionByZero) {
		croak("Division by zero");
	} catch(OutOfMemory) {
		croak("Out of memory");
	} catch(...) {
		croak("Unknown exception");
	}
}

The exception types need to be declared as classes elsewhere, possibly in a header file :

class RangeError {};
class DivisionByZero {};
class OutOfMemory {};

12.1.4 Exception handlers for variables

By default all variables will ignore %exception, so it is effectively turned off for all variables wrappers. This applies to global variables, member variables and static member variables. The approach is certainly a logical one when wrapping variables in C. However, in C++, it is quite possible for an exception to be thrown while the variable is being assigned. To ensure %exception is used when wrapping variables, it needs to be 'turned on' using the %allowexception feature. Note that %allowexception is just a macro for %feature("allowexcept"), that is, it is a feature called "allowexcept". Any variable which has this feature attached to it, will then use the %exception feature, but of course, only if there is a %exception attached to the variable in the first place. The %allowexception feature works like any other feature and so can be used globally or for selective variables.

%allowexception;                // turn on globally
%allowexception Klass::MyVar;   // turn on for a specific variable

%noallowexception Klass::MyVar; // turn off for a specific variable
%noallowexception;              // turn off globally

12.1.5 Defining different exception handlers

By default, the %exception directive creates an exception handler that is used for all wrapper functions that follow it. Unless there is a well-defined (and simple) error handling mechanism in place, defining one universal exception handler may be unwieldy and result in excessive code bloat since the handler is inlined into each wrapper function.

To fix this, you can be more selective about how you use the %exception directive. One approach is to only place it around critical pieces of code. For example:

%exception {
	... your exception handler ...
}
/* Define critical operations that can throw exceptions here */

%exception;

/* Define non-critical operations that don't throw exceptions */

More precise control over exception handling can be obtained by attaching an exception handler to specific declaration name. For example:

%exception allocate {
    try {
        $action
    } 
    catch (MemoryError) {
        croak("Out of memory");
    }
}

In this case, the exception handler is only attached to declarations named "allocate". This would include both global and member functions. The names supplied to %exception follow the same rules as for %rename described in the section on Ambiguity resolution and renaming. For example, if you wanted to define an exception handler for a specific class, you might write this:

%exception Object::allocate {
    try {
        $action
    } 
    catch (MemoryError) {
        croak("Out of memory");
    }
}

When a class prefix is supplied, the exception handler is applied to the corresponding declaration in the specified class as well as for identically named functions appearing in derived classes.

%exception can even be used to pinpoint a precise declaration when overloading is used. For example:

%exception Object::allocate(int) {
    try {
        $action
    } 
    catch (MemoryError) {
        croak("Out of memory");
    }
}

Attaching exceptions to specific declarations is a good way to reduce code bloat. It can also be a useful way to attach exceptions to specific parts of a header file. For example:

%module example
%{
#include "someheader.h"
%}

// Define a few exception handlers for specific declarations
%exception Object::allocate(int) {
    try {
        $action
    } 
    catch (MemoryError) {
        croak("Out of memory");
    }
}

%exception Object::getitem {
    try {
       $action
    }
    catch (RangeError) {
       croak("Index out of range");
    }
}
...
// Read a raw header file
%include "someheader.h"

Compatibility note: The %exception directive replaces the functionality provided by the deprecated "except" typemap. The typemap would allow exceptions to be thrown in the target language based on the return type of a function and was intended to be a mechanism for pinpointing specific declarations. However, it never really worked that well and the new %exception directive is much better.

12.1.6 Special variables for %exception

The %exception directive supports a few special variables which are placeholders for code substitution. The following table shows the available special variables and details what the special variables are replaced with.

$actionThe actual operation to be performed (a function call, method invocation, variable access, etc.)
$nameThe C/C++ symbol name for the function.
$symnameThe symbol name used internally by SWIG
$overnameThe extra mangling used in the symbol name for overloaded method. Expands to nothing if the wrapped method is not overloaded.
$wrapnameThe language specific wrapper name (usually a C function name exported from the shared object/dll)
$declThe fully qualified C/C++ declaration of the method being wrapped without the return type
$fulldeclThe fully qualified C/C++ declaration of the method being wrapped including the return type
$parentnameThe parent class name (if any) for a method.
$parentsymnameThe target language parent class name (if any) for a method.

The special variables are often used in situations where method calls are logged. Exactly which form of the method call needs logging is up to individual requirements, but the example code below shows all the possible expansions, plus how an exception message could be tailored to show the C++ method declaration:

%exception Special::something {
  log("symname: $symname");
  log("overname: $overname");
  log("wrapname: $wrapname");
  log("decl: $decl");
  log("fulldecl: $fulldecl");
  try {
    $action
  } 
  catch (MemoryError) {
      croak("Out of memory in $decl");
  }
}
void log(const char *message);
struct Special {
  void something(const char *c);
  void something(int i);
};

Below shows the expansions for the 1st of the overloaded something wrapper methods for Perl:

  log("symname: Special_something");
  log("overname: __SWIG_0");
  log("wrapname: _wrap_Special_something__SWIG_0");
  log("decl: Special::something(char const *)");
  log("fulldecl: void Special::something(char const *)");
  try {
    (arg1)->something((char const *)arg2);
  } 
  catch (MemoryError) {
    croak("Out of memory in Special::something(char const *)");
  }

12.1.7 Using The SWIG exception library

The exception.i library file provides support for creating language independent exceptions in your interfaces. To use it, simply put an "%include exception.i" in your interface file. This creates a function SWIG_exception() that can be used to raise common scripting language exceptions in a portable manner. For example :

// Language independent exception handler
%include exception.i       

%exception {
    try {
        $action
    } catch(RangeError) {
        SWIG_exception(SWIG_ValueError, "Range Error");
    } catch(DivisionByZero) {
        SWIG_exception(SWIG_DivisionByZero, "Division by zero");
    } catch(OutOfMemory) {
        SWIG_exception(SWIG_MemoryError, "Out of memory");
    } catch(...) {
        SWIG_exception(SWIG_RuntimeError,"Unknown exception");
    }
}

As arguments, SWIG_exception() takes an error type code (an integer) and an error message string. The currently supported error types are :

SWIG_UnknownError
SWIG_IOError
SWIG_RuntimeError
SWIG_IndexError
SWIG_TypeError
SWIG_DivisionByZero
SWIG_OverflowError
SWIG_SyntaxError
SWIG_ValueError
SWIG_SystemError
SWIG_AttributeError
SWIG_MemoryError
SWIG_NullReferenceError

The SWIG_exception() function can also be used in typemaps.

12.2 Object ownership and %newobject

A common problem in some applications is managing proper ownership of objects. For example, consider a function like this:

Foo *blah() {
   Foo *f = new Foo();
   return f;
}

If you wrap the function blah(), SWIG has no idea that the return value is a newly allocated object. As a result, the resulting extension module may produce a memory leak (SWIG is conservative and will never delete objects unless it knows for certain that the returned object was newly created).

To fix this, you can provide an extra hint to the code generator using the %newobject directive. For example:

%newobject blah;
Foo *blah();

%newobject works exactly like %rename and %exception. In other words, you can attach it to class members and parameterized declarations as before. For example:

%newobject ::blah();                   // Only applies to global blah
%newobject Object::blah(int,double);   // Only blah(int,double) in Object
%newobject *::copy;                    // Copy method in all classes
...

When %newobject is supplied, many language modules will arrange to take ownership of the return value. This allows the value to be automatically garbage-collected when it is no longer in use. However, this depends entirely on the target language (a language module may also choose to ignore the %newobject directive).

Closely related to %newobject is a special typemap. The "newfree" typemap can be used to deallocate a newly allocated return value. It is only available on methods for which %newobject has been applied and is commonly used to clean-up string results. For example:

%typemap(newfree) char * "free($1);";
...
%newobject strdup;
...
char *strdup(const char *s);

In this case, the result of the function is a string in the target language. Since this string is a copy of the original result, the data returned by strdup() is no longer needed. The "newfree" typemap in the example simply releases this memory.

As a complement to the %newobject, from SWIG 1.3.28, you can use the %delobject directive. For example, if you have two methods, one to create objects and one to destroy them, you can use:

%newobject create_foo;
%delobject destroy_foo;
...
Foo *create_foo();
void destroy_foo(Foo *foo);

or in a member method as:

%delobject Foo::destroy;

class Foo {
public:
  void destroy() { delete this;}

private:
  ~Foo();
};

%delobject instructs SWIG that the first argument passed to the method will be destroyed, and therefore, the target language should not attempt to deallocate it twice. This is similar to use the DISOWN typemap in the first method argument, and in fact, it also depends on the target language on implementing the 'disown' mechanism properly.

The use of %newobject is also integrated with reference counting and is covered in the C++ reference counted objects section.

Compatibility note: Previous versions of SWIG had a special %new directive. However, unlike %newobject, it only applied to the next declaration. For example:

%new char *strdup(const char *s);

For now this is still supported but is deprecated.

How to shoot yourself in the foot: The %newobject directive is not a declaration modifier like the old %new directive. Don't write code like this:

%newobject
char *strdup(const char *s);

The results might not be what you expect.

12.3 Features and the %feature directive

Both %exception and %newobject are examples of a more general purpose customization mechanism known as "features." A feature is simply a user-definable property that is attached to specific declarations. Features are attached using the %feature directive. For example:

%feature("except") Object::allocate {
    try {
        $action
    } 
    catch (MemoryError) {
        croak("Out of memory");
    }
}

%feature("new","1") *::copy;

In fact, the %exception and %newobject directives are really nothing more than macros involving %feature:

#define %exception %feature("except")
#define %newobject %feature("new","1")

The name matching rules outlined in the Ambiguity resolution and renaming section applies to all %feature directives. In fact the %rename directive is just a special form of %feature. The matching rules mean that features are very flexible and can be applied with pinpoint accuracy to specific declarations if needed. Additionally, if no declaration name is given, a global feature is said to be defined. This feature is then attached to every declaration that follows. This is how global exception handlers are defined. For example:

/* Define a global exception handler */
%feature("except") {
   try {
     $action
   }
   ...
}

... bunch of declarations ...

The %feature directive can be used with different syntax. The following are all equivalent:

%feature("except") Object::method { $action };
%feature("except") Object::method %{ $action %};
%feature("except") Object::method " $action ";
%feature("except","$action") Object::method;

The syntax in the first variation will generate the { } delimiters used whereas the other variations will not.

12.3.1 Feature attributes

The %feature directive also accepts XML style attributes in the same way that typemaps do. Any number of attributes can be specified. The following is the generic syntax for features:

%feature("name","value", attribute1="AttributeValue1") symbol;
%feature("name", attribute1="AttributeValue1") symbol {value};
%feature("name", attribute1="AttributeValue1") symbol %{value%};
%feature("name", attribute1="AttributeValue1") symbol "value";

More than one attribute can be specified using a comma separated list. The Java module is an example that uses attributes in %feature("except"). The throws attribute specifies the name of a Java class to add to a proxy method's throws clause. In the following example, MyExceptionClass is the name of the Java class for adding to the throws clause.

%feature("except", throws="MyExceptionClass") Object::method { 
   try {
     $action
   } catch (...) {
     ... code to throw a MyExceptionClass Java exception ...
   }
};

Further details can be obtained from the Java exception handling section.

12.3.2 Feature flags

Feature flags are used to enable or disable a particular feature. Feature flags are a common but simple usage of %feature and the feature value should be either 1 to enable or 0 to disable the feature.

%feature("featurename")          // enables feature
%feature("featurename", "1")     // enables feature
%feature("featurename", "x")     // enables feature
%feature("featurename", "0")     // disables feature
%feature("featurename", "")      // clears feature

Actually any value other than zero will enable the feature. Note that if the value is omitted completely, the default value becomes 1, thereby enabling the feature. A feature is cleared by specifying no value, see Clearing features. The %immutable directive described in the Creating read-only variables section, is just a macro for %feature("immutable"), and can be used to demonstrates feature flags:

                                // features are disabled by default
int red;                        // mutable

%feature("immutable");          // global enable
int orange;                     // immutable

%feature("immutable","0");      // global disable
int yellow;                     // mutable

%feature("immutable","1");      // another form of global enable
int green;                      // immutable

%feature("immutable","");       // clears the global feature
int blue;                       // mutable

Note that features are disabled by default and must be explicitly enabled either globally or by specifying a targeted declaration. The above intersperses SWIG directives with C code. Of course you can target features explicitly, so the above could also be rewritten as:

%feature("immutable","1") orange;
%feature("immutable","1") green;
int red;                        // mutable
int orange;                     // immutable
int yellow;                     // mutable
int green;                      // immutable
int blue;                       // mutable

The above approach allows for the C declarations to be separated from the SWIG directives for when the C declarations are parsed from a C header file. The logic above can of course be inverted and rewritten as:

%feature("immutable","1");
%feature("immutable","0") red;
%feature("immutable","0") yellow;
%feature("immutable","0") blue;
int red;                        // mutable
int orange;                     // immutable
int yellow;                     // mutable
int green;                      // immutable
int blue;                       // mutable

As hinted above for %immutable, most feature flags can also be specified via alternative syntax. The alternative syntax is just a macro in the swig.swg Library file. The following shows the alternative syntax for the imaginary featurename feature:

%featurename       // equivalent to %feature("featurename", "1") ie enables feature
%nofeaturename     // equivalent to %feature("featurename", "0") ie disables feature
%clearfeaturename  // equivalent to %feature("featurename", "")  ie clears feature

The concept of clearing features is discussed next.

12.3.3 Clearing features

A feature stays in effect until it is explicitly cleared. A feature is cleared by supplying a %feature directive with no value. For example %feature("name",""). A cleared feature means that any feature exactly matching any previously defined feature is no longer used in the name matching rules. So if a feature is cleared, it might mean that another name matching rule will apply. To clarify, let's consider the except feature again (%exception):

// Define global exception handler
%feature("except") {
    try {
        $action
    } catch (...) {
        croak("Unknown C++ exception");
    }
}

// Define exception handler for all clone methods to log the method calls
%feature("except") *::clone() {
    try {
        logger.info("$action");
        $action
    } catch (...) {
        croak("Unknown C++ exception");
    }
}

... initial set of class declarations with clone methods ...

// clear the previously defined feature
%feature("except","") *::clone();

... final set of class declarations with clone methods ...

In the above scenario, the initial set of clone methods will log all method invocations from the target language. This specific feature is cleared for the final set of clone methods. However, these clone methods will still have an exception handler (without logging) as the next best feature match for them is the global exception handler.

Note that clearing a feature is not always the same as disabling it. Clearing the feature above with %feature("except","") *::clone() is not the same as specifying %feature("except","0") *::clone() . The former will disable the feature for clone methods - the feature is still a better match than the global feature. If on the other hand, no global exception handler had been defined at all, then clearing the feature would be the same as disabling it as no other feature would have matched.

Note that the feature must match exactly for it to be cleared by any previously defined feature. For example the following attempt to clear the initial feature will not work:

%feature("except") clone() { logger.info("$action"); $action }
%feature("except","") *::clone();

but this will:

%feature("except") clone() { logger.info("$action"); $action }
%feature("except","") clone();

SWIG provides macros for disabling and clearing features. Many of these can be found in the swig.swg library file. The typical pattern is to define three macros; one to define the feature itself, one to disable the feature and one to clear the feature. The three macros below show this for the "except" feature:

#define %exception      %feature("except")
#define %noexception    %feature("except","0")
#define %clearexception %feature("except","")

12.3.4 Features and default arguments

SWIG treats methods with default arguments as separate overloaded methods as detailed in the default arguments section. Any %feature targeting a method with default arguments will apply to all the extra overloaded methods that SWIG generates if the default arguments are specified in the feature. If the default arguments are not specified in the feature, then the feature will match that exact wrapper method only and not the extra overloaded methods that SWIG generates. For example:

%feature("except") void hello(int i=0, double d=0.0) { ... }
void hello(int i=0, double d=0.0);

will apply the feature to all three wrapper methods, that is:

void hello(int i, double d);
void hello(int i);
void hello();

If the default arguments are not specified in the feature:

%feature("except") void hello(int i, double d) { ... }
void hello(int i=0, double d=0.0);

then the feature will only apply to this wrapper method:

void hello(int i, double d);

and not these wrapper methods:

void hello(int i);
void hello();

If compactdefaultargs are being used, then the difference between specifying or not specifying default arguments in a feature is not applicable as just one wrapper is generated.

Compatibility note: The different behaviour of features specified with or without default arguments was introduced in SWIG-1.3.23 when the approach to wrapping methods with default arguments was changed.

12.3.5 Feature example

As has been shown earlier, the intended use for the %feature directive is as a highly flexible customization mechanism that can be used to annotate declarations with additional information for use by specific target language modules. Another example is in the Python module. You might use %feature to rewrite proxy/shadow class code as follows:

%module example
%rename(bar_id) bar(int,double);

// Rewrite bar() to allow some nice overloading

%feature("shadow") Foo::bar(int) %{
def bar(*args):
    if len(args) == 3:
         return apply(examplec.Foo_bar_id,args)
    return apply(examplec.Foo_bar,args)
%}
    
class Foo {
public:
    int bar(int x);
    int bar(int x, double y);
}

Further details of %feature usage is described in the documentation for specific language modules.


13 Contracts

A common problem that arises when wrapping C libraries is that of maintaining reliability and checking for errors. The fact of the matter is that many C programs are notorious for not providing error checks. Not only that, when you expose the internals of an application as a library, it often becomes possible to crash it simply by providing bad inputs or using it in a way that wasn't intended.

This chapter describes SWIG's support for software contracts. In the context of SWIG, a contract can be viewed as a runtime constraint that is attached to a declaration. For example, you can easily attach argument checking rules, check the output values of a function and more. When one of the rules is violated by a script, a runtime exception is generated rather than having the program continue to execute.

13.1 The %contract directive

Contracts are added to a declaration using the %contract directive. Here is a simple example:

%contract sqrt(double x) {
require:
    x >= 0;
ensure:
    sqrt >= 0;
}

...
double sqrt(double);

In this case, a contract is being added to the sqrt() function. The %contract directive must always appear before the declaration in question. Within the contract there are two sections, both of which are optional. The require: section specifies conditions that must hold before the function is called. Typically, this is used to check argument values. The ensure: section specifies conditions that must hold after the function is called. This is often used to check return values or the state of the program. In both cases, the conditions that must hold must be specified as boolean expressions.

In the above example, we're simply making sure that sqrt() returns a non-negative number (if it didn't, then it would be broken in some way).

Once a contract has been specified, it modifies the behavior of the resulting module. For example:

>>> example.sqrt(2)
1.4142135623730951
>>> example.sqrt(-2)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in ?
RuntimeError: Contract violation: require: (arg1>=0)
>>>

13.2 %contract and classes

The %contract directive can also be applied to class methods and constructors. For example:

%contract Foo::bar(int x, int y) {
require:
   x > 0;
ensure:
   bar > 0;
}

%contract Foo::Foo(int a) {
require:
   a > 0;
}

class Foo {
public:
    Foo(int);
    int bar(int, int);
};

The way in which %contract is applied is exactly the same as the %feature directive. Thus, any contract that you specified for a base class will also be attached to inherited methods. For example:

class Spam : public Foo {
public:
   int bar(int,int);    // Gets contract defined for Foo::bar(int,int)
};

In addition to this, separate contracts can be applied to both the base class and a derived class. For example:

%contract Foo::bar(int x, int) {
require:
    x > 0;
}

%contract Spam::bar(int, int y) {
require:
    y > 0;
}

class Foo {
public:
    int bar(int,int);   // Gets Foo::bar contract.
};

class Spam : public Foo {
public:
     int bar(int,int);   // Gets Foo::bar and Spam::bar contract
};

When more than one contract is applied, the conditions specified in a "require:" section are combined together using a logical-AND operation. In other words conditions specified for the base class and conditions specified for the derived class all must hold. In the above example, this means that both the arguments to Spam::bar must be positive.

13.3 Constant aggregation and %aggregate_check

Consider an interface file that contains the following code:

#define  UP     1
#define  DOWN   2
#define  RIGHT  3
#define  LEFT   4

void move(SomeObject *, int direction, int distance);

One thing you might want to do is impose a constraint on the direction parameter to make sure it's one of a few accepted values. To do that, SWIG provides an easy to use macro %aggregate_check() that works like this:

%aggregate_check(int, check_direction, UP, DOWN, LEFT, RIGHT);

This merely defines a utility function of the form

int check_direction(int x);

That checks the argument x to see if it is one of the values listed. This utility function can be used in contracts. For example:

%aggregate_check(int, check_direction, UP, DOWN, RIGHT, LEFT);

%contract move(SomeObject *, int direction, in) {
require:
     check_direction(direction);
}

#define  UP     1
#define  DOWN   2
#define  RIGHT  3
#define  LEFT   4

void move(SomeObject *, int direction, int distance);

Alternatively, it can be used in typemaps and other directives. For example:

%aggregate_check(int, check_direction, UP, DOWN, RIGHT, LEFT);

%typemap(check) int direction {
    if (!check_direction($1)) SWIG_exception(SWIG_ValueError, "Bad direction");
}

#define  UP     1
#define  DOWN   2
#define  RIGHT  3
#define  LEFT   4

void move(SomeObject *, int direction, int distance);

Regrettably, there is no automatic way to perform similar checks with enums values. Maybe in a future release.

13.4 Notes

Contract support was implemented by Songyan (Tiger) Feng and first appeared in SWIG-1.3.20.


14 Variable Length Arguments

(a.k.a, "The horror. The horror.")

This chapter describes the problem of wrapping functions that take a variable number of arguments. For instance, generating wrappers for the C printf() family of functions.

This topic is sufficiently advanced to merit its own chapter. In fact, support for varargs is an often requested feature that was first added in SWIG-1.3.12. Most other wrapper generation tools have wisely chosen to avoid this issue.

14.1 Introduction

Some C and C++ programs may include functions that accept a variable number of arguments. For example, most programmers are familiar with functions from the C library such as the following:

int printf(const char *fmt, ...)
int fprintf(FILE *, const char *fmt, ...);
int sprintf(char *s, const char *fmt, ...);

Although there is probably little practical purpose in wrapping these specific C library functions in a scripting language (what would be the point?), a library may include its own set of special functions based on a similar API. For example:

int  traceprintf(const char *fmt, ...);

In this case, you may want to have some kind of access from the target language.

Before describing the SWIG implementation, it is important to discuss the common uses of varargs that you are likely to encounter in real programs. Obviously, there are the printf() style output functions as shown. Closely related to this would be scanf() style input functions that accept a format string and a list of pointers into which return values are placed. However, variable length arguments are also sometimes used to write functions that accept a NULL-terminated list of pointers. A good example of this would be a function like this:

int execlp(const char *path, const char *arg1, ...);
...

/* Example */
execlp("ls","ls","-l",NULL);

In addition, varargs is sometimes used to fake default arguments in older C libraries. For instance, the low level open() system call is often declared as a varargs function so that it will accept two or three arguments:

int open(const char *path, int oflag, ...);
...

/* Examples */
f = open("foo", O_RDONLY);
g = open("bar", O_WRONLY | O_CREAT, 0644);

Finally, to implement a varargs function, recall that you have to use the C library functions defined in <stdarg.h>. For example:

List make_list(const char *s, ...) {
    va_list ap;
    List    x;
    ...
    va_start(ap, s);
    while (s) {
       x.append(s);
       s = va_arg(ap, const char *);
    }
    va_end(ap);
    return x;
}

14.2 The Problem

Generating wrappers for a variable length argument function presents a number of special challenges. Although C provides support for implementing functions that receive variable length arguments, there are no functions that can go in the other direction. Specifically, you can't write a function that dynamically creates a list of arguments and which invokes a varargs function on your behalf.

Although it is possible to write functions that accept the special type va_list, this is something entirely different. You can't take a va_list structure and pass it in place of the variable length arguments to another varargs function. It just doesn't work.

The reason this doesn't work has to do with the way that function calls get compiled. For example, suppose that your program has a function call like this:

printf("Hello %s. Your number is %d\n", name, num);

When the compiler looks at this, it knows that you are calling printf() with exactly three arguments. Furthermore, it knows that the number of arguments as well are their types and sizes is never going to change during program execution. Therefore, this gets turned to machine code that sets up a three-argument stack frame followed by a call to printf().

In contrast, suppose you attempted to make some kind of wrapper around printf() using code like this:

int wrap_printf(const char *fmt, ...) {
   va_list ap;
   va_start(ap,fmt);
   ...
   printf(fmt,ap);
   ...
   va_end(ap);
};

Although this code might compile, it won't do what you expect. This is because the call to printf() is compiled as a procedure call involving only two arguments. However, clearly a two-argument configuration of the call stack is completely wrong if your intent is to pass an arbitrary number of arguments to the real printf(). Needless to say, it won't work.

Unfortunately, the situation just described is exactly the problem faced by wrapper generation tools. In general, the number of passed arguments will not be known until run-time. To make matters even worse, you won't know the types and sizes of arguments until run-time as well. Needless to say, there is no obvious way to make the C compiler generate code for a function call involving an unknown number of arguments of unknown types.

In theory, it is possible to write a wrapper that does the right thing. However, this involves knowing the underlying ABI for the target platform and language as well as writing special purpose code that manually constructed the call stack before making a procedure call. Unfortunately, both of these tasks require the use of inline assembly code. Clearly, that's the kind of solution you would much rather avoid.

With this nastiness in mind, SWIG provides a number of solutions to the varargs wrapping problem. Most of these solutions are compromises that provide limited varargs support without having to resort to assembly language. However, SWIG can also support real varargs wrapping (with stack-frame manipulation) if you are willing to get hands dirty. Keep reading.

14.3 Default varargs support

When variable length arguments appear in an interface, the default behavior is to drop the variable argument list entirely, replacing them with a single NULL pointer. For example, if you had this function,

void traceprintf(const char *fmt, ...);

it would be wrapped as if it had been declared as follows:

void traceprintf(const char *fmt);

When the function is called inside the wrappers, it is called as follows:

traceprintf(arg1, NULL);

Arguably, this approach seems to defeat the whole point of variable length arguments. However, this actually provides enough support for many simple kinds of varargs functions to still be useful, however it does come with a caveat. For instance, you could make function calls like this (in Python):

>>> traceprintf("Hello World")
>>> traceprintf("Hello %s. Your number is %d\n" % (name, num))
>>> traceprintf("Your result is 90%%.")

Notice how string formatting is being done in Python instead of C. The caveat is the strings passed must be safe to use in C though. For example if name was to contain a "%" it should be double escaped in order to avoid unpredictable behaviour:

>>> traceprintf("Your result is 90%.\n")  # unpredictable behaviour
>>> traceprintf("Your result is 90%%.\n") # good

Read on for further solutions.

14.4 Argument replacement using %varargs

Instead of dropping the variable length arguments, an alternative approach is to replace (...) with a set of suitable arguments. SWIG provides a special %varargs directive that can be used to do this. For example,

%varargs(int mode = 0) open;
...
int open(const char *path, int oflags, ...);

is equivalent to this:

int open(const char *path, int oflags, int mode = 0);

In this case, %varargs is simply providing more specific information about the extra arguments that might be passed to a function. If the arguments to a varargs function are of uniform type, %varargs can also accept a numerical argument count as follows:

%varargs(3, char *str = NULL) execlp;
...
int execlp(const char *path, const char *arg, ...);

and is effectively seen as:

int execlp(const char *path, const char *arg, 
           char *str1 = NULL, 
           char *str2 = NULL, 
           char *str3 = NULL);

This would wrap execlp() as a function that accepted up to 3 optional arguments. Depending on the application, this may be more than enough for practical purposes.

The handling of default arguments can be changed via the compactdefaultargs feature. If this feature is used, for example

%feature("compactdefaultargs") execlp;
%varargs(3, char *str = NULL) execlp;
...
int execlp(const char *path, const char *arg, ...);

a call from the target language which does not provide the maximum number of arguments, such as, execlp("a", "b", "c") will generate C code which includes the missing default values, that is, execlp("a", "b", "c", NULL, NULL). If compactdefaultargs is not used, then the generated code will be execlp("a", "b", "c") . The former is useful for helping providing a sentinel to terminate the argument list. However, this is not guaranteed, for example when a user passes a non-NULL value for all the parameters. When using compactdefaultargs it is possible to guarantee the NULL sentinel is passed through the, numinputs=0 'in' typemap attribute, naming the last parameter. For example,

%feature("compactdefaultargs") execlp;
%varargs(3, char *str = NULL) execlp;
%typemap(in, numinputs=0) char *str3 ""
...
int execlp(const char *path, const char *arg, ...);

Note that str3 is the name of the last argument, as we have used %varargs with 3. Now execlp("a", "b", "c", "d", "e") will result in an error as one too many arguments has been passed, as now only 2 additional 'str' arguments can be passed with the 3rd one always using the specified default NULL.

Argument replacement is most appropriate in cases where the types of the extra arguments are uniform and the maximum number of arguments are known. Argument replacement is not as useful when working with functions that accept mixed argument types such as printf(). Providing general purpose wrappers to such functions presents special problems (covered shortly).

14.5 Varargs and typemaps

Variable length arguments may be used in typemap specifications. For example:

%typemap(in) (...) {
    // Get variable length arguments (somehow)
    ...
}

%typemap(in) (const char *fmt, ...) {
    // Multi-argument typemap
}

However, this immediately raises the question of what "type" is actually used to represent (...). For lack of a better alternative, the type of (...) is set to void *. Since there is no way to dynamically pass arguments to a varargs function (as previously described), the void * argument value is intended to serve as a place holder for storing some kind of information about the extra arguments (if any). In addition, the default behavior of SWIG is to pass the void * value as an argument to the function. Therefore, you could use the pointer to hold a valid argument value if you wanted.

To illustrate, here is a safer version of wrapping printf() in Python:

%typemap(in) (const char *fmt, ...) {
    $1 = "%s";                                /* Fix format string to %s */
    $2 = (void *) PyString_AsString($input);  /* Get string argument */
};
...
int printf(const char *fmt, ...);

In this example, the format string is implicitly set to "%s" . This prevents a program from passing a bogus format string to the extension. Then, the passed input object is decoded and placed in the void * argument defined for the (...) argument. When the actual function call is made, the underlying wrapper code will look roughly like this:

wrap_printf() {
   char *arg1;
   void *arg2;
   int   result;

   arg1 = "%s";
   arg2 = (void *) PyString_AsString(arg2obj);
   ...
   result = printf(arg1,arg2);
   ...
}

Notice how both arguments are passed to the function and it does what you would expect.

The next example illustrates a more advanced kind of varargs typemap. Disclaimer: this requires special support in the target language module and is not guaranteed to work with all SWIG modules at this time. It also starts to illustrate some of the more fundamental problems with supporting varargs in more generality.

If a typemap is defined for any form of (...), many SWIG modules will generate wrappers that accept a variable number of arguments as input and will make these arguments available in some form. The precise details of this depends on the language module being used (consult the appropriate chapter for more details). However, suppose that you wanted to create a Python wrapper for the execlp() function shown earlier. To do this using a typemap instead of using %varargs, you might first write a typemap like this:

%typemap(in) (...)(char *vargs[10]) {
  int i;
  int argc;
  for (i = 0; i < 10; i++) vargs[i] = 0;
  argc = PyTuple_Size(varargs);
  if (argc > 10) {
    PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError, "Too many arguments");
    return NULL;
  }
  for (i = 0; i < argc; i++) {
    PyObject *pyobj = PyTuple_GetItem(varargs, i);
    char *str = 0;
%#if PY_VERSION_HEX>=0x03000000
    PyObject *pystr;
    if (!PyUnicode_Check(pyobj)) {
       PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError, "Expected a string");
       return NULL;
    }
    pystr = PyUnicode_AsUTF8String(pyobj);
    str = strdup(PyBytes_AsString(pystr));
    Py_XDECREF(pystr);
%#else  
    if (!PyString_Check(pyobj)) {
       PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError, "Expected a string");
       return NULL;
    }
    str = PyString_AsString(pyobj);
%#endif
    vargs[i] = str;
  }
  $1 = (void *)vargs;
}

%typemap(freearg) (...) {
%#if PY_VERSION_HEX>=0x03000000
  int i;
  for (i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
    free(vargs$argnum[i]);
  }
%#endif
}

In the 'in' typemap, the special variable varargs is a tuple holding all of the extra arguments passed (this is specific to the Python module). The typemap then pulls this apart and sticks the values into the array of strings args. Then, the array is assigned to $1 (recall that this is the void * variable corresponding to (...)). However, this assignment is only half of the picture----clearly this alone is not enough to make the function work. The 'freearg' typemap cleans up memory allocated in the 'in' typemap; this code is generated to be called after the execlp function is called. To patch everything up, you have to rewrite the underlying action code using the %feature directive like this:

%feature("action") execlp {
  char **vargs = (char **) arg3;
  result = execlp(arg1, arg2, vargs[0], vargs[1], vargs[2], vargs[3], vargs[4],
                  vargs[5], vargs[6], vargs[7], vargs[8], vargs[9], NULL);
}

int execlp(const char *path, const char *arg, ...);

This patches everything up and creates a function that more or less works. However, don't try explaining this to your coworkers unless you know for certain that they've had several cups of coffee. If you really want to elevate your guru status and increase your job security, continue to the next section.

14.6 Varargs wrapping with libffi

All of the previous examples have relied on features of SWIG that are portable and which don't rely upon any low-level machine-level details. In many ways, they have all dodged the real issue of variable length arguments by recasting a varargs function into some weaker variation with a fixed number of arguments of known types. In many cases, this works perfectly fine. However, if you want more generality than this, you need to bring out some bigger guns.

One way to do this is to use a special purpose library such as libffi ( http://sources.redhat.com/libffi). libffi is a library that allows you to dynamically construct call-stacks and invoke procedures in a relatively platform independent manner. Details about the library can be found in the libffi distribution and are not repeated here.

To illustrate the use of libffi, suppose that you really wanted to create a wrapper for execlp() that accepted any number of arguments. To do this, you might make a few adjustments to the previous example. For example:

/* Take an arbitrary number of extra arguments and place into an array
   of strings */

%typemap(in) (...) {
   char **argv;
   int    argc;
   int    i;

   argc = PyTuple_Size(varargs);
   argv = (char **) malloc(sizeof(char *)*(argc+1));
   for (i = 0; i < argc; i++) {
      PyObject *o = PyTuple_GetItem(varargs,i);
      if (!PyString_Check(o)) {
          PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError,"Expected a string");
	  free(argv);
          return NULL;
      }
      argv[i] = PyString_AsString(o);
   }
   argv[i] = NULL;
   $1 = (void *) argv;
}

/* Rewrite the function call, using libffi */    

%feature("action") execlp {
  int       i, vc;
  ffi_cif   cif;
  ffi_type  **types;
  void      **values;
  char      **args;

  vc = PyTuple_Size(varargs);
  types  = (ffi_type **) malloc((vc+3)*sizeof(ffi_type *));
  values = (void **) malloc((vc+3)*sizeof(void *));
  args   = (char **) arg3;

  /* Set up path parameter */
  types[0] = &ffi_type_pointer;
  values[0] = &arg1;
  
  /* Set up first argument */
  types[1] = &ffi_type_pointer;
  values[1] = &arg2;

  /* Set up rest of parameters */
  for (i = 0; i <= vc; i++) {
    types[2+i] = &ffi_type_pointer;
    values[2+i] = &args[i];
  }
  if (ffi_prep_cif(&cif, FFI_DEFAULT_ABI, vc+3,
                   &ffi_type_uint, types) == FFI_OK) {
    ffi_call(&cif, (void (*)()) execlp, &result, values);
  } else {
    PyErr_SetString(PyExc_RuntimeError, "Whoa!!!!!");
    free(types);
    free(values);
    free(arg3);
    return NULL;
  }
  free(types);
  free(values);
  free(arg3);
}

/* Declare the function. Whew! */
int execlp(const char *path, const char *arg1, ...);

Looking at this example, you may start to wonder if SWIG is making life any easier. Given the amount of code involved, you might also wonder why you didn't just write a hand-crafted wrapper! Either that or you're wondering "why in the hell am I trying to wrap this varargs function in the first place?!?" Obviously, those are questions you'll have to answer for yourself.

As a more extreme example of libffi, here is some code that attempts to wrap printf(),

/* A wrapper for printf() using libffi */

%{
/* Structure for holding passed arguments after conversion */
  typedef struct {
    int type;
    union {
      int    ivalue;
      double dvalue;
      void   *pvalue;
    } val;
  } vtype;
  enum { VT_INT, VT_DOUBLE, VT_POINTER };
%}

%typemap(in) (const char *fmt, ...) {
  vtype *argv;
  int    argc;
  int    i;

  /* Format string */
  $1 = PyString_AsString($input);

  /* Variable length arguments */
  argc = PyTuple_Size(varargs);
  argv = (vtype *) malloc(argc*sizeof(vtype));
  for (i = 0; i < argc; i++) {
    PyObject *o = PyTuple_GetItem(varargs,i);
    if (PyInt_Check(o)) {
      argv[i].type = VT_INT;
      argv[i].val.ivalue = PyInt_AsLong(o);
    } else if (PyFloat_Check(o)) {
      argv[i].type = VT_DOUBLE;
      argv[i].val.dvalue = PyFloat_AsDouble(o);
    } else if (PyString_Check(o)) {
      argv[i].type = VT_POINTER;
      argv[i].val.pvalue = (void *) PyString_AsString(o);
    } else {
      PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError,"Unsupported argument type");
      free(argv);
      return NULL;
    }
  }
  $2 = (void *) argv;
}

/* Rewrite the function call using libffi */    
%feature("action") printf {
  int       i, vc;
  ffi_cif   cif;
  ffi_type  **types;
  void      **values;
  vtype     *args;

  vc = PyTuple_Size(varargs);
  types  = (ffi_type **) malloc((vc+1)*sizeof(ffi_type *));
  values = (void **) malloc((vc+1)*sizeof(void *));
  args   = (vtype *) arg2;

  /* Set up fmt parameter */
  types[0] = &ffi_type_pointer;
  values[0] = &arg1;

  /* Set up rest of parameters */
  for (i = 0; i < vc; i++) {
    switch(args[i].type) {
    case VT_INT:
      types[1+i] = &ffi_type_uint;
      values[1+i] = &args[i].val.ivalue;
      break;
    case VT_DOUBLE:
      types[1+i] = &ffi_type_double;
      values[1+i] = &args[i].val.dvalue;
      break;
    case VT_POINTER:
      types[1+i] = &ffi_type_pointer;
      values[1+i] = &args[i].val.pvalue;
      break;
    default:
      abort();    /* Whoa! We're seriously hosed */
      break;   
    }
  }
  if (ffi_prep_cif(&cif, FFI_DEFAULT_ABI, vc+1,
                   &ffi_type_uint, types) == FFI_OK) {
    ffi_call(&cif, (void (*)()) printf, &result, values);
  } else {
    PyErr_SetString(PyExc_RuntimeError, "Whoa!!!!!");
    free(types);
    free(values);
    free(args);
    return NULL;
  }
  free(types);
  free(values);
  free(args);
}

/* The function */
int printf(const char *fmt, ...);

Much to your amazement, it even seems to work if you try it:

>>> import example
>>> example.printf("Grade: %s   %d/60 = %0.2f%%\n", "Dave", 47, 47.0*100/60)
Grade: Dave   47/60 = 78.33%
>>>

Of course, there are still some limitations to consider:

>>> example.printf("la de da de da %s", 42)
Segmentation fault (core dumped)

And, on this note, we leave further exploration of libffi to the reader as an exercise. Although Python has been used as an example, most of the techniques in this section can be extrapolated to other language modules with a bit of work. The only details you need to know is how the extra arguments are accessed in each target language. For example, in the Python module, we used the special varargs variable to get these arguments. Modules such as Tcl8 and Perl5 simply provide an argument number for the first extra argument. This can be used to index into an array of passed arguments to get values. Please consult the chapter on each language module for more details.

14.7 Wrapping of va_list

Closely related to variable length argument wrapping, you may encounter functions that accept a parameter of type va_list. For example:

int vprintf(const char *fmt, va_list ap);

As far as we know, there is no obvious way to wrap these functions with SWIG. This is because there is no documented way to assemble the proper va_list structure (there are no C library functions to do it and the contents of va_list are opaque). Not only that, the contents of a va_list structure are closely tied to the underlying call-stack. It's not clear that exporting a va_list would have any use or that it would work at all.

A workaround can be implemented by writing a simple varargs C wrapper and then using the techniques discussed earlier in this chapter for varargs. Below is a simple wrapper for vprintf renamed so that it can still be called as vprintf from your target language. The %varargs used in the example restricts the function to taking one string argument.

%{
int vprintf(const char *fmt, va_list ap);
%}

%varargs(const char *) my_vprintf;
%rename(vprintf) my_vprintf;

%inline %{
int my_vprintf(const char *fmt, ...) {
  va_list ap;
  int result;

  va_start(ap, fmt);
  result = vprintf(fmt, ap);
  va_end(ap);
  return result;
}
%}

14.8 C++ Issues

Wrapping of C++ member functions that accept a variable number of arguments presents a number of challenges. By far, the easiest way to handle this is to use the %varargs directive. This is portable and it fully supports classes much like the %rename directive. For example:

%varargs (10, char * = NULL) Foo::bar;

class Foo {
public:
     virtual void bar(char *arg, ...);   // gets varargs above
};

class Spam: public Foo {
public:
     virtual void bar(char *arg, ...);   // gets varargs above
};

%varargs also works with constructors, operators, and any other C++ programming construct that accepts variable arguments.

Doing anything more advanced than this is likely to involve a serious world of pain. In order to use a library like libffi, you will need to know the underlying calling conventions and details of the C++ ABI. For instance, the details of how this is passed to member functions as well as any hidden arguments that might be used to pass additional information. These details are implementation specific and may differ between compilers and even different versions of the same compiler. Also, be aware that invoking a member function is further complicated if it is a virtual method. In this case, invocation might require a table lookup to obtain the proper function address (although you might be able to obtain an address by casting a bound pointer to a pointer to function as described in the C++ ARM section 18.3.4).

If you do decide to change the underlying action code, be aware that SWIG always places the this pointer in arg1. Other arguments are placed in arg2, arg3, and so forth. For example:

%feature("action") Foo::bar {
   ...
   result = arg1->bar(arg2, arg3, etc.);
   ...
}

Given the potential to shoot yourself in the foot, it is probably easier to reconsider your design or to provide an alternative interface using a helper function than it is to create a fully general wrapper to a varargs C++ member function.

14.9 Discussion

This chapter has provided a number of techniques that can be used to address the problem of variable length argument wrapping. If you care about portability and ease of use, the %varargs directive is probably the easiest way to tackle the problem. However, using typemaps, it is possible to do some very advanced kinds of wrapping.

One point of discussion concerns the structure of the libffi examples in the previous section. Looking at that code, it is not at all clear that this is the easiest way to solve the problem. However, there are a number of subtle aspects of the solution to consider--mostly concerning the way in which the problem has been decomposed. First, the example is structured in a way that tries to maintain separation between wrapper-specific information and the declaration of the function itself. The idea here is that you might structure your interface like this:

%typemap(const char *fmt, ...) {
   ...
}
%feature("action") traceprintf {
   ...
}

/* Include some header file with traceprintf in it */
%include "someheader.h"

Second, careful scrutiny will reveal that the typemaps involving (...) have nothing whatsoever to do with the libffi library. In fact, they are generic with respect to the way in which the function is actually called. This decoupling means that it will be much easier to consider other library alternatives for making the function call. For instance, if libffi wasn't supported on a certain platform, you might be able to use something else instead. You could use conditional compilation to control this:

#ifdef USE_LIBFFI
%feature("action") printf {
   ...
}
#endif
#ifdef USE_OTHERFFI
%feature("action") printf {
...
}
#endif

Finally, even though you might be inclined to just write a hand-written wrapper for varargs functions, the techniques used in the previous section have the advantage of being compatible with all other features of SWIG such as exception handling.

As a final word, some C programmers seem to have the assumption that the wrapping of variable length argument functions is an easily solved problem. However, this section has hopefully dispelled some of these myths. All things being equal, you are better off avoiding variable length arguments if you can. If you can't avoid them, please consider some of the simple solutions first. If you can't live with a simple solution, proceed with caution. At the very least, make sure you carefully read the section "A7.3.2 Function Calls" in Kernighan and Ritchie and make sure you fully understand the parameter passing conventions used for varargs. Also, be aware of the platform dependencies and reliability issues that this will introduce. Good luck.


15 Warning Messages

15.1 Introduction

During compilation, SWIG may generate a variety of warning messages. For example:

example.i:16: Warning 501: Overloaded declaration ignored.  bar(double)
example.i:15: Warning 501: Previous declaration is bar(int)

Typically, warning messages indicate non-fatal problems with the input where the generated wrapper code will probably compile, but it may not work like you expect.

15.2 Warning message suppression

All warning messages have a numeric code that is shown in the warning message itself. To suppress the printing of a warning message, a number of techniques can be used. First, you can run SWIG with the -w command line option. For example:

% swig -python -w501 example.i
% swig -python -w501,505,401 example.i

Alternatively, warnings can be suppressed by inserting a special preprocessor pragma into the input file:

%module example
#pragma SWIG nowarn=501
#pragma SWIG nowarn=501,505,401

Finally, code-generation warnings can be disabled on a declaration by declaration basis using the %warnfilter directive. For example:

%module example
%warnfilter(501) foo;
...
int foo(int);
int foo(double);              // Silently ignored.

The %warnfilter directive has the same semantics as other declaration modifiers like %rename, %ignore and %feature, see the %feature directive section. For example, if you wanted to suppress a warning for a method in a class hierarchy, you could do this:

%warnfilter(501) Object::foo;
class Object {
public:
   int foo(int);
   int foo(double);      // Silently ignored
   ...
};

class Derived : public Object {
public:
   int foo(int);
   int foo(double);      // Silently ignored
   ...
};

Warnings can be suppressed for an entire class by supplying a class name. For example:

%warnfilter(501) Object;

class Object {
public:
   ...                      // All 501 warnings ignored in class
};

There is no option to suppress all SWIG warning messages. The warning messages are there for a reason---to tell you that something may be broken in your interface. Ignore the warning messages at your own peril.

15.3 Enabling extra warnings

Some warning messages are disabled by default and are generated only to provide additional diagnostics. These warnings can be turned on using the -Wextra option. For example:

% swig -Wextra -python example.i

To selectively turn on extra warning messages, you can use the directives and options in the previous section--simply add a "+" to all warning numbers. For example:

% swig -w+309,+452 example.i

or in your interface file use either

#pragma SWIG nowarn=+309,+452

or

%warnfilter(+309,+452) foo;

Note: selective enabling of warnings with %warnfilter overrides any global settings you might have made using -w or #pragma.

You can of course also enable all warnings and suppress a select few, for example:

% swig -Wextra -w309,452 example.i

The warnings on the right take precedence over the warnings on the left, so in the above example -Wextra adds numerous warnings including 452, but then -w309,452 overrides this and so 452 is suppressesed.

If you would like all warnings to appear, regardless of the warning filters used, then use the -Wall option. The -Wall option also turns on the extra warnings that -Wextra adds, however, it is subtely different. When -Wall is used, it also disables all other warning filters, that is, any warnings suppressed or added in %warnfilter, #pragma SWIG nowarn or the -w option.

15.4 Issuing a warning message

Warning messages can be issued from an interface file using a number of directives. The %warn directive is the most simple:

%warn "900:This is your last warning!"

All warning messages are optionally prefixed by the warning number to use. If you are generating your own warnings, make sure you don't use numbers defined in the table at the end of this section.

The %ignorewarn directive is the same as %ignore except that it issues a warning message whenever a matching declaration is found. For example:

%ignorewarn("362:operator= ignored") operator=;

Warning messages can be associated with typemaps using the warning attribute of a typemap declaration. For example:

%typemap(in, warning="901:You are really going to regret this usage of $1_type $1_name") blah * {
   ...
}

In this case, the warning message will be printed whenever the typemap is actually used and the special variables will be expanded as appropriate, for example:

example.i:23: Warning 901: You are really going to regret this usage of blah * self
example.i:24: Warning 901: You are really going to regret this usage of blah * stuff

15.5 Symbolic symbols

The swigwarn.swg file that is installed with SWIG contains symbol constants that could also be used in %warnfilter and #pragma SWIG nowarn. For example this file contains the following line:

%define SWIGWARN_TYPE_UNDEFINED_CLASS 401 %enddef

so SWIGWARN_TYPE_UNDEFINED_CLASS could be used instead of 401, for example:

#pragma SWIG nowarn=SWIGWARN_TYPE_UNDEFINED_CLASS

or

%warnfilter(SWIGWARN_TYPE_UNDEFINED_CLASS) Foo;

15.6 Commentary

The ability to suppress warning messages is really only provided for advanced users and is not recommended in normal use. You are advised to modify your interface to fix the problems highlighted by the warnings wherever possible instead of suppressing warnings.

Certain types of SWIG problems are errors. These usually arise due to parsing errors (bad syntax) or semantic problems for which there is no obvious recovery. There is no mechanism for suppressing error messages.

15.7 Warnings as errors

Warnings can be handled as errors by using the -Werror command line option. This will cause SWIG to exit with a non successful exit code if a warning is encountered.

15.8 Message output format

The output format for both warnings and errors can be selected for integration with your favourite IDE/editor. Editors and IDEs can usually parse error messages and if in the appropriate format will easily take you directly to the source of the error. The standard format is used by default except on Windows where the Microsoft format is used by default. These can be overridden using command line options, for example:

$ swig -python -Fstandard example.i
example.i:4: Syntax error in input.
$ swig -python -Fmicrosoft example.i
example.i(4) : Syntax error in input.

15.9 Warning number reference

15.9.1 Deprecated features (100-199)

15.9.2 Preprocessor (200-299)

15.9.3 C/C++ Parser (300-399)

15.9.4 Types and typemaps (400-499)

15.9.5 Code generation (500-599)

15.9.6 Language module specific (700-899)

15.9.7 User defined (900-999)

These numbers can be used by your own application.

15.10 History

The ability to control warning messages was first added to SWIG-1.3.12.


16 Working with Modules

16.1 Modules Introduction

Each invocation of SWIG requires a module name to be specified. The module name is used to name the resulting target language extension module. Exactly what this means and what the name is used for depends on the target language, for example the name can define a target language namespace or merely be a useful name for naming files or helper classes. Essentially, a module comprises target language wrappers for a chosen collection of global variables/functions, structs/classes and other C/C++ types.

The module name can be supplied in one of two ways. The first is to specify it with the special %module directive. This directive must appear at the beginning of the interface file. The general form of this directive is:

%module(option1="value1",option2="value2",...) modulename

where the modulename is mandatory and the options add one or more optional additional features. Typically no options are specified, for example:

%module mymodule

The second way to specify the module name is with the -module command line option, for example -module mymodule. If the module name is supplied on the command line, it overrides the name specified by the %module directive.

When first working with SWIG, users commonly start by creating a single module. That is, you might define a single SWIG interface that wraps some set of C/C++ code. You then compile all of the generated wrapper code together and use it. For large applications, however, this approach is problematic---the size of the generated wrapper code can be rather large. Moreover, it is probably easier to manage the target language interface when it is broken up into smaller pieces.

This chapter describes the problem of using SWIG in programs where you want to create a collection of modules. Each module in the collection is created via separate invocations of SWIG.

16.2 Basics

The basic usage case with multiple modules is when modules do not have cross-references (ie. when wrapping multiple independent C APIs). In that case, swig input files should just work out of the box - you simply create multiple wrapper .cxx files, link them into your application, and insert/load each in the scripting language runtime as you would do for the single module case.

A bit more complex is the case in which modules need to share information. For example, when one module extends the class of another by deriving from it:

// File: base.h
class base {
public:
  int foo();
};
 
// File: base_module.i
%module base_module

%{
#include "base.h"
%}
%include "base.h"
 
// File: derived_module.i
%module derived_module

%import "base_module.i"

%inline %{
class derived : public base {
public:
  int bar();
};
%}

To create the wrapper properly, module derived_module needs to know about the base class and that its interface is covered in another module. The line %import "base_module.i" lets SWIG know exactly that. Often the .h file is passed to %import instead of the .i, which unfortunately doesn't work for all language modules. For example, Python requires the name of module that the base class exists in so that the proxy classes can fully inherit the base class's methods. Typically you will get a warning when the module name is missing, eg:

derived_module.i:8: Warning 401: Base class 'base' ignored - unknown module name for base. Either
import
the appropriate module interface file or specify the name of the module in the %import directive.

It is sometimes desirable to import the header file rather than the interface file and overcome the above warning. For example in the case of the imported interface being quite large, it may be desirable to simplify matters and just import a small header file of dependent types. This can be done by specifying the optional module attribute in the %import directive. The derived_module.i file shown above could be replaced with the following:

// File: derived_module.i
%module derived_module

%import(module="base_module") "base.h"

%inline %{
class derived : public base {
public:
  int bar();
};

Note that "base_module" is the module name and is the same as that specified in %module in base_module.i as well as the %import in derived_module.i.

Another issue to beware of is that multiple dependent wrappers should not be linked/loaded in parallel from multiple threads as SWIG provides no locking - for more on that issue, read on.

16.3 The SWIG runtime code

Many of SWIG's target languages generate a set of functions commonly known as the "SWIG runtime." These functions are primarily related to the runtime type system which checks pointer types and performs other tasks such as proper casting of pointer values in C++. As a general rule, the statically typed target languages, such as Java, use the language's built in static type checking and have no need for a SWIG runtime. All the dynamically typed / interpreted languages rely on the SWIG runtime.

The runtime functions are private to each SWIG-generated module. That is, the runtime functions are declared with "static" linkage and are visible only to the wrapper functions defined in that module. The only problem with this approach is that when more than one SWIG module is used in the same application, those modules often need to share type information. This is especially true for C++ programs where SWIG must collect and share information about inheritance relationships that cross module boundaries.

To solve the problem of sharing information across modules, a pointer to the type information is stored in a global variable in the target language namespace. During module initialization, type information is loaded into the global data structure of type information from all modules.

There are a few trade offs with this approach. This type information is global across all SWIG modules loaded, and can cause type conflicts between modules that were not designed to work together. To solve this approach, the SWIG runtime code uses a define SWIG_TYPE_TABLE to provide a unique type table. This behavior can be enabled when compiling the generated _wrap.cxx or _wrap.c file by adding -DSWIG_TYPE_TABLE=myprojectname to the command line argument.

Then, only modules compiled with SWIG_TYPE_TABLE set to myprojectname will share type information. So if your project has three modules, all three should be compiled with -DSWIG_TYPE_TABLE=myprojectname, and then these three modules will share type information. But any other project's types will not interfere or clash with the types in your module.

Another issue relating to the global type table is thread safety. If two modules try and load at the same time, the type information can become corrupt. SWIG currently does not provide any locking, and if you use threads, you must make sure that modules are loaded serially. Be careful if you use threads and the automatic module loading that some scripting languages provide. One solution is to load all modules before spawning any threads, or use SWIG_TYPE_TABLE to separate type tables so they do not clash with each other.

Lastly, SWIG uses a #define SWIG_RUNTIME_VERSION, located in Lib/swigrun.swg and near the top of every generated module. This number gets incremented when the data structures change, so that SWIG modules generated with different versions can peacefully coexist. So the type structures are separated by the (SWIG_TYPE_TABLE, SWIG_RUNTIME_VERSION) pair, where by default SWIG_TYPE_TABLE is empty. Only modules compiled with the same pair will share type information.

16.4 External access to the runtime

As described in The run-time type checker, the functions SWIG_TypeQuery, SWIG_NewPointerObj, and others sometimes need to be called. Calling these functions from a typemap is supported, since the typemap code is embedded into the _wrap.c file, which has those declarations available. If you need to call the SWIG run-time functions from another C file, there is one header you need to include. To generate the header that needs to be included, run the following command:

$ swig -python -external-runtime <filename>

The filename argument is optional and if it is not passed, then the default filename will be something like swigpyrun.h, depending on the language. This header file should be treated like any of the other _wrap.c output files, and should be regenerated when the _wrap files are. After including this header, your code will be able to call SWIG_TypeQuery, SWIG_NewPointerObj, SWIG_ConvertPtr and others. The exact argument parameters for these functions might differ between language modules; please check the language module chapters for more information.

Inside this header the functions are declared static and are included inline into the file, and thus the file does not need to be linked against any SWIG libraries or code (you might still need to link against the language libraries like libpython-2.3). Data is shared between this file and the _wrap.c files through a global variable in the scripting language. It is also possible to copy this header file along with the generated wrapper files into your own package, so that you can distribute a package that can be compiled without SWIG installed (this works because the header file is self-contained, and does not need to link with anything).

This header will also use the -DSWIG_TYPE_TABLE described above, so when compiling any code which includes the generated header file should define the SWIG_TYPE_TABLE to be the same as the module whose types you are trying to access.

16.5 A word of caution about static libraries

When working with multiple SWIG modules, you should take care not to use static libraries. For example, if you have a static library libfoo.a and you link a collection of SWIG modules with that library, each module will get its own private copy of the library code inserted into it. This is very often NOT what you want and it can lead to unexpected or bizarre program behavior. When working with dynamically loadable modules, you should try to work exclusively with shared libraries.

16.6 References

Due to the complexity of working with shared libraries and multiple modules, it might be a good idea to consult an outside reference. John Levine's "Linkers and Loaders" is highly recommended.

16.7 Reducing the wrapper file size

Using multiple modules with the %import directive is the most common approach to modularising large projects. In this way a number of different wrapper files can be generated, thereby avoiding the generation of a single large wrapper file. There are a couple of alternative solutions for reducing the size of a wrapper file through the use of command line options and features.

-fcompact
This command line option will compact the size of the wrapper file without changing the code generated into the wrapper file. It simply removes blank lines and joins lines of code together. This is useful for compilers that have a maximum file size that can be handled.

-fvirtual
This command line option will remove the generation of superfluous virtual method wrappers. Consider the following inheritance hierarchy:

struct Base {
  virtual void method();
  ...
};

struct Derived : Base {
  virtual void method();
  ...
};

Normally wrappers are generated for both methods, whereas this command line option will suppress the generation of a wrapper for Derived::method. Normal polymorphic behaviour remains as Derived::method will still be called should you have a Derived instance and call the wrapper for Base::method.

%feature("compactdefaultargs")
This feature can reduce the number of wrapper methods when wrapping methods with default arguments. The section on default arguments discusses the feature and its limitations.


17 Using SWIG with ccache - ccache-swig(1) manpage

17.1 NAME

ccache-swig - a fast compiler cache

17.2 SYNOPSIS

ccache-swig [OPTION]

ccache-swig <compiler> [COMPILER OPTIONS]

<compiler> [COMPILER OPTIONS]

17.3 DESCRIPTION

ccache-swig is a compiler cache. It speeds up re-compilation of C/C++/SWIG code by caching previous compiles and detecting when the same compile is being done again. ccache-swig is ccache plus support for SWIG. ccache and ccache-swig are used interchangeably in this document.

17.4 OPTIONS SUMMARY

Here is a summary of the options to ccache-swig.


-s                      show statistics summary
-z                      zero statistics
-c                      run a cache cleanup
-C                      clear the cache completely
-F <n>                  set maximum files in cache
-M <n>                  set maximum size of cache (use G, M or K)
-h                      this help page
-V                      print version number

17.5 OPTIONS

These options only apply when you invoke ccache as "ccache-swig". When invoked as a compiler none of these options apply. In that case your normal compiler options apply and you should refer to your compilers documentation.

-h
Print a options summary page

-s
Print the current statistics summary for the cache. The statistics are stored spread across the subdirectories of the cache. Using "ccache-swig -s" adds up the statistics across all subdirectories and prints the totals.

-z
Zero the cache statistics.

-V
Print the ccache version number

-c
Clean the cache and re-calculate the cache file count and size totals. Normally the -c option should not be necessary as ccache keeps the cache below the specified limits at runtime and keeps statistics up to date on each compile. This option is mostly useful if you manually modify the cache contents or believe that the cache size statistics may be inaccurate.

-C
Clear the entire cache, removing all cached files.

-F <maxfiles>
This sets the maximum number of files allowed in the cache. The value is stored inside the cache directory and applies to all future compiles. Due to the way the value is stored the actual value used is always rounded down to the nearest multiple of 16.

-M <maxsize>
This sets the maximum cache size. You can specify a value in gigabytes, megabytes or kilobytes by appending a G, M or K to the value. The default is gigabytes. The actual value stored is rounded down to the nearest multiple of 16 kilobytes.

17.6 INSTALLATION

There are two ways to use ccache. You can either prefix your compile commands with "ccache-swig" or you can create a symbolic link between ccache-swig and the names of your compilers. The first method is most convenient if you just want to try out ccache or wish to use it for some specific projects. The second method is most useful for when you wish to use ccache for all your compiles.

To install for usage by the first method just copy ccache-swig to somewhere in your path.

To install for the second method do something like this:


  cp ccache-swig /usr/local/bin/
  ln -s /usr/local/bin/ccache-swig /usr/local/bin/gcc
  ln -s /usr/local/bin/ccache-swig /usr/local/bin/g++
  ln -s /usr/local/bin/ccache-swig /usr/local/bin/cc
  ln -s /usr/local/bin/ccache-swig /usr/local/bin/swig

This will work as long as /usr/local/bin comes before the path to gcc (which is usually in /usr/bin). After installing you may wish to run "which gcc" to make sure that the correct link is being used.

Note! Do not use a hard link, use a symbolic link. A hardlink will cause "interesting" problems.

17.7 EXTRA OPTIONS

When run as a compiler front end ccache usually just takes the same command line options as the compiler you are using. The only exception to this is the option '--ccache-skip'. That option can be used to tell ccache that the next option is definitely not a input filename, and should be passed along to the compiler as-is.

The reason this can be important is that ccache does need to parse the command line and determine what is an input filename and what is a compiler option, as it needs the input filename to determine the name of the resulting object file (among other things). The heuristic ccache uses in this parse is that any string on the command line that exists as a file is treated as an input file name (usually a C file). By using --ccache-skip you can force an option to not be treated as an input file name and instead be passed along to the compiler as a command line option.

17.8 ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

ccache uses a number of environment variables to control operation. In most cases you won't need any of these as the defaults will be fine.

CCACHE_DIR
the CCACHE_DIR environment variable specifies where ccache will keep its cached compiler output. The default is "$HOME/.ccache".

CCACHE_TEMPDIR
the CCACHE_TEMPDIR environment variable specifies where ccache will put temporary files. The default is the same as CCACHE_DIR. Note that the CCACHE_TEMPDIR path must be on the same filesystem as the CCACHE_DIR path, so that renames of files between the two directories can work.

CCACHE_LOGFILE
If you set the CCACHE_LOGFILE environment variable then ccache will write some log information on cache hits and misses in that file. This is useful for tracking down problems.

CCACHE_VERBOSE
If you set the CCACHE_VERBOSE environment variable then ccache will display on stdout all the compiler invocations that it makes. This can useful for debugging unexpected problems.

CCACHE_PATH
You can optionally set CCACHE_PATH to a colon separated path where ccache will look for the real compilers. If you don't do this then ccache will look for the first executable matching the compiler name in the normal PATH that isn't a symbolic link to ccache itself.

CCACHE_CC
You can optionally set CCACHE_CC to force the name of the compiler to use. If you don't do this then ccache works it out from the command line.

CCACHE_PREFIX
This option adds a prefix to the command line that ccache runs when invoking the compiler. Also see the section below on using ccache with distcc.

CCACHE_DISABLE
If you set the environment variable CCACHE_DISABLE then ccache will just call the real compiler, bypassing the cache completely.

CCACHE_READONLY
the CCACHE_READONLY environment variable tells ccache to attempt to use existing cached object files, but not to try to add anything new to the cache. If you are using this because your CCACHE_DIR is read-only, then you may find that you also need to set CCACHE_TEMPDIR as otherwise ccache will fail to create the temporary files.

CCACHE_CPP2
If you set the environment variable CCACHE_CPP2 then ccache will not use the optimisation of avoiding the 2nd call to the pre-processor by compiling the pre-processed output that was used for finding the hash in the case of a cache miss. This is primarily a debugging option, although it is possible that some unusual compilers will have problems with the intermediate filename extensions used in this optimisation, in which case this option could allow ccache to be used.

CCACHE_NOCOMPRESS
If you set the environment variable CCACHE_NOCOMPRESS then there is no compression used on files that go into the cache. However, this setting has no effect on how files are retrieved from the cache, compressed results will still be usable.

CCACHE_NOSTATS
If you set the environment variable CCACHE_NOSTATS then ccache will not update the statistics files on each compile.

CCACHE_NLEVELS
The environment variable CCACHE_NLEVELS allows you to choose the number of levels of hash in the cache directory. The default is 2. The minimum is 1 and the maximum is 8.

CCACHE_HARDLINK
If you set the environment variable CCACHE_HARDLINK then ccache will attempt to use hard links from the cache directory when creating the compiler output rather than using a file copy. Using hard links is faster, but can confuse programs like 'make' that rely on modification times. Hard links are never made for compressed cache files.

CCACHE_RECACHE
This forces ccache to not use any cached results, even if it finds them. New results are still cached, but existing cache entries are ignored.

CCACHE_UMASK
This sets the umask for ccache and all child processes (such as the compiler). This is mostly useful when you wish to share your cache with other users. Note that this also affects the file permissions set on the object files created from your compilations.

CCACHE_HASHDIR
This tells ccache to hash the current working directory when calculating the hash that is used to distinguish two compiles. This prevents a problem with the storage of the current working directory in the debug info of a object file, which can lead ccache to give a cached object file that has the working directory in the debug info set incorrectly. This option is off by default as the incorrect setting of this debug info rarely causes problems. If you strike problems with gdb not using the correct directory then enable this option.

CCACHE_UNIFY
If you set the environment variable CCACHE_UNIFY then ccache will use the C/C++ unifier when hashing the pre-processor output if -g is not used in the compile. The unifier is slower than a normal hash, so setting this environment variable loses a little bit of speed, but it means that ccache can take advantage of not recompiling when the changes to the source code consist of reformatting only. Note that using CCACHE_UNIFY changes the hash, so cached compiles with CCACHE_UNIFY set cannot be used when CCACHE_UNIFY is not set and vice versa. The reason the unifier is off by default is that it can give incorrect line number information in compiler warning messages.

CCACHE_EXTENSION
Normally ccache tries to automatically determine the extension to use for intermediate C pre-processor files based on the type of file being compiled. Unfortunately this sometimes doesn't work, for example when using the aCC compiler on HP-UX. On systems like this you can use the CCACHE_EXTENSION option to override the default. On HP-UX set this environment variable to "i" if you use the aCC compiler.

CCACHE_STRIPC
If you set the environment variable CCACHE_STRIPC then ccache will strip the -c option when invoking the preprocessor. This option is primarily for the Sun Workshop C++ compiler as without this option an unwarranted warning is displayed: CC: Warning: "-E" redefines product from "object" to "source (stdout)" when -E and -c is used together.

CCACHE_SWIG
When using SWIG as the compiler and it does not have 'swig' in the executable name, then the CCACHE_SWIG environment variable needs to be set in order for ccache to work correctly with SWIG. The use of CCACHE_CPP2 is also recommended for SWIG due to some preprocessor quirks, however, use of CCACHE_CPP2 can often be skipped -- check your generated code with and without this option set. Known problems are using preprocessor directives within %inline blocks and the use of '#pragma SWIG'.

17.9 CACHE SIZE MANAGEMENT

By default ccache has a one gigabyte limit on the cache size and no maximum number of files. You can set a different limit using the "ccache -M" and "ccache -F" options, which set the size and number of files limits.

When these limits are reached ccache will reduce the cache to 20% below the numbers you specified in order to avoid doing the cache clean operation too often.

17.10 CACHE COMPRESSION

By default on most platforms ccache will compress all files it puts into the cache using the zlib compression. While this involves a negligible performance slowdown, it significantly increases the number of files that fit in the cache. You can turn off compression setting the CCACHE_NOCOMPRESS environment variable.

17.11 HOW IT WORKS

The basic idea is to detect when you are compiling exactly the same code a 2nd time and use the previously compiled output. You detect that it is the same code by forming a hash of:

These are hashed using md4 (a strong hash) and a cache file is formed based on that hash result. When the same compilation is done a second time ccache is able to supply the correct compiler output (including all warnings etc) from the cache.

ccache has been carefully written to always produce exactly the same compiler output that you would get without the cache. If you ever discover a case where ccache changes the output of your compiler then please let me know.

17.12 USING CCACHE WITH DISTCC

distcc is a very useful program for distributing compilation across a range of compiler servers. It is often useful to combine distcc with ccache, so that compiles that are done are sped up by distcc, but that ccache avoids the compile completely where possible.

To use distcc with ccache I recommend using the CCACHE_PREFIX option. You just need to set the environment variable CCACHE_PREFIX to 'distcc' and ccache will prefix the command line used with the compiler with the command 'distcc'.

17.13 SHARING A CACHE

A group of developers can increase the cache hit rate by sharing a cache directory. The hard links however cause unwanted side effects, as all links to a cached file share the file's modification timestamp. This results in false dependencies to be triggered by timestamp-based build systems whenever another user links to an existing file. Typically, users will see that their libraries and binaries are relinked without reason. To share a cache without side effects, the following conditions need to be met:

17.14 HISTORY

ccache was inspired by the compilercache shell script script written by Erik Thiele and I would like to thank him for an excellent piece of work. See http://www.erikyyy.de/compilercache/ for the Erik's scripts. ccache-swig is a port of the original ccache with support added for use with SWIG.

I wrote ccache because I wanted to get a bit more speed out of a compiler cache and I wanted to remove some of the limitations of the shell-script version.

17.15 DIFFERENCES FROM COMPILERCACHE

The biggest differences between Erik's compilercache script and ccache are:

17.16 CREDITS

Thanks to the following people for their contributions to ccache

17.17 AUTHOR

ccache was written by Andrew Tridgell http://samba.org/~tridge/. ccache was adapted to create ccache-swig for use with SWIG by William Fulton.

If you wish to report a problem or make a suggestion then please email the SWIG developers on the swig-devel mailing list, see http://www.swig.org/mail.html

ccache is released under the GNU General Public License version 2 or later. Please see the file COPYING for license details.


18 SWIG and Allegro Common Lisp

This chapter describes SWIG's support of Allegro Common Lisp. Allegro CL is a full-featured implementation of the Common Lisp language standard that includes many vendor-specific enhancements and add-on modules for increased usability.

One such module included in Allegro CL is the Foreign Functions Interface (FFI). This module, tailored primarily toward interfacing with C/C++ and, historically, Fortran, provides a means by which compiled foreign code can be loaded into a running lisp environment and executed. The interface supports the calling of foreign functions and methods, allows for executing lisp routines from foreign code (callbacks), and the passing of data between foreign and lisp code.

The goal of this module is to make it possible to quickly generate the necessary foreign function definitions so one can make use of C/C++ foreign libraries directly from lisp without the tedium of having to code them by hand. When necessary, it will also generate further C/C++ code that will need to be linked with the intended library for proper interfacing from lisp. It has been designed with an eye toward flexibility. Some foreign function calls may release the heap, while other should not. Some foreign functions should automatically convert lisp strings into native strings, while others should not. These adjustments and many more are possible with the current module.

It is significant to note that, while this is a vendor-specific module, we would like to acknowledge the current and ongoing work by developers in the open source lisp community that are working on similar interfaces to implementation-independent foreign function interfaces (UFFI or CFFI, for example). Such work can only benefit the lisp community, and we would not be unhappy to see some enterprising folk use this work to add to it.

18.1 Basics

18.1.1 Running SWIG

If you're reading this, you must have some library you need to generate an interface for. In order for SWIG to do this work, however, it needs a bit of information about how it should go about creating your interface, and what you are interfacing to.

SWIG expects a description of what in the foreign interface you wish to connect to. It must consisting of C/C++ declarations and special SWIG directives. SWIG can be furnished with a header file, but an interface can also be generated without library headers by supplying a simple text file--called the interface file, which is typically named with a .i extension--containing any foreign declarations of identifiers you wish to use. The most common approach is to use a an interface file with directives to parse the needed headers. A straight parse of library headers will result in usable code, but SWIG directives provides much freedom in how a user might tailor the generated code to their needs or style of coding.

Note that SWIG does not require any function definitions; the declarations of those functions is all that is necessary. Be careful when tuning the interface as it is quite possible to generate code that will not load or compile.

An example interface file is shown below. It makes use of two SWIG directives, one of which requests that the declarations in a header file be used to generate part of the interface, and also includes an additional declaration to be added.

example.i
%module example

%include "header.h"

int fact(int n);

The contents of header.h are very simple:

header.h
int fact(char *statement);   // pass it a fact, and it will rate it.

The contents of example.cl will look like this:

example.cl
(defpackage :example
  (:use :common-lisp :swig :ff :excl))

  ... helper routines for defining the interface ...

(swig-in-package ())

(swig-defun ("fact")
  ((PARM0_statement cl:string (* :char) ))
  (:returning (:int )
   :strings-convert t)
  (let ((SWIG_arg0 PARM0_statement))
  (swig-ff-call SWIG_arg0)))

(swig-defun ("fact")
  ((PARM0_n cl:integer :int ))
  (:returning (:int )
   :strings-convert t)
  (let ((SWIG_arg0 PARM0_n))
  (swig-ff-call SWIG_arg0)))

(swig-dispatcher ("fact" :type :function :arities (1)))

The generated file contains calls to internal swig helper functions. In this case there are two calls to swig-defun. These calls will expand into code that will make the appropriate definitions using the Allegro FFI. Note also, that this code is erroneous. Function overloading is not supported in C, and this code will not compile even though SWIG did not complain.

In order to generate a C interface to Allegro CL using this code run swig using the -allegrocl option, as below:

% swig -allegrocl example.i

When building an interface to C++ code, include the -c++ option:

% swig -allegrocl -c++ example.i

As a result of running one of the above commands, a file named example.cl will be generated containing the lisp side of the interface. As well, a file example_wrap.cxx is also generated, containing C/C++ wrapper code to facilitate access to C++ methods, enumeration values, and constant values. Wrapper functions are necessary in C++ due to the lack of a standard for mangling the names of symbols across all C++ compilers. These wrapper functions are exported from the shared library as appropriate, using the C name mangling convention. The lisp code that is generated will interface to your foreign library through these wrappers.

It is possible to disable the creation of the .cxx file when generating a C interface by using the -nocwrap command-line argument. For interfaces that don't contain complex enum or constant expressions, contain nested struct/union declarations, or doesn't need to use many of the SWIG customization featuers, this will result in a more streamlined, direct interface to the intended module.

The generated wrapper file is below. It contains very simple wrappers by default, that simply pass the arguments to the actual function.

example_wrap.i
   ... lots of SWIG internals ...

EXPORT int ACL___fact__SWIG_0 (char *larg1) {
    int lresult = (int)0 ;
    char *arg1 = (char *) 0 ;
    int result;
    
    arg1 = larg1;
    try {
        result = (int)fact(arg1);
        
        lresult = result;
        return lresult;
    } catch (...) {
        return (int)0;
    }
}


EXPORT int ACL___fact__SWIG_1 (int larg1) {
    int lresult = (int)0 ;
    int arg1 ;
    int result;
    
    arg1 = larg1;
    try {
        result = (int)fact(arg1);
        
        lresult = result;
        return lresult;
    } catch (...) {
        return (int)0;
    }
}

And again, the generated lisp code. Note that it differs from what is generated when parsing C code:

   ...

(swig-in-package ())

(swig-defmethod ("fact" "ACL___fact__SWIG_0" :type :function :arity 1)
  ((PARM0_statement cl:string (* :char) ))
  (:returning (:int )
   :strings-convert t)
  (let ((SWIG_arg0 PARM0_statement))
  (swig-ff-call SWIG_arg0)))

(swig-defmethod ("fact" "ACL___fact__SWIG_1" :type :function :arity 1)
  ((PARM0_n cl:integer :int ))
  (:returning (:int )
   :strings-convert t)
  (let ((SWIG_arg0 PARM0_n))
  (swig-ff-call SWIG_arg0)))

(swig-dispatcher ("fact" :type :function :arities (1)))

In this case, the interface generates two swig-defmethod forms and a swig-dispatcher form. This provides a single functional interface for all overloaded routines. A more detailed description of this features is to be found in the section titled Function overloading/Parameter defaulting.

In order to load a C++ interface, you will need to build a shared library from example_wrap.cxx. Be sure to link in the actual library you created the interface for, as well as any other dependent shared libraries. For example, if you intend to be able to call back into lisp, you will also need to link in the Allegro shared library. The library you create from the C++ wrapper will be what you then load into Allegro CL.

18.1.2 Command Line Options

There are three Allegro CL specific command-line option:

swig -allegrocl [ options ] filename

   -identifier-converter [name] - Binds the variable swig:*swig-identifier-convert* 
                                  in the generated .cl file to name.
				  This function is used to generate symbols
				  for the lisp side of the interface. 

   -cwrap - [default] Generate a .cxx file containing C wrapper function when
            wrapping C code. The interface generated is similar to what is
	    done for C++ code.
   -nocwrap - Explicitly turn off generation of .cxx wrappers for C code. Reasonable
              for modules with simple interfaces. Can not handle all legal enum
	      and constant constructs, or take advantage of SWIG customization features.

   -isolate - With this command-line argument, all lisp helper functions are defined
              in a unique package named swig.<module-name> rather than
	      swig. This prevents conflicts when the module is
	      intended to be used with other swig generated interfaces that may, 
	      for instance, make use of different identifier converters.

See Section 17.5 Identifier converter functions for more details.

18.1.3 Inserting user code into generated files

It is often necessary to include user-defined code into the automatically generated interface files. For example, when building a C++ interface, example_wrap.cxx will likely not compile unless you add a #include "header.h" directive. This can be done using the SWIG %insert(section) %{ ...code... %} directive:

%module example

%{
#include "header.h"
%}

%include "header.h"

int fact(int n);

Additional sections have been added for inserting into the generated lisp interface file

Note that the block %{ ... %} is effectively a shortcut for %insert("header") %{ ... %}.

18.2 Wrapping Overview

New users to SWIG are encouraged to read SWIG Basics , and SWIG and C++, for those interested in generating an interface to C++.

18.2.1 Function Wrapping

Writing lisp code that directly invokes functions at the foreign function interface level can be cumbersome. Data must often be translated between lisp and foreign types, data extracted from objects, foreign objects allocated and freed upon completion of the foreign call. Dealing with pointers can be unwieldy when it comes to keeping them distinct from other valid integer values.

We make an attempt to ease some of these burdens by making the interface to foreign code much more lisp-like, rather than C like. How this is done is described in later chapters. The layers themselves, appear as follows:

        ______________
       |              |  (foreign side)
       | Foreign Code |  What we're generating an interface to.
       |______________|
               |
	       |
        _______v______
       |              |  (foreign side)
       | Wrapper code |  extern "C" wrappers calling C++ 
       |______________|  functions and methods.
               |
    .  . . - - + - - . .  .
        _______v______
       |              |  (lisp side)
       |  FFI Layer   |  Low level lisp interface. ff:def-foreign-call,
       |______________|  ff:def-foreign-variable
               |
	       +----------------------------
        _______v______              _______v______
       |              |            |              | (lisp side)    
       |    Defuns    |            |  Defmethods  | wrapper for overloaded
       |______________|            |______________| functions or those with
        (lisp side)                        |        defaulted arguments
	Wrapper for non-overloaded         |
	functions and methods       _______v______
	                           |              | (lisp side)
				   |    Defuns    | dispatch function
				   |______________| to overloads based
				                    on arity
  

18.2.2 Foreign Wrappers

These wrappers are as generated by SWIG default. The types of function parameters can be transformed in place using the CTYPE typemap. This is use for converting pass-by-value parameters to pass-by-reference where necessary. All wrapper parameters are then bound to local variables for possible transformation of values (see LIN typemap). Return values can be transformed via the OUT typemap.

18.2.3 FFI Wrappers

These are the generated ff:def-foreign-call forms. No typemaps are applicable to this layer, but the %ffargs directive is available for use in .i files, to specify which keyword arguments should be specified for a given function.

ffargs.i:
%module ffargs

%ffargs(strings_convert="nil",call_direct="t") foo;
%ffargs(strings_convert="nil",release_heap=":never",optimize_for_space="t") bar;

int foo(float f1, float f2);
int foo(float f1, char c2);

void bar(void *lisp_fn);

char *xxx();
  

Generates:

ffargs.cl:
(swig-in-package ())

(swig-defmethod ("foo" "ACL___foo__SWIG_0" :type :function :arity 2)
  ((PARM0_f1 cl:single-float :float )
   (PARM1_f2 cl:single-float :float ))
  (:returning (:int )
   :call-direct t
   :strings-convert nil)
  (let ((SWIG_arg0 PARM0_f1))
  (let ((SWIG_arg1 PARM1_f2))
  (swig-ff-call SWIG_arg0 SWIG_arg1))))

(swig-defmethod ("foo" "ACL___foo__SWIG_1" :type :function :arity 2)
  ((PARM0_f1 cl:single-float :float )
   (PARM1_c2 cl:character :char character))
  (:returning (:int )
   :call-direct t
   :strings-convert nil)
  (let ((SWIG_arg0 PARM0_f1))
  (let ((SWIG_arg1 PARM1_c2))
  (swig-ff-call SWIG_arg0 SWIG_arg1))))

(swig-dispatcher ("foo" :type :function :arities (2)))
(swig-defun ("bar" "ACL___bar__SWIG_0" :type :function)
  ((PARM0_lisp_fn  (* :void) ))
  (:returning (:void )
   :release-heap :never
   :optimize-for-space t
   :strings-convert nil)
  (let ((SWIG_arg0 PARM0_lisp_fn))
  (swig-ff-call SWIG_arg0)))


(swig-defun ("xxx" "ACL___xxx__SWIG_0" :type :function)
  (:void)
  (:returning ((* :char) )
   :strings-convert t)
  (swig-ff-call))
  
%ffargs(strings_convert="t");

Is the only default value specified in allegrocl.swg to force the muffling of warnings about automatic string conversion when defining ff:def-foreign-call's.

18.2.4 Non-overloaded Defuns

These are simple defuns. There is no typechecking of arguments. Parameters are bound to local variables for possible transformation of values, such as pulling values out of instance slots or allocating temporary stack allocated structures, via the lin typemap. These arguments are then passed to the foreign-call (where typechecking may occur). The return value from this function can be manipulated via the lout typemap.

18.2.5 Overloaded Defuns

In the case of overloaded functions, mulitple layers are generated. First, all the overloads for a given name are separated out into groups based on arity, and are wrapped in defmethods. Each method calls a distinct wrapper function, but are themselves distinguished by the types of their arguments (see lispclass typemap). These are further wrapped in a dispatching function (defun) which will invoke the appropriate generic-function based on arity. This provides a single functional interface to all overloads. The return value from this function can be manipulated via the lout typemap.

18.2.6 What about constant and variable access?

Along with the described functional layering, when creating a .cxx wrapper, this module will generate getter and--if not immutable--setter, functions for variables and constants. If the -nocwrap option is used, defconstant and ff:def-foreign-variable forms will be generated for accessing constants and global variables. These, along with the defuns listed above are the intended API for calling into the foreign module.

18.2.7 Object Wrapping

All non-primitive types (Classes, structs, unions, and typedefs involving same) have a corresponding foreign-type defined on the lisp side via ff:def-foreign-type.

All non-primitive types are further represented by a CLOS class, created via defclass. An attempt is made to create the same class hierarchy, with all classes inheriting directly or indirectly from ff:foreign-pointer. Further, wherever it is apparent, all pointers returned from foreign code are wrapped in a CLOS instance of the appropriate class. For ff:def-foreign-calls that have been defined to expect a :foreign-address type as argument, these CLOS instances can legally be passed and the pointer to the C++ object automatically extracted. This is a natural feature of Allegro's foreign function interface.

18.3 Wrapping Details

In this section is described how particular C/C++ constructs are translated into lisp.

18.3.1 Namespaces

C++ namespaces are translated into Lisp packages by SWIG. The Global namespace is mapped to a package named by the %module directive or the -module command-line argument. Further namespaces are generated by the swig-defpackage utility function and given names based on Allegro CLs nested namespace convention. For example:

foo.i:
%module foo

%{
#include "foo.h"
%}

%include "foo.h"

namespace car {
   ...
   namespace tires {
      int do_something(int n);
   }
}
    

Generates the following code.

foo.cl
(defpackage :foo
  (:use :common-lisp :swig :ff :excl))

...

(swig-defpackage ("car"))
(swig-defpackage ("car" "tires"))

...

(swig-in-package ("car" "tires"))
(swig-defun ("do_something" "ACL_car_tires__do_something__SWIG_0" :type :function)
  ((PARM0_n  :int ))
  (:returning (:int )
   :strings-convert t)
  (let ((SWIG_arg0 PARM0_n))
  (swig-ff-call SWIG_arg0)))
    

The above interface file would cause packages foo, foo.car, and foo.car.tires to be created. One would find the function wrapper for do_something defined in the foo.car.tires package(*).

(*) Except for the package named by the module, all namespace names are passed to the identifier-converter-function as strings with a :type of :namespace. It is the job of this function to generate the desired symbol, accounting for case preferences, additional naming cues, etc.

Note that packages created by swig-defpackage do not use the COMMON-LISP or EXCL package. This reduces possible conflicts when defining foreign types via the SWIG interface in all but the toplevel modules package. This may lead to confusion if, for example, the current package is foo.car.tires and you attempt to use a common-lisp function such as (car '(1 2 3).

18.3.2 Constants

Constants, as declared by the preprocessor #define macro or SWIG %constant directive, are included in SWIG's parse tree when it can be determined that they are, or could be reduced to, a literal value. Such values are translated into defconstant forms in the generated lisp wrapper when the -nocwrap command-line options is used. Else, wrapper functions are generated as in the case of variable access (see section below).

Here are examples of simple preprocessor constants when using -nocwrap.

#define A 1                    => (swig-defconstant "A" 1)  
#define B 'c'                  => (swig-defconstant "B" #\c)
#define C B                    => (swig-defconstant "C" #\c)
#define D 1.0e2                => (swig-defconstant "D" 1.0d2)
#define E 2222                 => (swig-defconstant "E" 2222)
#define F (unsigned int)2222   => no code generated
#define G 1.02e2f              => (swig-defconstant "G" 1.02f2)
#define H foo                  => no code generated
      

Note that where SWIG is unable to determine if a constant is a literal, no node is added to the SWIG parse tree, and so no values can be generated.

For preprocessor constants containing expressions which can be reduced to literal values, nodes are created, but with no simplification of the constant value. A very very simple infix to prefix converter has been implemented that tries to do the right thing for simple cases, but does not for more complex expressions. If the literal parser determines that something is wrong, a warning will be generated and the literal expression will be included in the generated code, but commented out.

#define I A + E                => (swig-defconstant "I" (+ 1 2222))
#define J 1|2                  => (swig-defconstant "J" (logior 1 2))
#define Y 1 + 2 * 3 + 4        => (swig-defconstant "Y" (* (+ 1 2) (+ 3 4)))
#define Y1 (1 + 2) * (3 + 4)   => (swig-defconstant "Y1" (* (+ 1 2) (+ 3 4)))
#define Y2 1 * 2 + 3 * 4       => (swig-defconstant "Y2" (* 1 (+ 2 3) 4))  ;; WRONG
#define Y3 (1 * 2) + (3 * 4)   => (swig-defconstant "Y3" (* 1 (+ 2 3) 4))  ;; WRONG
#define Z 1 + 2 - 3 + 4 * 5    => (swig-defconstant "Z" (* (+ 1 (- 2 3) 4) 5)) ;; WRONG
      

Users are cautioned to get to know their constants before use, or not use the -nocwrap command-line option.

18.3.3 Variables

For C wrapping, a def-foreign-variable call is generated for access to global variables.

When wrapping C++ code, both global and member variables, getter wrappers are generated for accessing their value, and if not immutable, setter wrappers as well. In the example below, note the lack of a setter wrapper for global_var, defined as const.

vars.h
namespace nnn {
  int const global_var = 2;
  float glob_float = 2.0;
}
    

Generated code:

vars.cl
(swig-in-package ("nnn"))
(swig-defun ("global_var" "ACL_nnn__global_var_get__SWIG_0" :type :getter)
  (:void)
  (:returning (:int )
   :strings-convert t)
  (swig-ff-call))


(swig-defun ("glob_float" "ACL_nnn__glob_float_set__SWIG_0" :type :setter)
  ((PARM0_glob_float  :float ))
  (:returning (:void )
   :strings-convert t)
  (let ((SWIG_arg0 PARM0_glob_float))
  (swig-ff-call SWIG_arg0)))


(swig-defun ("glob_float" "ACL_nnn__glob_float_get__SWIG_0" :type :getter)
  (:void)
  (:returning (:float )
   :strings-convert t)
  (swig-ff-call))
    

Note also, that where applicable, setter wrappers are implemented as setf methods on the getter function, providing a lispy interface to the foreign code.

user> (load "globalvar.dll")
; Foreign loading globalvar.dll.
t
user> (load "globalvar.cl")
; Loading c:\mikel\src\swig\test\globalvar.cl
t
user> 
globalvar> (globalvar.nnn::global_var)
2
globalvar> (globalvar.nnn::glob_float)
2.0
globalvar> (setf (globalvar.nnn::glob_float) 3.0)
3.0
globalvar> (globalvar.nnn::glob_float)
3.0
    

18.3.4 Enumerations

In C, an enumeration value is an integer value, while in C++ an enumeration value is implicitly convertible to an integer value, but can also be distinguished by its enum type. For each enum declaration a def-foreign-type is generated, assigning the enum a default type of :int. Users may adjust the foreign type of enums via SWIG typemaps .

Enum values are a bit trickier as they can be initialized using any valid C/C++ expression. In C with the -nocwrap command-line option, we handle the typical cases (simple integer initialization) and generate a defconstant form for each enum value. This has the advantage of it not being necessary to probe into foreign space to retrieve enum values. When generating a .cxx wrapper file, a more general solution is employed. A wrapper variable is created in the module_wrap.cxx file, and a ff:def-foreign-variable call is generated to retrieve its value into lisp.

For example, the following header file

enum.h:
enum COL { RED, GREEN, BLUE };	
enum FOO { FOO1 = 10, FOO2, FOO3 };
      

In -nocwrap mode, generates

enum.cl:
(swig-def-foreign-type "COL" :int)
(swig-defconstant "RED" 0)
(swig-defconstant "GREEN" (+ #.(swig-insert-id "RED" () :type :constant) 1))
(swig-defconstant "BLUE" (+ #.(swig-insert-id "GREEN" () :type :constant) 1))

(swig-def-foreign-type "FOO" :int)
(swig-defconstant "FOO1" 10)
(swig-defconstant "FOO2" (+ #.(swig-insert-id "FOO1" () :type :constant) 1))
(swig-defconstant "FOO3" (+ #.(swig-insert-id "FOO2" () :type :constant) 1))
      

And when generating a .cxx wrapper

enum_wrap.cxx:
EXPORT const int ACL_ENUM___RED__SWIG_0 = RED;
EXPORT const int ACL_ENUM___GREEN__SWIG_0 = GREEN;
EXPORT const int ACL_ENUM___BLUE__SWIG_0 = BLUE;
EXPORT const int ACL_ENUM___FOO1__SWIG_0 = FOO1;
EXPORT const int ACL_ENUM___FOO2__SWIG_0 = FOO2;
EXPORT const int ACL_ENUM___FOO3__SWIG_0 = FOO3;
      

and

enum.cl:
(swig-def-foreign-type "COL" :int)
(swig-defvar "RED" "ACL_ENUM___RED__SWIG_0" :type :constant)
(swig-defvar "GREEN" "ACL_ENUM___GREEN__SWIG_0" :type :constant)
(swig-defvar "BLUE" "ACL_ENUM___BLUE__SWIG_0" :type :constant)

(swig-def-foreign-type "FOO" :int)
(swig-defvar "FOO1" "ACL_ENUM___FOO1__SWIG_0" :type :constant)
(swig-defvar "FOO2" "ACL_ENUM___FOO2__SWIG_0" :type :constant)
(swig-defvar "FOO3" "ACL_ENUM___FOO3__SWIG_0" :type :constant)

      

18.3.5 Arrays

One limitation in the Allegro CL foreign-types module, is that, without macrology, expressions may not be used to specify the dimensions of an array declaration. This is not a horrible drawback unless it is necessary to allocate foreign structures based on the array declaration using ff:allocate-fobject. When it can be determined that an array bound is a valid numeric value, SWIG will include this in the generated array declaration on the lisp side, otherwise the value will be included, but commented out.

Below is a comprehensive example, showing a number of legal C/C++ array declarations and how they are translated into foreign-type specifications in the generated lisp code.

array.h
#define MAX_BUF_SIZE 1024

namespace FOO {
  int global_var1[13];
  float global_var2[MAX_BUF_SIZE];

}

enum COLOR { RED = 10, GREEN = 20, BLUE, PURPLE = 50, CYAN };

namespace BAR {
  char global_var3[MAX_BUF_SIZE + 1];
  float global_var4[MAX_BUF_SIZE][13];
  signed short global_var5[MAX_BUF_SIZE + MAX_BUF_SIZE];

  int enum_var5[GREEN];
  int enum_var6[CYAN];

  COLOR enum_var7[CYAN][MAX_BUF_SIZE];
}
    

Generates:

array.cl
(in-package #.*swig-module-name*)

(swig-defpackage ("FOO"))
(swig-defpackage ("BAR"))

(swig-in-package ())
(swig-def-foreign-type "COLOR" :int)
(swig-defvar "RED" "ACL_ENUM___RED__SWIG_0" :type :constant)
(swig-defvar "GREEN" "ACL_ENUM___GREEN__SWIG_0" :type :constant)
(swig-defvar "BLUE" "ACL_ENUM___BLUE__SWIG_0" :type :constant)
(swig-defvar "PURPLE" "ACL_ENUM___PURPLE__SWIG_0" :type :constant)
(swig-defvar "CYAN" "ACL_ENUM___CYAN__SWIG_0" :type :constant)

(swig-in-package ())

(swig-defconstant "MAX_BUF_SIZE" 1024)
(swig-in-package ("FOO"))

(swig-defun ("global_var1" "ACL_FOO__global_var1_get__SWIG_0" :type :getter)
  (:void)
  (:returning ((* :int) )
   :strings-convert t)
  (make-instance 'ff:foreign-pointer :foreign-address (swig-ff-call)))


(swig-defun ("global_var2" "ACL_FOO__global_var2_set__SWIG_0" :type :setter)
  ((global_var2  (:array :float 1024) ))
  (:returning (:void )
   :strings-convert t)
  (let ((SWIG_arg0 global_var2))
  (swig-ff-call SWIG_arg0)))


(swig-in-package ())
(swig-in-package ("BAR"))
(swig-defun ("global_var3" "ACL_BAR__global_var3_set__SWIG_0" :type :setter)
  ((global_var3  (:array :char #|1024+1|#) ))
  (:returning (:void )
   :strings-convert t)
  (let ((SWIG_arg0 global_var3))
  (swig-ff-call SWIG_arg0)))


(swig-defun ("global_var4" "ACL_BAR__global_var4_set__SWIG_0" :type :setter)
  ((global_var4  (:array (:array :float 13) 1024) ))
  (:returning (:void )
   :strings-convert t)
  (let ((SWIG_arg0 global_var4))
  (swig-ff-call SWIG_arg0)))


(swig-defun ("global_var4" "ACL_BAR__global_var4_get__SWIG_0" :type :getter)
  (:void)
  (:returning ((* (:array :float 13)) )
   :strings-convert t)
  (make-instance 'ff:foreign-pointer :foreign-address (swig-ff-call)))


(swig-defun ("global_var5" "ACL_BAR__global_var5_set__SWIG_0" :type :setter)
  ((global_var5  (:array :short #|1024+1024|#) ))
  (:returning (:void )
   :strings-convert t)
  (let ((SWIG_arg0 global_var5))
  (swig-ff-call SWIG_arg0)))


(swig-defun ("enum_var5" "ACL_BAR__enum_var5_set__SWIG_0" :type :setter)
  ((enum_var5  (:array :int #|GREEN|#) ))
  (:returning (:void )
   :strings-convert t)
  (let ((SWIG_arg0 enum_var5))
  (swig-ff-call SWIG_arg0)))


(swig-defun ("enum_var6" "ACL_BAR__enum_var6_set__SWIG_0" :type :setter)
  ((enum_var6  (:array :int #|CYAN|#) ))
  (:returning (:void )
   :strings-convert t)
  (let ((SWIG_arg0 enum_var6))
  (swig-ff-call SWIG_arg0)))


(swig-defun ("enum_var7" "ACL_BAR__enum_var7_set__SWIG_0" :type :setter)
  ((enum_var7  (:array (:array #.(swig-insert-id "COLOR" ()) 1024) #|CYAN|#) ))
  (:returning (:void )
   :strings-convert t)
  (let ((SWIG_arg0 enum_var7))
  (swig-ff-call SWIG_arg0)))


(swig-defun ("enum_var7" "ACL_BAR__enum_var7_get__SWIG_0" :type :getter)
  (:void)
  (:returning ((* (:array #.(swig-insert-id "COLOR" ()) 1024)) )
   :strings-convert t)
  (make-instance 'ff:foreign-pointer :foreign-address (swig-ff-call)))
    

18.3.6 Classes and Structs and Unions (oh my!)

18.3.6.1 CLOS wrapping of

Classes, unions, and structs are all treated the same way by the interface generator. For any of these objects, a def-foreign-type and a defclass form are generated. For every function that returns an object (or pointer/reference) of C/C++ type X, the wrapping defun (or defmethod) on the Lisp side will automatically wrap the pointer returned in an instance of the appropriate class. This makes it much easier to write and debug code than if pointers were passed around as a jumble of integer values.

18.3.6.2 CLOS Inheritance

The CLOS class schema generated by the interface mirrors the inheritance of the classes in foreign code, with the ff:foreign-pointer class at its root. ff:foreign-pointer is a thin wrapper for pointers that is made available by the foreign function interface. Its key benefit is that it may be passed as an argument to any ff:def-foreign-call that is expecting a pointer as the parameter.

18.3.6.3 Member fields and functions

All public fields will have accessor getter/setter functions generated for them, as appropriate. All public member functions will have wrapper functions generated.

We currently ignore anything that isn't public (i.e. private or protected), because the C++ compiler won't allow the wrapper functions to access such fields. Likewise, the interface does nothing for friend directives,

18.3.6.4 Why not directly access C++ classes using foreign types?

The def-foreign-type generated by the SWIG interface is currently incomplete. We can reliably generate the object layout of simple structs and unions; they can be allocated via ff:allocate-fobject, and their member variables accessed directly using the various ff:fslot-value-* functions. However, the layout of C++ classes is more complicated. Different compilers adjust class layout based on inheritance patterns, and the presence of virtual member functions. The size of member function pointers vary across compilers as well. As a result, it is recommended that users of any generated interface not attempt to access C++ instances via the foreign type system, but instead use the more robust wrapper functions.

18.3.7 Templates

18.3.7.1 Generating wrapper code for templates

SWIG provides support for dealing with templates, but by default, it will not generate any member variable or function wrappers for templated classes. In order to create these wrappers, you need to explicitly tell SWIG to instantiate them. This is done via the %template directive.

18.3.7.2 Implicit Template instantiation

While no wrapper code is generated for accessing member variables, or calling member functions, type code is generated to include these templated classes in the foreign-type and CLOS class schema.

18.3.8 Typedef, Templates, and Synonym Types

In C/C++ it is possible, via typedef, to have many names refer to the same type. In general, this is not a problem, though it can lead to confusion. Assume the below C++ header file:

synonyms.h
class A { 
   int x;
   int y;
};

typedef A Foo;

A *xxx(int i);         /* sets A->x = A->y = i */
Foo *yyy(int i);       /* sets Foo->x = Foo->y = i */

int zzz(A *inst = 0);  /* return inst->x + inst->y */
    

The function zzz is an overloaded functions; the foreign function call to it will be wrapped in a generic-function whose argument will be checked against a type of A. Assuming a simple implementation, a call to xxx(1) will return a pointer to an A object, which will be wrapped in a CLOS instance of class A , and a call to yyy(1) will result in a CLOS instance of type Foo being returned. Without establishing a clear type relationship between Foo and A, an attempt to call zzz(yyy(1)) will result in an error.

We resolve this issue, by noting synonym relationships between types while generating the interface. A Primary type is selected (more on this below) from the candidate list of synonyms. For all other synonyms, intead of generating a distinct CLOS class definition, we generate a form that expands to:

(setf (find-class <synonym>) <primary>)

The result is that all references to synonym types in foreign code, are wrapped in the same CLOS wrapper, and, in particular, method specialization in wrapping generic functions works as expected.

Given the above header file, synonym.h, a Lisp session would appear as follows:

CL-USER> (load "synonym.dll")
; Foreign loading synonym.dll.
t
CL-USER> (load "synonym.cl")
; Loading c:\mikel\src\swig\test\synonym.cl
t
CL-USER> 
synonym> (setf a (xxx 3))
#<A nil #x3261a0 @ #x207299da>
synonym> (setf foo (yyy 10))
#<A nil #x3291d0 @ #x2072e982>
synonym> (zzz a)
6
synonym> (zzz foo)
20
synonym> 
    

18.3.8.1 Choosing a primary type

The choice of a primary type is selected by the following criteria from a set of synonym types.

18.3.9 Function overloading/Parameter defaulting

For each possible argument combination, a distinct wrapper function is created in the .cxx file. On the Lisp side, a generic functions is defined for each possible arity the overloaded/defaulted call may have. Each distinct wrapper is then called from within a defmethod on the appropriate generic function. These are further wrapped inside a dispatch function that checks the number of arguments it is called with and passes them via apply to the appropriate generic-function. This allows for a single entry point to overloaded functions on the lisp side.

Example:

overload.h:

class A {
 public:
  int x;
  int y;
};

float xxx(int i, int x = 0);   /* return i * x */
float xxx(A *inst, int x);     /* return x + A->x + A->y */
    

Creates the following three wrappers, for each of the possible argument combinations

overload_wrap.cxx
EXPORT void ACL___delete_A__SWIG_0 (A *larg1) {
    A *arg1 = (A *) 0 ;
    
    arg1 = larg1;
    try {
        delete arg1;
        
    } catch (...) {
        
    }
}


EXPORT float ACL___xxx__SWIG_0 (int larg1, int larg2) {
    float lresult = (float)0 ;
    int arg1 ;
    int arg2 ;
    float result;
    
    arg1 = larg1;
    arg2 = larg2;
    try {
        result = (float)xxx(arg1,arg2);
        
        lresult = result;
        return lresult;
    } catch (...) {
        return (float)0;
    }
}


EXPORT float ACL___xxx__SWIG_1 (int larg1) {
    float lresult = (float)0 ;
    int arg1 ;
    float result;
    
    arg1 = larg1;
    try {
        result = (float)xxx(arg1);
        
        lresult = result;
        return lresult;
    } catch (...) {
        return (float)0;
    }
}


EXPORT float ACL___xxx__SWIG_2 (A *larg1, int larg2) {
    float lresult = (float)0 ;
    A *arg1 = (A *) 0 ;
    int arg2 ;
    float result;
    
    arg1 = larg1;
    arg2 = larg2;
    try {
        result = (float)xxx(arg1,arg2);
        
        lresult = result;
        return lresult;
    } catch (...) {
        return (float)0;
    }
}
    

And the following foreign-function-call and method definitions on the lisp side:

overload.cl
(swig-defmethod ("xxx" "ACL___xxx__SWIG_0" :type :function :arity 2)
  ((PARM0_i cl:integer :int )
   (PARM1_x cl:integer :int ))
  (:returning (:float )
   :strings-convert t)
  (let ((SWIG_arg0 PARM0_i))
  (let ((SWIG_arg1 PARM1_x))
  (swig-ff-call SWIG_arg0 SWIG_arg1))))

(swig-defmethod ("xxx" "ACL___xxx__SWIG_1" :type :function :arity 1)
  ((PARM0_i cl:integer :int ))
  (:returning (:float )
   :strings-convert t)
  (let ((SWIG_arg0 PARM0_i))
  (swig-ff-call SWIG_arg0)))

(swig-defmethod ("xxx" "ACL___xxx__SWIG_2" :type :function :arity 2)
  ((PARM0_inst #.(swig-insert-id "A" () :type :class) (* #.(swig-insert-id "A" ())) )
   (PARM1_x cl:integer :int ))
  (:returning (:float )
   :strings-convert t)
  (let ((SWIG_arg0 PARM0_inst))
  (let ((SWIG_arg1 PARM1_x))
  (swig-ff-call SWIG_arg0 SWIG_arg1))))

(swig-dispatcher ("xxx" :type :function :arities (1 2)))
    

And their usage in a sample lisp session:

overload> (setf a (new_A))
#<A nil #x329268 @ #x206cf612>
overload> (setf (A_x a) 10)
10
overload> (setf (A_y a) 20)
20
overload> (xxx 1)
0.0
overload> (xxx 3 10)
30.0
overload> (xxx a 1)
31.0
overload> (xxx a 2)
32.0
overload> 
    

18.3.10 Operator wrapping and Operator overloading

Wrappers to defined C++ Operators are automatically renamed, using %rename, to the following defaults:

/* name conversion for overloaded operators. */
#ifdef __cplusplus
%rename(__add__)	     *::operator+;
%rename(__pos__)	     *::operator+();
%rename(__pos__)	     *::operator+() const;

%rename(__sub__)	     *::operator-;
%rename(__neg__)	     *::operator-() const;
%rename(__neg__)	     *::operator-();

%rename(__mul__)	     *::operator*;
%rename(__deref__)	     *::operator*();
%rename(__deref__)	     *::operator*() const;

%rename(__div__)	     *::operator/;
%rename(__mod__)	     *::operator%;
%rename(__logxor__)	     *::operator^;
%rename(__logand__)	     *::operator&;
%rename(__logior__)	     *::operator|;
%rename(__lognot__)	     *::operator~();
%rename(__lognot__)	     *::operator~() const;

%rename(__not__)	     *::operator!();
%rename(__not__)	     *::operator!() const;

%rename(__assign__)	     *::operator=;

%rename(__add_assign__)      *::operator+=;
%rename(__sub_assign__)	     *::operator-=;
%rename(__mul_assign__)	     *::operator*=;
%rename(__div_assign__)	     *::operator/=;
%rename(__mod_assign__)	     *::operator%=;
%rename(__logxor_assign__)   *::operator^=;
%rename(__logand_assign__)   *::operator&=;
%rename(__logior_assign__)   *::operator|=;

%rename(__lshift__)	     *::operator<<;
%rename(__lshift_assign__)   *::operator<<=;
%rename(__rshift__)	     *::operator>>;
%rename(__rshift_assign__)   *::operator>>=;

%rename(__eq__)		     *::operator==;
%rename(__ne__)		     *::operator!=;
%rename(__lt__)		     *::operator<;
%rename(__gt__)		     *::operator>;
%rename(__lte__)	     *::operator<=;
%rename(__gte__)	     *::operator>=;

%rename(__and__)	     *::operator&&;
%rename(__or__)		     *::operator||;

%rename(__preincr__)	     *::operator++();
%rename(__postincr__)	     *::operator++(int);
%rename(__predecr__)	     *::operator--();
%rename(__postdecr__)	     *::operator--(int);

%rename(__comma__)	     *::operator,();
%rename(__comma__)	     *::operator,() const;

%rename(__member_ref__)      *::operator->;
%rename(__member_func_ref__) *::operator->*;

%rename(__funcall__)	     *::operator();
%rename(__aref__)	     *::operator[];
    

Name mangling occurs on all such renamed identifiers, so that wrapper name generated by B::operator= will be B___eq__ , i.e. <class-or-namespace>_ has been added. Users may modify these default names by adding %rename directives in their own .i files.

Operator overloading can be achieved by adding functions based on the mangled names of the function. In the following example, a class B is defined with a Operator== method defined. The swig %extend directive is used to add an overload method on Operator==.

opoverload.h
class B {
 public:
  int x;
  int y;
  bool operator==(B const& other) const;
};
    

and

opoverload.i
%module opoverload

%{
#include <fstream>
#include "opoverload.h"
%}

%{
bool B___eq__(B const *inst, int const x)
{
  // insert the function definition into the wrapper code before
  // the wrapper for it.
  // ... do stuff ...
}
%}

%include "opoverload.h"

%extend B {
 public:
  bool __eq__(int const x) const;
};
    

Either operator can be called via a single call to the dispatch function:

opoverload> (B___eq__ x1 x2)
nil
opoverload> (B___eq__ x1 3)
nil
opoverload> 
    

18.3.11 Varargs

Variable length argument lists are not supported, by default. If such a function is encountered, a warning will generated to stderr. Varargs are supported via the SWIG %varargs directive. This directive allows you to specify a (finite) argument list which will be inserted into the wrapper in place of the variable length argument indicator. As an example, consider the function printf(). Its declaration would appear as follows:

See the following section on Variable Length arguments provides examples on how %varargs can be used, along with other ways such functions can be wrapped.

18.3.12 C++ Exceptions

Each C++ wrapper includes a handler to catch any exceptions that may be thrown while in foreign code. This helps prevent simple C++ errors from killing the entire lisp process. There is currently no mechanism to have these exceptions forwarded to the lisp condition system, nor has any explicit support of the exception related SWIG typemaps been implemented.

18.3.13 Pass by value, pass by reference

Allegro CL does not support the passing of non-primitive foreign structures by value. As a result, SWIG must automatically detect and convert function parameters and return values to pointers whenever necessary. This is done via the use of typemaps, and should not require any fine tuning by the user, even for newly defined types.

18.4 Typemaps

SWIG Typemaps provide a powerful tool for automatically generating code to handle various menial tasks required of writing an interface to foreign code. The purpose of this section is to describe each of the typemaps used by the Allegro CL module. Please read the chapter on Typemaps for more information.

18.4.1 Code Generation in the C++ Wrapper

Every C++ wrapper generated by SWIG takes the following form:

return-val wrapper-name(parm0, parm1, ..., parmN)
{
   return-val lresult;   /* return value from wrapper */
   <local-declaration>
   ... results;          /* return value from function call */

   <binding locals to parameters>

   try {
      result = function-name(local0, local1, ..., localN);

      <convert and bind result to lresult>

      return lresult;
   catch (...) {
      return (int)0;
   }
    

18.4.1.1 IN Typemap

the in typemap is used to generate code to convert parameters passed to C++ wrapper functions into the arguments desired for the call being wrapped. That is, it fills in the code for the <binding locals to parameters> section above. We use this map to automatically convert parameters passed by reference to the wrapper function into by-value arguments for the wrapped call, and also to convert boolean values, which are passed as integers from lisp (by default), into the appropriate type for the language of code being wrapped.

These are the default specifications for the IN typemap. Here, $input refers to the parameter code is being generated for, and $1 is the local variable to which it is being assigned. The default settings of this typemap are as follows:

%typemap(in) bool                          "$1 = (bool)$input;";
%typemap(in) char, unsigned char, signed char,
             short, signed short, unsigned short,
             int, signed int, unsigned int,
             long, signed long, unsigned long,
             float, double, long double, char *, void *, void,
             enum SWIGTYPE, SWIGTYPE *,
             SWIGTYPE[ANY], SWIGTYPE &     "$1 = $input;";
%typemap(in) SWIGTYPE                      "$1 = *$input;";
    

18.4.1.2 OUT Typemap

The out typemap is used to generate code to form the return value of the wrapper from the return value of the wrapped function. This code is placed in the <convert and bind result to lresult> section of the above code diagram. Its default mapping is as follows:

%typemap(out) bool                          "$result = (int)$1;";
%typemap(out) char, unsigned char, signed char,
              short, signed short, unsigned short,
              int, signed int, unsigned int,
              long, signed long, unsigned long,
              float, double, long double, char *, void *, void,
              enum SWIGTYPE, SWIGTYPE *,
              SWIGTYPE[ANY], SWIGTYPE &    "$result = $1;";
%typemap(out) SWIGTYPE                     "$result = new $1_type($1);";
    

18.4.1.3 CTYPE Typemap

This typemap is not used for code generation, but purely for the transformation of types in the parameter list of the wrapper function. Its primary use is to handle by-value to by-reference conversion in the wrappers parameter list. Its default settings are:

%typemap(ctype) bool                       "int";
%typemap(ctype) char, unsigned char, signed char,
                short, signed short, unsigned short,
                int, signed int, unsigned int,
                long, signed long, unsigned long,
                float, double, long double, char *, void *, void,
                enum SWIGTYPE, SWIGTYPE *,
                SWIGTYPE[ANY], SWIGTYPE &  "$1_ltype";
%typemap(ctype) SWIGTYPE                   "$&1_type";
    

These three typemaps are specifically employed by the Allegro CL interface generator. SWIG also implements a number of other typemaps that can be used for generating code in the C/C++ wrappers. You can read about these common typemaps here.

18.4.2 Code generation in Lisp wrappers

A number of custom typemaps have also been added to facilitate the generation of code in the lisp side of the interface. These are described below. The basic code generation structure is applied as a series of nested expressions, one for each parameter, then one for manipulating the return value, and last, the foreign function call itself.

Note that the typemaps below use fully qualified symbols where necessary. Users writing their own typemaps should do likewise. See the explanation in the last paragraph of 16.3.1 Namespaces for details.

18.4.2.1 LIN Typemap

The LIN typemap allows for the manipulating the lisp objects passed as arguments to the wrapping defun before passing them to the foreign function call. For example, when passing lisp strings to foreign code, it is often necessary to copy the string into a foreign structure of type (:char *) of appropriate size, and pass this copy to the foreign call. Using the LIN typemap, one could arrange for the stack-allocation of a foreign char array, copy your string into it, and not have to worry about freeing the copy after the function returns.

The LIN typemap accepts the following $variable references.

%typemap(lin)	SWIGTYPE 	"(cl:let (($out $in))\n  $body)";
    

18.4.2.2 LOUT Typemap

The LOUT typemap is the means by which we effect the wrapping of foreign pointers in CLOS instances. It is applied after all LIN typemaps, and immediately before the actual foreign-call.

The LOUT typemap uses the following $variable

%typemap(lout) bool, char, unsigned char, signed char,
               short, signed short, unsigned short,
               int, signed int, unsigned int,
               long, signed long, unsigned long,
               float, double, long double, char *, void *, void,
               enum SWIGTYPE    "$body";
%typemap(lout) SWIGTYPE[ANY], SWIGTYPE *,
               SWIGTYPE &       "(cl:make-instance '$lclass :foreign-address $body)";
%typemap(lout) SWIGTYPE    "(cl:let* ((address $body)\n
                            (ACL_result (cl:make-instance '$lclass :foreign-address address)))\n
                            (cl:unless (cl::zerop address)\n
                            (excl:schedule-finalization ACL_result #'$ldestructor))\n
                             ACL_result)";
    

18.4.2.3 FFITYPE Typemap

The FFITYPE typemap works as a helper for a body of code that converts C/C++ type specifications into Allegro CL foreign-type specifications. These foreign-type specifications appear in ff:def-foreing-type declarations, and in the argument list and return values of ff:def-foreign-calls. You would modify this typemap if you want to change how the FFI passes through arguments of a given type. For example, if you know that a particular compiler represents booleans as a single byte, you might add an entry for:

%typemap(ffitype) bool ":unsigned-char";
    

Note that this typemap is pure type transformation, and is not used in any code generations step the way the LIN and LOUT typemaps are. The default mappings for this typemap are:

%typemap(ffitype) bool ":int";
%typemap(ffitype) char ":char";
%typemap(ffitype) unsigned char ":unsigned-char";
%typemap(ffitype) signed char ":char";
%typemap(ffitype) short, signed short ":short";
%typemap(ffitype) unsigned short ":unsigned-short";
%typemap(ffitype) int, signed int ":int";
%typemap(ffitype) unsigned int ":unsigned-int";
%typemap(ffitype) long, signed long ":long";
%typemap(ffitype) unsigned long ":unsigned-long";
%typemap(ffitype) float ":float";
%typemap(ffitype) double ":double";
%typemap(ffitype) char * "(* :char)";
%typemap(ffitype) void * "(* :void)";
%typemap(ffitype) void ":void";
%typemap(ffitype) enum SWIGTYPE ":int";
%typemap(ffitype) SWIGTYPE & "(* :void)";
    

18.4.2.4 LISPTYPE Typemap

This is another type only transformation map, and is used to provide the lisp-type, which is the optional third argument in argument specifier in a ff:def-foreign-call form. Specifying a lisp-type allows the foreign call to perform type checking on the arguments passed in. The default entries in this typemap are:

%typemap(lisptype) bool "cl:boolean";
%typemap(lisptype) char "cl:character";
%typemap(lisptype) unsigned char "cl:integer";
%typemap(lisptype) signed char "cl:integer";
    

18.4.2.5 LISPCLASS Typemap

The LISPCLASS typemap is used to generate the method signatures for the generic-functions which wrap overloaded functions and functions with defaulted arguments. The default entries are:

%typemap(lispclass) bool "t";
%typemap(lispclass) char "cl:character";
%typemap(lispclass) unsigned char, signed char,
                    short, signed short, unsigned short,
                    int, signed int, unsigned int,
                    long, signed long, unsigned long,
                    enum SWIGTYPE       "cl:integer";
%typemap(lispclass) float "cl:single-float";
%typemap(lispclass) double "cl:double-float";
%typemap(lispclass) char * "cl:string";
    

18.4.3 Modifying SWIG behavior using typemaps

The following example shows how we made use of the above typemaps to add support for the wchar_t type.

%typecheck(SWIG_TYPECHECK_UNICHAR) wchar_t { $1 = 1; };

%typemap(in)        wchar_t "$1 = $input;";
%typemap(lin)       wchar_t "(cl:let (($out (cl:char-code $in)))\n  $body)";
%typemap(lin)       wchar_t* "(excl:with-native-string
                                         ($out $in
                                          :external-format #+little-endian :fat-le 
                                                           #-little-endian :fat)\n
                                 $body)"

%typemap(out)       wchar_t "$result = $1;";
%typemap(lout)      wchar_t "(cl:code-char $body)";
%typemap(lout)      wchar_t* "(excl:native-to-string $body
                                          :external-format #+little-endian :fat-le
                                                           #-little-endian :fat)";

%typemap(ffitype)   wchar_t ":unsigned-short";
%typemap(lisptype)  wchar_t "";
%typemap(ctype)     wchar_t "wchar_t";
%typemap(lispclass) wchar_t "cl:character";
%typemap(lispclass) wchar_t* "cl:string";
    

18.5 Identifier Converter functions

18.5.1 Creating symbols in the lisp environment

Various symbols must be generated in the lisp environment to which class definitions, functions, constants, variables, etc. must be bound. Rather than force a particular convention for naming these symbols, an identifier (to symbol) conversion function is used. A user-defined identifier-converter can then implement any symbol naming, case-modifying, scheme desired.

In generated SWIG code, whenever some interface object must be referenced by its lisp symbol, a macro is inserted that calls the identifier-converter function to generate the appropriate symbol reference. It is therefore expected that the identifier-converter function reliably return the same (eq) symbol given the same set of arguments.

18.5.2 Existing identifier-converter functions

Two basic identifier routines have been defined.

18.5.2.1 identifier-convert-null

No modification of the identifier string is performed. Based on other arguments, the identifier may be concatenated with other strings, from which a symbol will be created.

18.5.2.2 identifier-convert-lispify

All underscores in the identifier string are converted to hyphens. Otherwise, identifier-convert-lispify performs the same symbol transformations.

18.5.2.3 Default identifier to symbol conversions

Check the definitions of the above two default identifier-converters in Lib/allegrocl/allegrocl.swg for default naming conventions.

18.5.3 Defining your own identifier-converter

A user-defined identifier-converter function should conform to the following specification:

(defun identifier-convert-fn (id &key type class arity) ...body...)
result ==> symbol or (setf symbol)

The ID argument is a string representing an identifier in the foreign environment.

The :type keyword argument provides more information on the type of identifier. Its value is a symbol. This allows the identifier-converter to apply different heuristics when mapping different types of identifiers to symbols. SWIG will generate calls to your identifier-converter using the following types.

The :class keyword argument is a string naming a foreign class. When non-nil, it indicates that the current identifier has scope in the specified class.

The :arity keyword argument only appears in swig:swig-defmethod forms generated for overloaded functions. Its value is an integer indicating the number of arguments passed to the routine indicated by this identifier.

18.5.4 Instructing SWIG to use a particular identifier-converter

By default, SWIG will use identifier-converter-null. To specify another convert function, use the -identifier-converter command-line argument. The value should be a string naming the function you wish the interface to use instead, when generating symbols. ex:

% swig -allegrocl -c++ -module mymodule -identifier-converter my-identifier-converter

19 SWIG and Android

This chapter describes SWIG's support of Android.

19.1 Overview

The Android chapter is fairly short as support for Android is the same as for Java, where the Java Native Interface (JNI) is used to call from Android Java into C or C++ compiled code. Everything in the Java chapter applies to generating code for access from Android Java code. This chapter contains a few Android specific notes and examples.

19.2 Android examples

19.2.1 Examples introduction

The examples require the Android SDK and Android NDK which can be installed as per instructions in the links. The Eclipse version is not required for these examples as just the command line tools are used (shown for Linux as the host, but Windows will be very similar, if not identical in most places). Add the SDK tools and NDK tools to your path and create a directory somewhere for your Android projects (adjust PATH as necessary to where you installed the tools):

$ export PATH=$HOME/android/android-sdk-linux_x86/tools:$HOME/android/android-sdk-linux_x86/platform-tools:$HOME/android/android-ndk-r6b:$PATH
$ mkdir AndroidApps 
$ cd AnrdoidApps

The examples use a target id of 1. This might need changing depending on your setup. After installation of the Android SDK, the available target ids can be viewed by running the command below. Please adjust the id to suit your target device.

$ android list targets

The following examples are shipped with SWIG under the Examples/android directory and include a Makefile to build and install each example.

19.2.2 Simple C example

This simple C example shows how to call a C function as well as read and modify a global variable. First we'll create and build a pure Java Android app. Afterwards the JNI code will be generated by SWIG and built into the app. First create and build an app called SwigSimple in a subdirectory called simple using the commands below. Adjust the --target id as mentioned earlier in the Examples introduction. Managing Projects from the Command Line on the Android developer's site is a useful reference for these steps.

$ android create project --target 1 --name SwigSimple --path ./simple --activity SwigSimple --package org.swig.simple
$ cd simple
$ ant debug

Modify src/org/swig/simple/SwigSimple.java from the default to:

package org.swig.simple;

import android.app.Activity;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.Button;
import android.widget.TextView;
import android.widget.ScrollView;
import android.text.method.ScrollingMovementMethod;

public class SwigSimple extends Activity
{
    TextView outputText = null;
    ScrollView scroller = null;

    /** Called when the activity is first created. */
    @Override
    public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState)
    {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.main);

        outputText = (TextView)findViewById(R.id.OutputText);
        outputText.setText("Press 'Run' to start...\n");
        outputText.setMovementMethod(new ScrollingMovementMethod());

        scroller = (ScrollView)findViewById(R.id.Scroller);
    }

    public void onRunButtonClick(View view)
    {
      outputText.append("Started...\n");
      nativeCall();
      outputText.append("Finished!\n");
      
      // Ensure scroll to end of text
      scroller.post(new Runnable() {
        public void run() {
          scroller.fullScroll(ScrollView.FOCUS_DOWN);
        }
      });
    }

    /** Calls into C/C++ code */
    public void nativeCall()
    {
        // TODO
    }
}

The above simply adds a Run button and scrollable text view as the GUI aspects of the program. The associated resources need to be created, modify res/layout/main.xml as follows:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    android:orientation="vertical"
    android:layout_width="fill_parent"
    android:layout_height="fill_parent"
    >
<Button
    android:id="@+id/RunButton"  
    android:layout_width="wrap_content"  
    android:layout_height="wrap_content"  
    android:text="Run..."  
    android:onClick="onRunButtonClick"
    />
<ScrollView
    android:id="@+id/Scroller"
    android:layout_width="fill_parent"
    android:layout_height="fill_parent"
    >
<TextView
    android:id="@+id/OutputText"
    android:layout_width="wrap_content"
    android:layout_height="wrap_content"
    />
</ScrollView>
</LinearLayout>

Rebuild the project with your changes:

$ ant debug

Although there are no native function calls in the code, yet, you may want to check that this simple pure Java app runs before adding in the native calls. First, set up your Android device for hardware debugging, see Using hardware devices on the Android developer's site. When complete your device should be listed in those attached, something like:

$ adb devices
List of devices attached 
A32-6DBE0001-9FF80000-015D62C3-02018028	device

This means you are now ready to install the application...

$ adb install bin/SwigSimple-debug.apk 
95 KB/s (4834 bytes in 0.049s)
	pkg: /data/local/tmp/SwigSimple-debug.apk
Success

The newly installed 'SwigSimple' app will be amongst all your other applications on the home screen. Run the app and it will show a Run button text box below it. Press the Run button to see the simple text output.

The application can be uninstalled like any other application and in fact must be uninstalled before installing an updated version. Uninstalling is quite easy too from your host computer:

$ adb uninstall org.swig.simple
Success

Now that you have a pure Java Android app working, let's add some JNI code generated from SWIG.

First create a jni subdirectory and then create some C source code in jni/example.c:

/* File : example.c */

/* A global variable */
double Foo = 3.0;

/* Compute the greatest common divisor of positive integers */
int gcd(int x, int y) {
  int g;
  g = y;
  while (x > 0) {
    g = x;
    x = y % x;
    y = g;
  }
  return g;
}

Create a SWIG interface file for this C code, jni/example.i :

/* File : example.i */
%module example

%inline %{
extern int    gcd(int x, int y);
extern double Foo;
%}

Invoke SWIG as follows:

$ swig -java -package org.swig.simple -outdir src/org/swig/simple -o jni/example_wrap.c jni/example.i

SWIG generates the following files:

Next we need to create a standard Android NDK build system file jni/Android.mk:

# File: Android.mk
LOCAL_PATH := $(call my-dir)

include $(CLEAR_VARS)

LOCAL_MODULE    := example
LOCAL_SRC_FILES := example_wrap.c example.c

include $(BUILD_SHARED_LIBRARY)

See the Android NDK documentation for more on the NDK build system and getting started with the NDK. A simple invocation of ndk-build will compile the .c files and generate a shared object/system library. Output will be similar to:

$ ndk-build
Compile thumb  : example <= example_wrap.c
Compile thumb  : example <= example.c
SharedLibrary  : libexample.so
Install        : libexample.so => libs/armeabi/libexample.so

Now that the C JNI layer has been built, we can write Java code to call into the this layer. Modify the nativeCall method in src/org/swig/simple/SwigSimple.java to call the JNI code as follows and add the static constructor to load the system library containing the compiled JNI C code:

    /** Calls into C/C++ code */
    public void nativeCall()
    {
      // Call our gcd() function
      
      int x = 42;
      int y = 105;
      int g = example.gcd(x,y);
      outputText.append("The greatest common divisor of " + x + " and " + y + " is " + g + "\n");

      // Manipulate the Foo global variable

      // Output its current value
      double foo = example.getFoo();
      outputText.append("Foo = " + foo + "\n");

      // Change its value
      example.setFoo(3.1415926);

      // See if the change took effect
      outputText.append("Foo = " + example.getFoo() + "\n");

      // Restore value
      example.setFoo(foo);
    }

    /** static constructor */
    static {
        System.loadLibrary("example");
    }

Compile the Java code as usual, uninstall the old version of the app if still installed and re-install the new app:

$ ant debug
$ adb uninstall org.swig.simple
$ adb install bin/SwigSimple-debug.apk 

Run the app again and this time you will see the output pictured below, showing the result of calls into the C code:

Android screenshot of SwigSimple example

19.2.3 C++ class example

The steps for calling C++ code are almost identical to those in the previous C code example. All the steps required to compile and use a simple hierarchy of classes for shapes are shown in this example.

First create an Android project called SwigClass in a subdirectory called class. The steps below create and build a the JNI C++ app. Adjust the --target id as mentioned earlier in the Examples introduction.

$ android create project --target 1 --name SwigClass --path ./class --activity SwigClass --package org.swig.classexample
$ cd class

Now create a jni subdirectory and then create a C++ header file jni/example.h which defines our hierarchy of shape classes:

/* File : example.h */

class Shape {
public:
  Shape() {
    nshapes++;
  }
  virtual ~Shape() {
    nshapes--;
  }
  double  x, y;   
  void    move(double dx, double dy);
  virtual double area() = 0;
  virtual double perimeter() = 0;
  static  int nshapes;
};

class Circle : public Shape {
private:
  double radius;
public:
  Circle(double r) : radius(r) { }
  virtual double area();
  virtual double perimeter();
};

class Square : public Shape {
private:
  double width;
public:
  Square(double w) : width(w) { }
  virtual double area();
  virtual double perimeter();
};

and create the implementation in the jni/example.cpp file:

/* File : example.cpp */

#include "example.h"
#define M_PI 3.14159265358979323846

/* Move the shape to a new location */
void Shape::move(double dx, double dy) {
  x += dx;
  y += dy;
}

int Shape::nshapes = 0;

double Circle::area() {
  return M_PI*radius*radius;
}

double Circle::perimeter() {
  return 2*M_PI*radius;
}

double Square::area() {
  return width*width;
}

double Square::perimeter() {
  return 4*width;
}

Create a SWIG interface file for this C++ code in jni/example.i :

/* File : example.i */
%module example

%{
#include "example.h"
%}

/* Let's just grab the original header file here */
%include "example.h"

Invoke SWIG as follows, note that the -c++ option is required for C++ code:

$ swig -c++ -java -package org.swig.classexample -outdir src/org/swig/classexample -o jni/example_wrap.cpp jni/example.i

SWIG generates the following files:

Next we need to create an Android NDK build system file for compiling the C++ code jni/Android.mk. The -frtti compiler flag isn't strictly needed for this example, but is needed for any code that uses C++ RTTI:

# File: Android.mk
LOCAL_PATH := $(call my-dir)

include $(CLEAR_VARS)

LOCAL_MODULE    := example
LOCAL_SRC_FILES := example_wrap.cpp example.cpp
LOCAL_CFLAGS    := -frtti

include $(BUILD_SHARED_LIBRARY)

A simple invocation of ndk-build will compile the .cpp files and generate a shared object/system library. Output will be similar to:

$ ndk-build
Compile++ thumb  : example <= example_wrap.cpp
Compile++ thumb  : example <= example.cpp
StaticLibrary  : libstdc++.a
SharedLibrary  : libexample.so
Install        : libexample.so => libs/armeabi/libexample.so

Now that the C JNI layer has been built, we can write Java code to call into this layer. Modify src/org/swig/classexample/SwigClass.java from the default to:

package org.swig.classexample;

import android.app.Activity;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.Button;
import android.widget.TextView;
import android.widget.ScrollView;
import android.text.method.ScrollingMovementMethod;

public class SwigClass extends Activity
{
    TextView outputText = null;
    ScrollView scroller = null;

    /** Called when the activity is first created. */
    @Override
    public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState)
    {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.main);

        outputText = (TextView)findViewById(R.id.OutputText);
        outputText.setText("Press 'Run' to start...\n");
        outputText.setMovementMethod(new ScrollingMovementMethod());

        scroller = (ScrollView)findViewById(R.id.Scroller);
    }

    public void onRunButtonClick(View view)
    {
      outputText.append("Started...\n");
      nativeCall();
      outputText.append("Finished!\n");
      
      // Ensure scroll to end of text
      scroller.post(new Runnable() {
        public void run() {
          scroller.fullScroll(ScrollView.FOCUS_DOWN);
        }
      });
    }

    /** Calls into C/C++ code */
    public void nativeCall()
    {
      // ----- Object creation -----

      outputText.append( "Creating some objects:\n" );
      Circle c = new Circle(10);
      outputText.append( "    Created circle " + c + "\n");
      Square s = new Square(10);
      outputText.append( "    Created square " + s + "\n");

      // ----- Access a static member -----

      outputText.append( "\nA total of " + Shape.getNshapes() + " shapes were created\n" );

      // ----- Member data access -----

      // Notice how we can do this using functions specific to
      // the 'Circle' class.
      c.setX(20);
      c.setY(30);

      // Now use the same functions in the base class
      Shape shape = s;
      shape.setX(-10);
      shape.setY(5);

      outputText.append( "\nHere is their current position:\n" );
      outputText.append( "    Circle = (" + c.getX() + " " + c.getY() + ")\n" );
      outputText.append( "    Square = (" + s.getX() + " " + s.getY() + ")\n" );

      // ----- Call some methods -----

      outputText.append( "\nHere are some properties of the shapes:\n" );
      Shape[] shapes = {c,s};
      for (int i=0; i<shapes.length; i++)
      {
        outputText.append( "   " + shapes[i].toString() + "\n" );
        outputText.append( "        area      = " + shapes[i].area() + "\n" );
        outputText.append( "        perimeter = " + shapes[i].perimeter() + "\n" );
      }

      // Notice how the area() and perimeter() functions really
      // invoke the appropriate virtual method on each object.

      // ----- Delete everything -----

      outputText.append( "\nGuess I'll clean up now\n" );

      // Note: this invokes the virtual destructor
      // You could leave this to the garbage collector
      c.delete();
      s.delete();

      outputText.append( Shape.getNshapes() + " shapes remain\n" );
      outputText.append( "Goodbye\n" );
    }

    /** static constructor */
    static {
        System.loadLibrary("example");
    }
}

Note the static constructor and the interesting JNI code is in the nativeCall method. The remaining code deals with the GUI aspects which are identical to the previous C simple example. Modify res/layout/main.xml to contain the xml for the 'Run' button and scrollable text view:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    android:orientation="vertical"
    android:layout_width="fill_parent"
    android:layout_height="fill_parent"
    >
<Button
    android:id="@+id/RunButton"  
    android:layout_width="wrap_content"  
    android:layout_height="wrap_content"  
    android:text="Run..."  
    android:onClick="onRunButtonClick"
    />
<ScrollView
    android:id="@+id/Scroller"
    android:layout_width="fill_parent"
    android:layout_height="fill_parent"
    >
<TextView
    android:id="@+id/OutputText"
    android:layout_width="wrap_content"
    android:layout_height="wrap_content"
    />
</ScrollView>
</LinearLayout>

Compile the Java code as usual, uninstall the old version of the app if installed and re-install the new app:

$ ant debug
$ adb uninstall org.swig.classexample
$ adb install bin/SwigClass-debug.apk 

Run the app to see the result of calling the C++ code from Java:

Android screenshot of SwigClass example

19.2.4 Other examples

The Examples/android directory contains further examples which can be run and installed in a similar manner to the previous two examples.

Note that the 'extend' example is demonstrates the directors feature. Normally C++ exception handling and the STL is not available by default in the version of g++ shipped with Android, but this example turns these features on as described in the next section.

19.3 C++ STL

Should the C++ Standard Template Library (STL) be required, an Application.mk file needs to be created in the same directory as the Android.mk directory containing information about the STL to use. See the NDK documentation in the $NDKROOT/docs folder especially CPLUSPLUS-SUPPORT.html. Below is an example of the Application.mk file to make the STLport static library available for use:

# File: Application.mk
APP_STL := gnustl_static

20 SWIG and C#

20.1 Introduction

The purpose of the C# module is to offer an automated way of accessing existing C/C++ code from .NET languages. The wrapper code implementation uses C# and the Platform Invoke (PInvoke) interface to access natively compiled C/C++ code. The PInvoke interface has been chosen over Microsoft's Managed C++ interface as it is portable to both Microsoft Windows and non-Microsoft platforms. PInvoke is part of the ECMA/ISO C# specification. It is also better suited for robust production environments due to the Managed C++ flaw called the Mixed DLL Loading Problem. SWIG C# works equally well on non-Microsoft operating systems such as Linux, Solaris and Apple Mac using Mono and Portable.NET.

To get the most out of this chapter an understanding of interop is required. The Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN) has a good reference guide in a section titled "Interop Marshaling". Monodoc, available from the Mono project, has a very useful section titled Interop with native libraries.

20.1.1 SWIG 2 Compatibility

In order to minimize name collisions between names generated based on input to SWIG and names used in the generated code from the .NET framework, SWIG 3 fully qualifies the use of all .NET types. Furthermore, SWIG 3 avoids using directives in generated code. This breaks backwards compatibility with typemaps, pragmas, etc written for use with SWIG 2 that assume the presence of using System; or using System.Runtime.InteropServices; directives in the intermediate class imports, module imports, or proxy imports. SWIG 3 supports backwards compatibility though the use of the SWIG2_CSHARP macro. If SWIG2_CSHARP is defined, SWIG 3 generates using directives in the intermediate class, module class, and proxy class code similar to those generated by SWIG 2. This can be done without modifying any of the input code by passing the -DSWIG2_CSHARP commandline parameter when executing swig.

20.2 Differences to the Java module

The C# module is very similar to the Java module, so until some more complete documentation has been written, please use the Java documentation as a guide to using SWIG with C#. The C# module has the same major SWIG features as the Java module. The rest of this section should be read in conjunction with the Java documentation as it lists the main differences. The most notable differences to Java are the following:

$dllimport
This is a C# only special variable that can be used in typemaps, pragmas, features etc. The special variable will get translated into the value specified by the -dllimport commandline option if specified, otherwise it is equivalent to the $module special variable.

$imclassname
This special variable expands to the intermediary class name. For C# this is usually the same as '$modulePINVOKE' ('$moduleJNI' for Java), unless the imclassname attribute is specified in the %module directive.

The directory Examples/csharp has a number of simple examples. Visual Studio .NET 2003 solution and project files are available for compiling with the Microsoft .NET C# compiler on Windows. If your SWIG installation went well on a Unix environment and your C# compiler was detected, you should be able to type make in each example directory, then ilrun runme.exe (Portable.NET C# compiler) or mono runme.exe (Mono C# compiler) to run the examples. Windows users can also get the examples working using a Cygwin or MinGW environment for automatic configuration of the example makefiles. Any one of the three C# compilers (Portable.NET, Mono or Microsoft) can be detected from within a Cygwin or Mingw environment if installed in your path.

20.3 Void pointers

By default SWIG treats void * as any other pointer and hence marshalls it as a type wrapper class called SWIGTYPE_p_void . If you want to marshall with the .NET System.IntPtr type instead, there is a simple set of named typemaps called void *VOID_INT_PTR that can be used. They can be applied like any other named typemaps:

%apply void *VOID_INT_PTR { void * }
void * f(void *v);

20.4 C# Arrays

There are various ways to pass arrays from C# to C/C++. The default wrapping treats arrays as pointers and as such simple type wrapper classes are generated, eg SWIGTYPE_p_int when wrapping the C type int [] or int *. This gives a rather restricted use of the underlying unmanaged code and the most practical way to use arrays is to enhance or customise with one of the following three approaches; namely the SWIG C arrays library, P/Invoke default array marshalling or pinned arrays.

20.4.1 The SWIG C arrays library

The C arrays library keeps all the array memory in the unmanaged layer. The library is available to all language modules and is documented in the carrays.i library section. Please refer to this section for details, but for convenience, the C# usage for the two examples outlined there is shown below.

For the %array_functions example, the equivalent usage would be:

SWIGTYPE_p_double a = example.new_doubleArray(10);  // Create an array
for (int i=0; i<10; i++)
  example.doubleArray_setitem(a,i,2*i);             // Set a value
example.print_array(a);                             // Pass to C
example.delete_doubleArray(a);                      // Destroy array

and for the %array_class example, the equivalent usage would be:

doubleArray c = new doubleArray(10);    // Create double[10]
for (int i=0; i<10; i++)
  c.setitem(i, 2*i);                    // Assign values
example.print_array(c.cast());          // Pass to C

20.4.2 Managed arrays using P/Invoke default array marshalling

In the P/Invoke default marshalling scheme, one needs to designate whether the invoked function will treat a managed array parameter as input, output, or both. When the function is invoked, the CLR allocates a separate chunk of memory as big as the given managed array, which is automatically released at the end of the function call. If the array parameter is marked as being input, the content of the managed array is copied into this buffer when the call is made. Correspondingly, if the array parameter is marked as being output, the contents of the reserved buffer are copied back into the managed array after the call returns. A pointer to this buffer is passed to the native function.

The reason for allocating a separate buffer is to leave the CLR free to relocate the managed array object during garbage collection. If the overhead caused by the copying is causing a significant performance penalty, consider pinning the managed array and passing a direct reference as described in the next section.

For more information on the subject, see the Default Marshaling for Arrays article on MSDN.

The P/Invoke default marshalling is supported by the arrays_csharp.i library via the INPUT, OUTPUT and INOUT typemaps. Let's look at some example usage. Consider the following C function:

void myArrayCopy(int *sourceArray, int *targetArray, int nitems);

We can now instruct SWIG to use the default marshalling typemaps by

%include "arrays_csharp.i"

%apply int INPUT[]  {int *sourceArray}
%apply int OUTPUT[] {int *targetArray}

As a result, we get the following method in the module class:

public static void myArrayCopy(int[] sourceArray, int[] targetArray, int nitems) {
    examplePINVOKE.myArrayCopy(sourceArray, targetArray, nitems);
}

If we look beneath the surface at the corresponding intermediary class code, we see that SWIG has generated code that uses attributes (from the System.Runtime.InteropServices namespace) to tell the CLR to use default marshalling for the arrays:

[global::System.Runtime.InteropServices.DllImport("example", EntryPoint="CSharp_myArrayCopy")]
public static extern void myArrayCopy([global::System.Runtime.InteropServices.In, global::System.Runtime.InteropServices.MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPArray)]int[] jarg1, 
                                      [global::System.Runtime.InteropServices.Out, global::System.Runtime.InteropServices.MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPArray)]int[] jarg2,
                                       int jarg3);

As an example of passing an inout array (i.e. the target function will both read from and write to the array), consider this C function that swaps a given number of elements in the given arrays:

void myArraySwap(int *array1, int *array2, int nitems);

Now, we can instruct SWIG to wrap this by

%include "arrays_csharp.i"

%apply int INOUT[] {int *array1}
%apply int INOUT[] {int *array2}

This results in the module class method

  public static void myArraySwap(int[] array1, int[] array2, int nitems) {
    examplePINVOKE.myArraySwap(array1, array2, nitems);
  }

and intermediary class method

  [global::System.Runtime.InteropServices.DllImport("example", EntryPoint="CSharp_myArraySwap")]
  public static extern void myArraySwap([global::System.Runtime.InteropServices.In, global::System.Runtime.InteropServices.Out, global::System.Runtime.InteropServices.MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPArray)]int[] jarg1, 
                                        [global::System.Runtime.InteropServices.In, global::System.Runtime.InteropServices.Out, global::System.Runtime.InteropServices.MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPArray)]int[] jarg2,
                                         int jarg3);

20.4.3 Managed arrays using pinning

It is also possible to pin a given array in memory (i.e. fix its location in memory), obtain a direct pointer to it, and then pass this pointer to the wrapped C/C++ function. This approach involves no copying, but it makes the work of the garbage collector harder as the managed array object can not be relocated before the fix on the array is released. You should avoid fixing arrays in memory in cases where the control may re-enter the managed side via a callback and/or another thread may produce enough garbage to trigger garbage collection.

For more information, see the fixed statement in the C# language reference.

Now let's look at an example using pinning, thus avoiding the CLR making copies of the arrays passed as parameters. The arrays_csharp.i library file again provides the required support via the FIXED typemaps. Let's use the same function from the previous section:

void myArrayCopy(int *sourceArray, int *targetArray, int nitems);

We now need to declare the module class method unsafe, as we are using pointers:

%csmethodmodifiers myArrayCopy "public unsafe";
 

Apply the appropriate typemaps to the array parameters:

%include "arrays_csharp.i"

%apply int FIXED[] {int *sourceArray}
%apply int FIXED[] {int *targetArray}

Notice that there is no need for separate in, out or inout typemaps as is the case when using P/Invoke default marshalling.

As a result, we get the following method in the module class:

  public unsafe static void myArrayCopy(int[] sourceArray, int[] targetArray, int nitems) {
    fixed ( int *swig_ptrTo_sourceArray = sourceArray ) {
    fixed ( int *swig_ptrTo_targetArray = targetArray ) {
    {
      examplePINVOKE.myArrayCopy((global::System.IntPtr)swig_ptrTo_sourceArray, (global::System.IntPtr)swig_ptrTo_targetArray,
                                 nitems);
    }
    }
    }
  }

On the method signature level the only difference to the version using P/Invoke default marshalling is the "unsafe" quantifier, which is required because we are handling pointers.

Also the intermediary class method looks a little different from the default marshalling example - the method is expecting an IntPtr as the parameter type.

[global::System.Runtime.InteropServices.DllImport("example", EntryPoint="CSharp_myArrayCopy")]
public static extern void myArrayCopy(global::System.IntPtr jarg1, global::System.IntPtr jarg2, int jarg3);

20.5 C# Exceptions

It is possible to throw a C# Exception from C/C++ code. SWIG already provides the framework for throwing C# exceptions if it is able to detect that a C++ exception could be thrown. Automatically detecting that a C++ exception could be thrown is only possible when a C++ exception specification is used, see Exception specifications. The Exception handling with %exception section details the %exception feature. Customised code for handling exceptions with or without a C++ exception specification is possible and the details follow. However anyone wishing to do this should be familiar with the contents of the sections referred to above.

Unfortunately a C# exception cannot simply be thrown from unmanaged code for a variety of reasons. Most notably being that throwing a C# exception results in exceptions being thrown across the C PInvoke interface and C does not understand exceptions. The design revolves around a C# exception being constructed and stored as a pending exception, to be thrown only when the unmanaged code has completed. Implementing this is a tad involved and there are thus some unusual typemap constructs. Some practical examples follow and they should be read in conjunction with the rest of this section.

First some details about the design that must be followed. Each typemap or feature that generates unmanaged code supports an attribute called canthrow. This is simply a flag which when set indicates that the code in the typemap/feature has code which might want to throw a C# exception. The code in the typemap/feature can then raise a C# exception by calling one of the C functions, SWIG_CSharpSetPendingException() or SWIG_CSharpSetPendingExceptionArgument(). When called, the function makes a callback into the managed world via a delegate. The callback creates and stores an exception ready for throwing when the unmanaged code has finished. The typemap/feature unmanaged code is then expected to force an immediate return from the unmanaged wrapper function, so that the pending managed exception can then be thrown. The support code has been carefully designed to be efficient as well as thread-safe. However to achieve the goal of efficiency requires some optional code generation in the managed code typemaps. Code to check for pending exceptions is generated if and only if the unmanaged code has code to set a pending exception, that is if the canthrow attribute is set. The optional managed code is generated using the excode typemap attribute and $excode special variable in the relevant managed code typemaps. Simply, if any relevant unmanaged code has the canthrow attribute set, then any occurrences of $excode is replaced with the code in the excode attribute. If the canthrow attribute is not set, then any occurrences of $excode are replaced with nothing.

The prototypes for the SWIG_CSharpSetPendingException() and SWIG_CSharpSetPendingExceptionArgument() functions are

static void SWIG_CSharpSetPendingException(SWIG_CSharpExceptionCodes code,
                                           const char *msg);

static void SWIG_CSharpSetPendingExceptionArgument(SWIG_CSharpExceptionArgumentCodes code,
                                                   const char *msg,
                                                   const char *param_name);

The first parameter defines which .NET exceptions can be thrown:

typedef enum {
  SWIG_CSharpApplicationException,
  SWIG_CSharpArithmeticException,
  SWIG_CSharpDivideByZeroException,
  SWIG_CSharpIndexOutOfRangeException,
  SWIG_CSharpInvalidCastException,
  SWIG_CSharpInvalidOperationException,
  SWIG_CSharpIOException,
  SWIG_CSharpNullReferenceException,
  SWIG_CSharpOutOfMemoryException,
  SWIG_CSharpOverflowException,
  SWIG_CSharpSystemException
} SWIG_CSharpExceptionCodes;

typedef enum {
  SWIG_CSharpArgumentException,
  SWIG_CSharpArgumentNullException,
  SWIG_CSharpArgumentOutOfRangeException,
} SWIG_CSharpExceptionArgumentCodes;

where, for example, SWIG_CSharpApplicationException corresponds to the .NET exception, ApplicationException. The msg and param_name parameters contain the C# exception message and parameter name associated with the exception.

The %exception feature in C# has the canthrow attribute set. The %csnothrowexception feature is like %exception, but it does not have the canthrow attribute set so should only be used when a C# exception is not created.

20.5.1 C# exception example using "check" typemap

Let's say we have the following simple C++ method:

void positivesonly(int number);

and we want to check that the input number is always positive and if not throw a C# ArgumentOutOfRangeException. The "check" typemap is designed for checking input parameters. Below you will see the canthrow attribute is set because the code contains a call to SWIG_CSharpSetPendingExceptionArgument(). The full example follows:

%module example

%typemap(check, canthrow=1) int number %{
if ($1 < 0) {
  SWIG_CSharpSetPendingExceptionArgument(SWIG_CSharpArgumentOutOfRangeException,
                                         "only positive numbers accepted", "number");
  return $null;
}
// SWIGEXCODE is a macro used by many other csout typemaps
%define SWIGEXCODE
 "\n    if ($modulePINVOKE.SWIGPendingException.Pending)"
 "\n      throw $modulePINVOKE.SWIGPendingException.Retrieve();"
%enddef
%typemap(csout, excode=SWIGEXCODE) void {
    $imcall;$excode
  }
%}

%inline %{

void positivesonly(int number) {
}

%}

When the following C# code is executed:

public class runme {
    static void Main() {
      example.positivesonly(-1);
    }
}

The exception is thrown:

Unhandled Exception: System.ArgumentOutOfRangeException: only positive numbers accepted
Parameter name: number
in <0x00034> example:positivesonly (int)
in <0x0000c> runme:Main ()

Now let's analyse the generated code to gain a fuller understanding of the typemaps. The generated unmanaged C++ code is:

SWIGEXPORT void SWIGSTDCALL CSharp_positivesonly(int jarg1) {
    int arg1 ;
    
    arg1 = (int)jarg1; 
    
    if (arg1 < 0) {
        SWIG_CSharpSetPendingExceptionArgument(SWIG_CSharpArgumentOutOfRangeException,
                                               "only positive numbers accepted", "number");
        return ;
    }
    
    positivesonly(arg1);
    
}

This largely comes from the "check" typemap. The managed code in the module class is:

public class example {
  public static void positivesonly(int number) {
    examplePINVOKE.positivesonly(number);
    if (examplePINVOKE.SWIGPendingException.Pending)
      throw examplePINVOKE.SWIGPendingException.Retrieve();
  }

}

This comes largely from the "csout" typemap.

The "csout" typemap is the same as the default void "csout" typemap so is not strictly necessary for the example. However, it is shown to demonstrate what managed output code typemaps should contain, that is, a $excode special variable and an excode attribute. Also note that $excode is expanded into the code held in the excode attribute. The $imcall as always expands into examplePINVOKE.positivesonly(number). The exception support code in the intermediary class, examplePINVOKE, is not shown, but is contained within the inner classes, SWIGPendingException and SWIGExceptionHelper and is always generated. These classes can be seen in any of the generated wrappers. However, all that is required of a user is as demonstrated in the "csin" typemap above. That is, is to check SWIGPendingException.Pending and to throw the exception returned by SWIGPendingException.Retrieve().

If the "check" typemap did not exist, then the following module class would instead be generated:

public class example {
  public static void positivesonly(int number) {
    examplePINVOKE.positivesonly(number);
  }

}

Here we see the pending exception checking code is omitted. In fact, the code above would be generated if the canthrow attribute was not in the "check" typemap, such as:

%typemap(check) int number %{
if ($1 < 0) {
  SWIG_CSharpSetPendingExceptionArgument(SWIG_CSharpArgumentOutOfRangeException,
                                         "only positive numbers accepted", "number");
  return $null;
}
%}

Note that if SWIG detects you have used SWIG_CSharpSetPendingException() or SWIG_CSharpSetPendingExceptionArgument() without setting the canthrow attribute you will get a warning message similar to

example.i:21: Warning 845: Unmanaged code contains a call to a SWIG_CSharpSetPendingException
method and C# code does not handle pending exceptions via the canthrow attribute.

Actually it will issue this warning for any function beginning with SWIG_CSharpSetPendingException.

20.5.2 C# exception example using %exception

Let's consider a similar, but more common example that throws a C++ exception from within a wrapped function. We can use %exception as mentioned in Exception handling with %exception.

%exception negativesonly(int value) %{
try {
  $action
} catch (std::out_of_range e) {
  SWIG_CSharpSetPendingException(SWIG_CSharpApplicationException, e.what());
}
%}

%inline %{
#include <stdexcept>
void negativesonly(int value) {
  if (value >= 0)
    throw std::out_of_range("number should be negative");
}
%}

The generated unmanaged code this time catches the C++ exception and converts it into a C# ApplicationException.

SWIGEXPORT void SWIGSTDCALL CSharp_negativesonly(int jarg1) {
    int arg1 ;
    
    arg1 = (int)jarg1; 
    
    try {
        negativesonly(arg1);
        
    } catch (std::out_of_range e) {
        SWIG_CSharpSetPendingException(SWIG_CSharpApplicationException, e.what());
        return ;
    }
    
}

The managed code generated does check for the pending exception as mentioned earlier as the C# version of %exception has the canthrow attribute set by default:

  public static void negativesonly(int value) {
    examplePINVOKE.negativesonly(value);
    if (examplePINVOKE.SWIGPendingException.Pending)
      throw examplePINVOKE.SWIGPendingException.Retrieve();
  }

20.5.3 C# exception example using exception specifications

When C++ exception specifications are used, SWIG is able to detect that the method might throw an exception. By default SWIG will automatically generate code to catch the exception and convert it into a managed ApplicationException, as defined by the default "throws" typemaps. The following example has a user supplied "throws" typemap which is used whenever an exception specification contains a std::out_of_range, such as the evensonly method below.

%typemap(throws, canthrow=1) std::out_of_range {
  SWIG_CSharpSetPendingExceptionArgument(SWIG_CSharpArgumentException, $1.what(), NULL);
  return $null;
}

%inline %{
#include <stdexcept>
void evensonly(int input) throw (std::out_of_range) {
  if (input%2 != 0)
    throw std::out_of_range("number is not even");
}
%}

Note that the type for the throws typemap is the type in the exception specification. SWIG generates a try catch block with the throws typemap code in the catch handler.

SWIGEXPORT void SWIGSTDCALL CSharp_evensonly(int jarg1) {
    int arg1 ;
    
    arg1 = (int)jarg1; 
    try {
        evensonly(arg1);
    }
    catch(std::out_of_range &_e) {
      {
          SWIG_CSharpSetPendingExceptionArgument(SWIG_CSharpArgumentException, (&_e)->what(), NULL);
          return ;
      }
    }
    
}

Multiple catch handlers are generated should there be more than one exception specifications declared.

20.5.4 Custom C# ApplicationException example

This example involves a user defined exception. The conventional .NET exception handling approach is to create a custom ApplicationException and throw it in your application. The goal in this example is to convert the STL std::out_of_range exception into one of these custom .NET exceptions.

The default exception handling is quite easy to use as the SWIG_CSharpSetPendingException() and SWIG_CSharpSetPendingExceptionArgument() methods are provided by SWIG. However, for a custom C# exception, the boiler plate code that supports these functions needs replicating. In essence this consists of some C/C++ code and C# code. The C/C++ code can be generated into the wrapper file using the %insert(runtime) directive and the C# code can be generated into the intermediary class using the imclasscode pragma as follows:

%insert(runtime) %{
  // Code to handle throwing of C# CustomApplicationException from C/C++ code.
  // The equivalent delegate to the callback, CSharpExceptionCallback_t, is CustomExceptionDelegate
  // and the equivalent customExceptionCallback instance is customDelegate
  typedef void (SWIGSTDCALL* CSharpExceptionCallback_t)(const char *);
  CSharpExceptionCallback_t customExceptionCallback = NULL;

  extern "C" SWIGEXPORT
  void SWIGSTDCALL CustomExceptionRegisterCallback(CSharpExceptionCallback_t customCallback) {
    customExceptionCallback = customCallback;
  }

  // Note that SWIG detects any method calls named starting with
  // SWIG_CSharpSetPendingException for warning 845
  static void SWIG_CSharpSetPendingExceptionCustom(const char *msg) {
    customExceptionCallback(msg);
  }
%}

%pragma(csharp) imclasscode=%{
  class CustomExceptionHelper {
    // C# delegate for the C/C++ customExceptionCallback
    public delegate void CustomExceptionDelegate(string message);
    static CustomExceptionDelegate customDelegate =
                                   new CustomExceptionDelegate(SetPendingCustomException);

    [global::System.Runtime.InteropServices.DllImport("$dllimport", EntryPoint="CustomExceptionRegisterCallback")]
    public static extern
           void CustomExceptionRegisterCallback(CustomExceptionDelegate customCallback);

    static void SetPendingCustomException(string message) {
      SWIGPendingException.Set(new CustomApplicationException(message));
    }

    static CustomExceptionHelper() {
      CustomExceptionRegisterCallback(customDelegate);
    }
  }
  static CustomExceptionHelper exceptionHelper = new CustomExceptionHelper();
%}

The method stored in the C# delegate instance, customDelegate is what gets called by the C/C++ callback. However, the equivalent to the C# delegate, that is the C/C++ callback, needs to be assigned before any unmanaged code is executed. This is achieved by putting the initialisation code in the intermediary class. Recall that the intermediary class contains all the PInvoke methods, so the static variables in the intermediary class will be initialised before any of the PInvoke methods in this class are called. The exceptionHelper static variable ensures the C/C++ callback is initialised with the value in customDelegate by calling the CustomExceptionRegisterCallback method in the CustomExceptionHelper static constructor. Once this has been done, unmanaged code can make callbacks into the managed world as customExceptionCallback will be initialised with a valid callback/delegate. Any calls to SWIG_CSharpSetPendingExceptionCustom() will make the callback to create the pending exception in the same way that SWIG_CSharpSetPendingException() and SWIG_CSharpSetPendingExceptionArgument() does. In fact the method has been similarly named so that SWIG can issue the warning about missing canthrow attributes as discussed earlier. It is an invaluable warning as it is easy to forget the canthrow attribute when writing typemaps/features.

The SWIGPendingException helper class is not shown, but is generated as an inner class into the intermediary class. It stores the pending exception in Thread Local Storage so that the exception handling mechanism is thread safe.

The boiler plate code above must be used in addition to a handcrafted CustomApplicationException:

// Custom C# Exception
class CustomApplicationException : global::System.ApplicationException {
  public CustomApplicationException(string message) 
    : base(message) {
  }
}

and the SWIG interface code:

%typemap(throws, canthrow=1) std::out_of_range {
  SWIG_CSharpSetPendingExceptionCustom($1.what());
  return $null;
}

%inline %{
void oddsonly(int input) throw (std::out_of_range) {
  if (input%2 != 1)
    throw std::out_of_range("number is not odd");
}
%}

The "throws" typemap now simply calls our new SWIG_CSharpSetPendingExceptionCustom() function so that the exception can be caught, as such:

try {
  example.oddsonly(2);
} catch (CustomApplicationException e) {
  ...
}

20.6 C# Directors

The SWIG directors feature adds extra code to the generated C# proxy classes that enable these classes to be used in cross-language polymorphism. Essentially, it enables unmanaged C++ code to call back into managed code for virtual methods so that a C# class can derive from a wrapped C++ class.

The following sections provide information on the C# director implementation and contain most of the information required to use the C# directors. However, the Java directors section should also be read in order to gain more insight into directors.

20.6.1 Directors example

Imagine we are wrapping a C++ base class, Base, from which we would like to inherit in C#. Such a class is shown below as well as another class, Caller, which calls the virtual method UIntMethod from pure unmanaged C++ code.

// file: example.h
class Base {
public:
  virtual ~Base() {}

  virtual unsigned int UIntMethod(unsigned int x) {
    std::cout << "Base - UIntMethod(" << x << ")" << std::endl;
    return x;
  }
  virtual void BaseBoolMethod(const Base &b, bool flag) {}
};

class Caller {
public:
  Caller(): m_base(0) {}
  ~Caller() { delBase(); }
  void set(Base *b) { delBase(); m_base = b; }
  void reset() { m_base = 0; }
  unsigned int UIntMethodCall(unsigned int x) { return m_base->UIntMethod(x); }

private:
  Base *m_base;
  void delBase() { delete m_base; m_base = 0; }
};

The director feature is turned off by default and the following simple interface file shows how directors are enabled for the class Base.

/* File : example.i */
%module(directors="1") example
%{
#include "example.h"
%}

%feature("director") Base;

%include "example.h"

The following is a C# class inheriting from Base:

public class CSharpDerived : Base
{
  public override uint UIntMethod(uint x)
  {
    Console.WriteLine("CSharpDerived - UIntMethod({0})", x);
    return x;
  }
}

The Caller class can demonstrate the UIntMethod method being called from unmanaged code using the following C# code:

public class runme
{
  static void Main() 
  {
    Caller myCaller = new Caller();

    // Test pure C++ class
    using (Base myBase = new Base())
    {
      makeCalls(myCaller, myBase);
    }

    // Test director / C# derived class
    using (Base myBase = new CSharpDerived())
    {
      makeCalls(myCaller, myBase);
    }
  }

  static void makeCalls(Caller myCaller, Base myBase)
  {
    myCaller.set(myBase);
    myCaller.UIntMethodCall(123);
    myCaller.reset();
  }
}

If the above is run, the output is then:

Base - UIntMethod(123)
CSharpDerived - UIntMethod(123)

20.6.2 Directors implementation

The previous section demonstrated a simple example where the virtual UIntMethod method was called from C++ code, even when the overridden method is implemented in C#. The intention of this section is to gain an insight into how the director feature works. It shows the generated code for the two virtual methods, UIntMethod and BaseBoolMethod, when the director feature is enabled for the Base class.

Below is the generated C# Base director class.

public class Base : global::System.IDisposable {
  private global::System.Runtime.InteropServices.HandleRef swigCPtr;
  protected bool swigCMemOwn;

  internal Base(global::System.IntPtr cPtr, bool cMemoryOwn) {
    swigCMemOwn = cMemoryOwn;
    swigCPtr = new global::System.Runtime.InteropServices.HandleRef(this, cPtr);
  }

  internal static global::System.Runtime.InteropServices.HandleRef getCPtr(Base obj) {
    return (obj == null) ? new global::System.Runtime.InteropServices.HandleRef(null, global::System.IntPtr.Zero) : obj.swigCPtr;
  }

  ~Base() {
    Dispose();
  }

  public virtual void Dispose() {
    lock(this) {
      if(swigCPtr.Handle != global::System.IntPtr.Zero && swigCMemOwn) {
        swigCMemOwn = false;
        examplePINVOKE.delete_Base(swigCPtr);
      }
      swigCPtr = new global::System.Runtime.InteropServices.HandleRef(null, global::System.IntPtr.Zero);
      global::System.GC.SuppressFinalize(this);
    }
  }

  public virtual uint UIntMethod(uint x) {
    uint ret = examplePINVOKE.Base_UIntMethod(swigCPtr, x);
    return ret;
  }

  public virtual void BaseBoolMethod(Base b, bool flag) {
    examplePINVOKE.Base_BaseBoolMethod(swigCPtr, Base.getCPtr(b), flag);
    if (examplePINVOKE.SWIGPendingException.Pending)
      throw examplePINVOKE.SWIGPendingException.Retrieve();
  }

  public Base() : this(examplePINVOKE.new_Base(), true) {
    SwigDirectorConnect();
  }

  private void SwigDirectorConnect() {
    if (SwigDerivedClassHasMethod("UIntMethod", swigMethodTypes0))
      swigDelegate0 = new SwigDelegateBase_0(SwigDirectorUIntMethod);
    if (SwigDerivedClassHasMethod("BaseBoolMethod", swigMethodTypes1))
      swigDelegate1 = new SwigDelegateBase_1(SwigDirectorBaseBoolMethod);
    examplePINVOKE.Base_director_connect(swigCPtr, swigDelegate0, swigDelegate1);
  }

  private bool SwigDerivedClassHasMethod(string methodName, global::System.global::System.Type[] methodTypes) {
    System.Reflection.MethodInfo methodInfo = this.GetType().GetMethod(methodName, methodTypes);
    bool hasDerivedMethod = methodInfo.DeclaringType.IsSubclassOf(typeof(Base));
    return hasDerivedMethod;
  }

  private uint SwigDirectorUIntMethod(uint x) {
    return UIntMethod(x);
  }

  private void SwigDirectorBaseBoolMethod(global::System.IntPtr b, bool flag) {
    BaseBoolMethod(new Base(b, false), flag);
  }

  internal delegate uint SwigDelegateBase_0(uint x);
  internal delegate void SwigDelegateBase_1(global::System.IntPtr b, bool flag);

  private SwigDelegateBase_0 swigDelegate0;
  private SwigDelegateBase_1 swigDelegate1;

  private static global::System.Type[] swigMethodTypes0 = new global::System.Type[] { typeof(uint) };
  private static global::System.Type[] swigMethodTypes1 = new global::System.Type[] { typeof(Base), typeof(bool) };
}

Everything from the SwigDirectorConnect() method and below is code that is only generated when directors are enabled. The design comprises a C# delegate being initialised for each virtual method on construction of the class. Let's examine the BaseBoolMethod.

In the Base constructor a call is made to SwigDirectorConnect() which contains the initialisation code for all the virtual methods. It uses a support method, SwigDerivedClassHasMethod(), which simply uses reflection to determine if the named method, BaseBoolMethod, with the list of required parameter types, exists in a subclass. If it does not exist, the delegate is not initialised as there is no need for unmanaged code to call back into managed C# code. However, if there is an overridden method in any subclass, the delegate is required. It is then initialised to the SwigDirectorBaseBoolMethod which in turn will call BaseBoolMethod if invoked. The delegate is not initialised to the BaseBoolMethod directly as quite often types will need marshalling from the unmanaged type to the managed type in which case an intermediary method (SwigDirectorBaseBoolMethod ) is required for the marshalling. In this case, the C# Base class needs to be created from the unmanaged IntPtr type.

The last thing that SwigDirectorConnect() does is to pass the delegates to the unmanaged code. It calls the intermediary method Base_director_connect() which is really a call to the C function CSharp_Base_director_connect(). This method simply maps each C# delegate onto a C function pointer.

SWIGEXPORT void SWIGSTDCALL CSharp_Base_director_connect(void *objarg, 
                                        SwigDirector_Base::SWIG_Callback0_t callback0,
                                        SwigDirector_Base::SWIG_Callback1_t callback1) {
  Base *obj = (Base *)objarg;
  SwigDirector_Base *director = dynamic_cast<SwigDirector_Base *>(obj);
  if (director) {
    director->swig_connect_director(callback0, callback1);
  }
}

class SwigDirector_Base : public Base, public Swig::Director {
public:
    SwigDirector_Base();
    virtual unsigned int UIntMethod(unsigned int x);
    virtual ~SwigDirector_Base();
    virtual void BaseBoolMethod(Base const &b, bool flag);

    typedef unsigned int (SWIGSTDCALL* SWIG_Callback0_t)(unsigned int);
    typedef void (SWIGSTDCALL* SWIG_Callback1_t)(void *, unsigned int);
    void swig_connect_director(SWIG_Callback0_t callbackUIntMethod, 
                               SWIG_Callback1_t callbackBaseBoolMethod);

private:
    SWIG_Callback0_t swig_callbackUIntMethod;
    SWIG_Callback1_t swig_callbackBaseBoolMethod;
    void swig_init_callbacks();
};

void SwigDirector_Base::swig_connect_director(SWIG_Callback0_t callbackUIntMethod, 
                                              SWIG_Callback1_t callbackBaseBoolMethod) {
  swig_callbackUIntMethod = callbackUIntMethod;
  swig_callbackBaseBoolMethod = callbackBaseBoolMethod;
}

Note that for each director class SWIG creates an unmanaged director class for making the callbacks. For example Base has SwigDirector_Base and SwigDirector_Base is derived from Base. Should a C# class be derived from Base, the underlying C++ SwigDirector_Base is created rather than Base. The SwigDirector_Base class then implements all the virtual methods, redirecting calls up to managed code if the callback/delegate is non-zero. The implementation of SwigDirector_Base::BaseBoolMethod shows this - the callback is made by invoking the swig_callbackBaseBoolMethod function pointer:

void SwigDirector_Base::BaseBoolMethod(Base const &b, bool flag) {
  void * jb = 0 ;
  unsigned int jflag  ;
  
  if (!swig_callbackBaseBoolMethod) {
    Base::BaseBoolMethod(b,flag);
    return;
  } else {
    jb = (Base *) &b; 
    jflag = flag;
    swig_callbackBaseBoolMethod(jb, jflag);
  }
}

20.6.3 Director caveats

There is a subtle gotcha with directors. If default parameters are used, it is recommended to follow a pattern of always calling a single method in any C# derived class. An example will clarify this and the reasoning behind the recommendation. Consider the following C++ class wrapped as a director class:

class Defaults {
public:
  virtual ~Defaults();
  virtual void DefaultMethod(int a=-100);
};

Recall that C++ methods with default parameters generate overloaded methods for each defaulted parameter, so a C# derived class can be created with two DefaultMethod override methods:

public class CSharpDefaults : Defaults
{
  public override void DefaultMethod()
  {
    DefaultMethod(-100); // note C++ default value used
  }
  public override void DefaultMethod(int x)
  {
  }
}

It may not be clear at first, but should a user intend to call CSharpDefaults.DefaultMethod() from C++, a call is actually made to CSharpDefaults.DefaultMethod(int). This is because the initial call is made in C++ and therefore the DefaultMethod(int) method will be called as is expected with C++ calls to methods with defaults, with the default being set to -100. The callback/delegate matching this method is of course the overloaded method DefaultMethod(int). However, a call from C# to CSharpDefaults.DefaultMethod() will of course call this exact method and in order for behaviour to be consistent with calls from C++, the implementation should pass the call on to CSharpDefaults.DefaultMethod(int)using the C++ default value, as shown above.

20.7 Multiples modules

When using multiple modules it is is possible to compile each SWIG generated wrapper into a different assembly. However, by default the generated code may not compile if generated classes in one assembly use generated classes in another assembly. The visibility of the getCPtr() and pointer constructor generated from the csbody typemaps needs changing. The default visibility is internal but it needs to be public for access from a different assembly. Just changing 'internal' to 'public' in the typemap achieves this. Two macros are available in csharp.swg to make this easier and using them is the preferred approach over simply copying the typemaps and modifying as this is forward compatible with any changes in the csbody typemap in future versions of SWIG. The macros are for the proxy and typewrapper classes and can respectively be used to to make the method and constructor public:

  SWIG_CSBODY_PROXY(public, public, SWIGTYPE)
  SWIG_CSBODY_TYPEWRAPPER(public, public, public, SWIGTYPE)

Alternatively, instead of exposing these as public, consider using the [assembly:InternalsVisibleTo("Name")] attribute available in the .NET framework when you know which assemblies these can be exposed to. Another approach would be to make these public, but also to hide them from intellisense by using the [System.ComponentModel.EditorBrowsable(System.ComponentModel.EditorBrowsableState.Never)] attribute if you don't want users to easily stumble upon these so called 'internal workings' of the wrappers.

20.8 C# Typemap examples

This section includes a few examples of typemaps. For more examples, you might look at the files "csharp.swg" and "typemaps.i " in the SWIG library.

20.8.1 Memory management when returning references to member variables

This example shows how to prevent premature garbage collection of objects when the underlying C++ class returns a pointer or reference to a member variable. The example is a direct equivalent to this Java equivalent.

Consider the following C++ code:

struct Wheel {
  int size;
  Wheel(int sz) : size(sz) {}
};

class Bike {
  Wheel wheel;
public:
  Bike(int val) : wheel(val) {}
  Wheel& getWheel() { return wheel; }
};

and the following usage from C# after running the code through SWIG:

      Wheel wheel = new Bike(10).getWheel();
      Console.WriteLine("wheel size: " + wheel.size);
      // Simulate a garbage collection
      global::System.GC.Collect();
      global::System.GC.WaitForPendingFinalizers();
      global::System.Console.WriteLine("wheel size: " + wheel.size);

Don't be surprised that if the resulting output gives strange results such as...

wheel size: 10
wheel size: 135019664

What has happened here is the garbage collector has collected the Bike instance as it doesn't think it is needed any more. The proxy instance, wheel, contains a reference to memory that was deleted when the Bike instance was collected. In order to prevent the garbage collector from collecting the Bike instance a reference to the Bike must be added to the wheel instance. You can do this by adding the reference when the getWheel() method is called using the following typemaps.

%typemap(cscode) Wheel %{
  // Ensure that the GC doesn't collect any Bike instance set from C#
  private Bike bikeReference;
  internal void addReference(Bike bike) {
    bikeReference = bike;
  }
%}

// Add a C# reference to prevent premature garbage collection and resulting use
// of dangling C++ pointer. Intended for methods that return pointers or
// references to a member variable.
%typemap(csout, excode=SWIGEXCODE) Wheel& getWheel {
    global::System.IntPtr cPtr = $imcall;$excode
    $csclassname ret = null;
    if (cPtr != global::System.IntPtr.Zero) {
      ret = new $csclassname(cPtr, $owner);
      ret.addReference(this);
    }
    return ret;
  }

The code in the first typemap gets added to the Wheel proxy class. The code in the second typemap constitutes the bulk of the code in the generated getWheel() function:

public class Wheel : global::System.IDisposable {
  ...
  // Ensure that the GC doesn't collect any Bike instance set from C#
  private Bike bikeReference;
  internal void addReference(Bike bike) {
    bikeReference = bike;
  }
}

public class Bike : global::System.IDisposable {
  ...
  public Wheel getWheel() {
    global::System.IntPtr cPtr = examplePINVOKE.Bike_getWheel(swigCPtr);
    Wheel ret = null;
    if (cPtr != global::System.IntPtr.Zero) {
      ret = new Wheel(cPtr, false);
      ret.addReference(this);
    }
    return ret;
  }
}

Note the addReference call.

20.8.2 Memory management for objects passed to the C++ layer

The example is a direct equivalent to this Java equivalent. Managing memory can be tricky when using C++ and C# proxy classes. The previous example shows one such case and this example looks at memory management for a class passed to a C++ method which expects the object to remain in scope after the function has returned. Consider the following two C++ classes:

struct Element {
  int value;
  Element(int val) : value(val) {}
};
class Container {
  Element* element;
public:
  Container() : element(0) {}
  void setElement(Element* e) { element = e; }
  Element* getElement() { return element; }
};

and usage from C++

    Container container;
    Element element(20);
    container.setElement(&element);
    cout << "element.value: " << container.getElement()->value << endl;

and more or less equivalent usage from C#

      Container container = new Container();
      Element element = new Element(20);
      container.setElement(element);

The C++ code will always print out 20, but the value printed out may not be this in the C# equivalent code. In order to understand why, consider a garbage collection occuring...

      Container container = new Container();
      Element element = new Element(20);
      container.setElement(element);
      Console.WriteLine("element.value: " + container.getElement().value);
      // Simulate a garbage collection
      global::System.GC.Collect();
      global::System.GC.WaitForPendingFinalizers();
      global::System.Console.WriteLine("element.value: " + container.getElement().value);

The temporary element created with new Element(20) could get garbage collected which ultimately means the container variable is holding a dangling pointer, thereby printing out any old random value instead of the expected value of 20. One solution is to add in the appropriate references in the C# layer...

public class Container : global::System.IDisposable {

  ...

  // Ensure that the GC doesn't collect any Element set from C#
  // as the underlying C++ class stores a shallow copy
  private Element elementReference;
  private global::System.Runtime.InteropServices.HandleRef getCPtrAndAddReference(Element element) {
    elementReference = element;
    return Element.getCPtr(element);
  }

  public void setElement(Element e) {
    examplePINVOKE.Container_setElement(swigCPtr, getCPtrAndAddReference(e));
  }
}

The following typemaps will generate the desired code. The 'csin' typemap matches the input parameter type for the setElement method. The 'cscode' typemap simply adds in the specified code into the C# proxy class.

%typemap(csin) Element *e "getCPtrAndAddReference($csinput)"

%typemap(cscode) Container %{
  // Ensure that the GC doesn't collect any Element set from C#
  // as the underlying C++ class stores a shallow copy
  private Element elementReference;
  private global::System.Runtime.InteropServices.HandleRef getCPtrAndAddReference(Element element) {
    elementReference = element;
    return Element.getCPtr(element);
  }
%}

20.8.3 Date marshalling using the csin typemap and associated attributes

The NaN Exception example is a simple example of the "javain" typemap and its 'pre' attribute. This example demonstrates how a C++ date class, say CDate, can be mapped onto the standard .NET date class, System.DateTime by using the 'pre', 'post' and 'pgcppname' attributes of the "csin" typemap (the C# equivalent to the "javain" typemap). The example is an equivalent to the Java Date marshalling example. The idea is that the System.DateTime is used wherever the C++ API uses a CDate. Let's assume the code being wrapped is as follows:

class CDate {
public:
  CDate();
  CDate(int year, int month, int day);
  int getYear();
  int getMonth();
  int getDay();
  ...
};
struct Action {
  static int doSomething(const CDate &dateIn, CDate &dateOut);
  Action(const CDate &date, CDate &dateOut);
};

Note that dateIn is const and therefore read only and dateOut is a non-const output type.

First let's look at the code that is generated by default, where the C# proxy class CDate is used in the proxy interface:

public class Action : global::System.IDisposable {
  ...
  public Action(CDate dateIn, CDate dateOut) 
      : this(examplePINVOKE.new_Action(CDate.getCPtr(dateIn), CDate.getCPtr(dateOut)), true) {
    if (examplePINVOKE.SWIGPendingException.Pending) 
      throw examplePINVOKE.SWIGPendingException.Retrieve();
  }

  public int doSomething(CDate dateIn, CDate dateOut) {
    int ret = examplePINVOKE.Action_doSomething(swigCPtr, 
                                                CDate.getCPtr(dateIn), 
                                                CDate.getCPtr(dateOut));
    if (examplePINVOKE.SWIGPendingException.Pending) 
      throw examplePINVOKE.SWIGPendingException.Retrieve();
    return ret;
  }
}

The CDate & and const CDate & C# code is generated from the following two default typemaps:

%typemap(cstype) SWIGTYPE & "$csclassname"
%typemap(csin) SWIGTYPE & "$csclassname.getCPtr($csinput)"

where '$csclassname' is translated into the proxy class name, CDate and '$csinput' is translated into the name of the parameter, eg dateIn. From C#, the intention is then to call into a modifed API with something like:

System.DateTime dateIn = new System.DateTime(2011, 4, 13);
System.DateTime dateOut = new System.DateTime();

// Note in calls below, dateIn remains unchanged and dateOut 
// is set to a new value by the C++ call
Action action = new Action(dateIn, out dateOut);
dateIn = new System.DateTime(2012, 7, 14);

To achieve this mapping, we need to alter the default code generation slightly so that at the C# layer, a System.DateTime is converted into a CDate. The intermediary layer will still take a pointer to the underlying CDate class. The typemaps to achieve this are shown below.

%typemap(cstype) const CDate & "System.DateTime"
%typemap(csin, 
         pre="    CDate temp$csinput = new CDate($csinput.Year, $csinput.Month, $csinput.Day);"
        ) const CDate &
         "$csclassname.getCPtr(temp$csinput)"

%typemap(cstype) CDate & "out System.DateTime"
%typemap(csin, 
         pre="    CDate temp$csinput = new CDate();", 
         post="      $csinput = new System.DateTime(temp$csinput.getYear(),"
              " temp$csinput.getMonth(), temp$csinput.getDay(), 0, 0, 0);", 
         cshin="out $csinput"
        ) CDate &
         "$csclassname.getCPtr(temp$csinput)"

The resulting generated proxy code in the Action class follows:

public class Action : global::System.IDisposable {
  ...
  public int doSomething(System.DateTime dateIn, out System.DateTime dateOut) {
    CDate tempdateIn = new CDate(dateIn.Year, dateIn.Month, dateIn.Day);
    CDate tempdateOut = new CDate();
    try {
      int ret = examplePINVOKE.Action_doSomething(swigCPtr, 
                                                  CDate.getCPtr(tempdateIn), 
                                                  CDate.getCPtr(tempdateOut));
      if (examplePINVOKE.SWIGPendingException.Pending) 
        throw examplePINVOKE.SWIGPendingException.Retrieve();
      return ret;
    } finally {
      dateOut = new System.DateTime(tempdateOut.getYear(), 
                                    tempdateOut.getMonth(), tempdateOut.getDay(), 0, 0, 0);
    }
  }

  static private global::System.IntPtr SwigConstructAction(System.DateTime dateIn, out System.DateTime dateOut) {
    CDate tempdateIn = new CDate(dateIn.Year, dateIn.Month, dateIn.Day);
    CDate tempdateOut = new CDate();
    try {
      return examplePINVOKE.new_Action(CDate.getCPtr(tempdateIn), CDate.getCPtr(tempdateOut));
    } finally {
      dateOut = new System.DateTime(tempdateOut.getYear(), 
                                    tempdateOut.getMonth(), tempdateOut.getDay(), 0, 0, 0);
    }
  }

  public Action(System.DateTime dateIn, out System.DateTime dateOut) 
      : this(Action.SwigConstructAction(dateIn, out dateOut), true) {
    if (examplePINVOKE.SWIGPendingException.Pending) 
      throw examplePINVOKE.SWIGPendingException.Retrieve();
  }
}

A few things to note:

So far we have considered the date as an input only and an output only type. Now let's consider CDate * used as an input/output type. Consider the following C++ function which modifies the date passed in:

void addYears(CDate *pDate, int years) {
  *pDate = CDate(pDate->getYear() + years, pDate->getMonth(), pDate->getDay());
}

If usage of CDate * commonly follows this input/output pattern, usage from C# like the following

System.DateTime christmasEve = new System.DateTime(2000, 12, 24);
example.addYears(ref christmasEve, 10); // christmasEve now contains 2010-12-24

will be possible with the following CDate * typemaps

%typemap(cstype, out="System.DateTime") CDate * "ref System.DateTime"

%typemap(csin,
         pre="    CDate temp$csinput = new CDate($csinput.Year, $csinput.Month, $csinput.Day);",
         post="      $csinput = new System.DateTime(temp$csinput.getYear(),"
              " temp$csinput.getMonth(), temp$csinput.getDay(), 0, 0, 0);", 
         cshin="ref $csinput"
        ) CDate *
         "$csclassname.getCPtr(temp$csinput)"

Globals are wrapped by the module class and for a module called example, the typemaps result in the following code:

public class example {
  public static void addYears(ref System.DateTime pDate, int years) {
    CDate temppDate = new CDate(pDate.Year, pDate.Month, pDate.Day);
    try {
      examplePINVOKE.addYears(CDate.getCPtr(temppDate), years);
    } finally {
      pDate = new System.DateTime(temppDate.getYear(), temppDate.getMonth(), temppDate.getDay(),
                                  0, 0, 0);
    }
  }
  ...
}

The following typemap is the same as the previous but demonstrates how a using block can be used for the temporary variable. The only change to the previous typemap is the introduction of the 'terminator' attribute to terminate the using block. The subtractYears method is nearly identical to the above addYears method.

%typemap(csin,
  pre="    using (CDate temp$csinput = new CDate($csinput.Year, $csinput.Month, $csinput.Day)) {",
  post="      $csinput = new System.DateTime(temp$csinput.getYear(),"
       " temp$csinput.getMonth(), temp$csinput.getDay(), 0, 0, 0);", 
  terminator="    } // terminate temp$csinput using block",
  cshin="ref $csinput"
 ) CDate *
  "$csclassname.getCPtr(temp$csinput)"

void subtractYears(CDate *pDate, int years) {
  *pDate = CDate(pDate->getYear() - years, pDate->getMonth(), pDate->getDay());
}

The resulting generated code shows the termination of the using block:

public class example {
  public static void subtractYears(ref System.DateTime pDate, int years) {
    using (CDate temppDate = new CDate(pDate.Year, pDate.Month, pDate.Day)) {
    try {
      examplePINVOKE.subtractYears(CDate.getCPtr(temppDate), years);
    } finally {
      pDate = new System.DateTime(temppDate.getYear(), temppDate.getMonth(), temppDate.getDay(),
                                  0, 0, 0);
    }
    } // terminate temppDate using block
  }
  ...
}

20.8.4 A date example demonstrating marshalling of C# properties

The previous section looked at converting a C++ date class to System.DateTime for parameters. This section extends this idea so that the correct marshalling is obtained when wrapping C++ variables. Consider the same CDate class from the previous section and a global variable:

CDate ImportantDate = CDate(1999, 12, 31);

The aim is to use System.DateTime from C# when accessing this date as shown in the following usage where the module name is 'example':

example.ImportantDate = new System.DateTime(2000, 11, 22);
System.DateTime importantDate = example.ImportantDate;
Console.WriteLine("Important date: " + importantDate);

When SWIG wraps a variable that is a class/struct/union, it is wrapped using a pointer to the type for the reasons given in Structure data members. The typemap type required is thus CDate *. Given that the previous section already designed CDate * typemaps, we'll use those same typemaps plus the 'csvarin' and 'csvarout' typemaps.

%typemap(cstype, out="System.DateTime") CDate * "ref System.DateTime"

%typemap(csin,
         pre="    CDate temp$csinput = new CDate($csinput.Year, $csinput.Month, $csinput.Day);",
         post="      $csinput = new System.DateTime(temp$csinput.getYear(),"
              " temp$csinput.getMonth(), temp$csinput.getDay(), 0, 0, 0);", 
         cshin="ref $csinput"
        ) CDate *
         "$csclassname.getCPtr(temp$csinput)"

%typemap(csvarin, excode=SWIGEXCODE2) CDate * %{
    /* csvarin typemap code */
    set {
      CDate temp$csinput = new CDate($csinput.Year, $csinput.Month, $csinput.Day);
      $imcall;$excode
    } %}

%typemap(csvarout, excode=SWIGEXCODE2) CDate * %{
    /* csvarout typemap code */
    get {
      global::System.IntPtr cPtr = $imcall;
      CDate tempDate = (cPtr == global::System.IntPtr.Zero) ? null : new CDate(cPtr, $owner);$excode
      return new System.DateTime(tempDate.getYear(), tempDate.getMonth(), tempDate.getDay(),
                                 0, 0, 0);
    } %}

For a module called example, the typemaps result in the following code:

public class example {
  public static System.DateTime ImportantDate {
    /* csvarin typemap code */
    set {
      CDate tempvalue = new CDate(value.Year, value.Month, value.Day);
      examplePINVOKE.ImportantDate_set(CDate.getCPtr(tempvalue));
    } 
    /* csvarout typemap code */
    get {
      global::System.IntPtr cPtr = examplePINVOKE.ImportantDate_get();
      CDate tempDate = (cPtr == global::System.IntPtr.Zero) ? null : new CDate(cPtr, false);
      return new System.DateTime(tempDate.getYear(), tempDate.getMonth(), tempDate.getDay(),
                                 0, 0, 0);
    } 
  }
  ...
}

Some points to note:

20.8.5 Date example demonstrating the 'pre' and 'post' typemap attributes for directors

The 'pre' and 'post' attributes in the "csdirectorin" typemap act like the attributes of the same name in the "csin" typemap. For example if we modify the Date marshalling example like this:

class CDate {
  ...
  void setYear(int);
  void setMonth(int);
  void setDay(int);
};
struct Action {
  virtual void someCallback(CDate &date);
  virtual ~Action();
  ...
};

and declare %feature ("director") for the Action class, we would have to define additional marshalling rules for CDate & parameter. The typemap may look like this:

%typemap(csdirectorin,
         pre="System.DateTime temp$iminput = new System.DateTime();",
         post="CDate temp2$iminput = new CDate($iminput, false);\n"
              "temp2$iminput.setYear(tempdate.Year);\n"
              "temp2$iminput.setMonth(tempdate.Month);\n"
              "temp2$iminput.setDay(tempdate.Day);"
         ) CDate &date "out temp$iminput"

The generated proxy class code will then contain the following wrapper for calling user-overloaded someCallback():

...
  private void SwigDirectorsomeCallback(global::System.IntPtr date) {
    System.DateTime tempdate = new System.DateTime();
    try {
      someCallback(out tempdate);
    } finally {
      // we create a managed wrapper around the existing C reference, just for convenience
      CDate temp2date = new CDate(date, false);
      temp2date.setYear(tempdate.Year);
      temp2date.setMonth(tempdate.Month);
      temp2date.setDay(tempdate.Day);
    }
  }
...

Pay special attention to the memory management issues, using these attributes.

20.8.6 Turning wrapped classes into partial classes

C# supports the notion of partial classes whereby a class definition can be split into more than one file. It is possible to turn the wrapped C++ class into a partial C# class using the csclassmodifiers typemap. Consider a C++ class called ExtendMe :

class ExtendMe {
public:
  int Part1() { return 1; }
};

The default C# proxy class generated is:

public class ExtendMe : global::System.IDisposable {
  ...
  public int Part1() {
    ...
  }
}

The default csclassmodifiers typemap shipped with SWIG is

%typemap(csclassmodifiers) SWIGTYPE "public class"

Note that the type used is the special catch all type SWIGTYPE . If instead we use the following typemap to override this for just the ExtendMe class:

%typemap(csclassmodifiers) ExtendMe "public partial class"

The C# proxy class becomes a partial class:

public partial class ExtendMe : global::System.IDisposable {
  ...
  public int Part1() {
    ...
  }
}

You can then of course declare another part of the partial class elsewhere, for example:

public partial class ExtendMe : global::System.IDisposable {
  public int Part2() {
    return 2;
  }
}

and compile the following code:

ExtendMe em = new ExtendMe();
Console.WriteLine("part1: {0}", em.Part1());
Console.WriteLine("part2: {0}", em.Part2());

demonstrating that the class contains methods calling both unmanaged code - Part1() and managed code - Part2(). The following example is an alternative approach to adding managed code to the generated proxy class.

20.8.7 Extending proxy classes with additional C# code

The previous example showed how to use partial classes to add functionality to a generated C# proxy class. It is also possible to extend a wrapped struct/class with C/C++ code by using the %extend directive. A third approach is to add some C# methods into the generated proxy class with the cscode typemap. If we declare the following typemap before SWIG parses the ExtendMe class used in the previous example

%typemap(cscode) ExtendMe %{
  public int Part3() {
    return 3;
  }
%}

The generated C# proxy class will instead be:

public class ExtendMe : global::System.IDisposable {
  ...
  public int Part3() {
    return 3;
  }
  public int Part1() {
    ...
  }
}

20.8.8 Underlying type for enums

C# enums use int as the underlying type for each enum item. If you wish to change the underlying type to something else, then use the csbase typemap. For example when your C++ code uses a value larget than int, this is necessary as the C# compiler will not compile values which are too large to fit into an int. Here is an example:

%typemap(csbase) BigNumbers "uint"
%inline %{
  enum BigNumbers { big=0x80000000, bigger };
%}

The generated enum will then use the given underlying type and compile correctly:

public enum BigNumbers : uint {
  big = 0x80000000,
  bigger
}

21 SWIG and Chicken

This chapter describes SWIG's support of CHICKEN. CHICKEN is a Scheme-to-C compiler supporting most of the language features as defined in the Revised^5 Report on Scheme. Its main attributes are that it

  1. generates portable C code
  2. includes a customizable interpreter
  3. links to C libraries with a simple Foreign Function Interface
  4. supports full tail-recursion and first-class continuations

When confronted with a large C library, CHICKEN users can use SWIG to generate CHICKEN wrappers for the C library. However, the real advantages of using SWIG with CHICKEN are its support for C++ -- object-oriented code is difficult to wrap by hand in CHICKEN -- and its typed pointer representation, essential for C and C++ libraries involving structures or classes.

21.1 Preliminaries

CHICKEN support was introduced to SWIG in version 1.3.18. SWIG relies on some recent additions to CHICKEN, which are only present in releases of CHICKEN with version number greater than or equal to 1.89. To use a chicken version between 1.40 and 1.89, see the Garbage collection section below.

You may want to look at any of the examples in Examples/chicken/ directory for the basic steps to run SWIG CHICKEN.

21.1.1 Running SWIG in C mode

To run SWIG CHICKEN in C mode, use the -chicken option.

% swig -chicken example.i

To allow the wrapper to take advantage of future CHICKEN code generation improvements, part of the wrapper is direct CHICKEN function calls (example_wrap.c) and part is CHICKEN Scheme ( example.scm). The basic Scheme code must be compiled to C using your system's CHICKEN compiler or both files can be compiled directly using the much simpler csc.

% chicken example.scm -output-file oexample.c

So for the C mode of SWIG CHICKEN, example_wrap.c and oexample.c are the files that must be compiled to object files and linked into your project.

21.1.2 Running SWIG in C++ mode

To run SWIG CHICKEN in C++ mode, use the -chicken -c++ option.

% swig -chicken -c++ example.i

This will generate example_wrap.cxx and example.scm . The basic Scheme code must be compiled to C using your system's CHICKEN compiler or both files can be compiled directly using the much simpler csc.

% chicken example.scm -output-file oexample.c

So for the C++ mode of SWIG CHICKEN, example_wrap.cxx and oexample.c are the files that must be compiled to object files and linked into your project.

21.2 Code Generation

21.2.1 Naming Conventions

Given a C variable, function or constant declaration named Foo_Bar, the declaration will be available in CHICKEN as an identifier ending with Foo-Bar. That is, an underscore is converted to a dash.

You may control what the CHICKEN identifier will be by using the %rename SWIG directive in the SWIG interface file.

21.2.2 Modules

The name of the module must be declared one of two ways:

The generated example.scm file then exports (declare (unit modulename)). If you do not want SWIG to export the (declare (unit modulename)), pass the -nounit option to SWIG.

CHICKEN will be able to access the module using the (declare (uses modulename)) CHICKEN Scheme form.

21.2.3 Constants and Variables

Constants may be created using any of the four constructs in the interface file:

  1. #define MYCONSTANT1 ...
  2. %constant int MYCONSTANT2 = ...
  3. const int MYCONSTANT3 = ...
  4. enum { MYCONSTANT4 = ... };

In all cases, the constants may be accessed from within CHICKEN using the form (MYCONSTANT1); that is, the constants may be accessed using the read-only parameter form.

Variables are accessed using the full parameter form. For example, to set the C variable "int my_variable;", use the Scheme form (my-variable 2345). To get the C variable, use (my-variable) .

The %feature("constasvar") can be applied to any constant or immutable variable. Instead of exporting the constant as a function that must be called, the constant will appear as a scheme variable. This causes the generated .scm file to just contain the code (set! MYCONSTANT1 (MYCONSTANT1)). See Features and the %feature directive for info on how to apply the %feature.

21.2.4 Functions

C functions declared in the SWIG interface file will have corresponding CHICKEN Scheme procedures. For example, the C function "int sqrt(double x);" will be available using the Scheme form (sqrt 2345.0). A void return value will give C_SCHEME_UNDEFINED as a result.

A function may return more than one value by using the OUTPUT specifier (see Lib/chicken/typemaps.i). They will be returned as multiple values using (values) if there is more than one result (that is, a non-void return value and at least one argout parameter, or a void return value and at least two argout parameters). The return values can then be accessed with (call-with-values) .

21.2.5 Exceptions

The SWIG chicken module has support for exceptions thrown from C or C++ code to be caught in scheme. See Exception handling with %exception for more information about declaring exceptions in the interface file.

Chicken supports both the SWIG_exception(int code, const char *msg) interface as well as a SWIG_ThrowException(C_word val) function for throwing exceptions from inside the %exception blocks. SWIG_exception will throw a list consisting of the code (as an integer) and the message. Both of these will throw an exception using (abort), which can be handled by (handle-exceptions). See the Chicken manual on Exceptions and SFRI-12. Since the exception values are thrown directly, if (condition-case) is used to catch an exception the exception will come through in the val () case.

The following simple module

%module exception_test

%inline %{
  void test_throw(int i) throws (int) { 
    if (i == 1) throw 15; 
  }
%}

could be run with

(handle-exceptions exvar 
  (if (= exvar 15)
    (print "Correct!") 
    (print "Threw something else " exvar))
  (test-throw 1))

21.3 TinyCLOS

The author of TinyCLOS, Gregor Kiczales, describes TinyCLOS as: "Tiny CLOS is a Scheme implementation of a `kernelized' CLOS, with a metaobject protocol. The implementation is even simpler than the simple CLOS found in `The Art of the Metaobject Protocol,' weighing in at around 850 lines of code, including (some) comments and documentation."

Almost all good Scheme books describe how to use metaobjects and generic procedures to implement an object-oriented Scheme system. Please consult a Scheme book if you are unfamiliar with the concept.

CHICKEN has a modified version of TinyCLOS, which SWIG CHICKEN uses if the -proxy argument is given. If -proxy is passed, then the generated example.scm file will contain TinyCLOS class definitions. A class named Foo is declared as <Foo>, and each member variable is allocated a slot. Member functions are exported as generic functions.

Primitive symbols and functions (the interface that would be presented if -proxy was not passed) are hidden and no longer accessible. If the -unhideprimitive command line argument is passed to SWIG, then the primitive symbols will be available, but each will be prefixed by the string "primitive:"

The exported symbol names can be controlled with the -closprefix and -useclassprefix arguments. If -useclassprefix is passed to SWIG, every member function will be generated with the class name as a prefix. If the -closprefix mymod: argument is passed to SWIG, then the exported functions will be prefixed by the string "mymod:". If -useclassprefix is passed, -closprefix is ignored.

21.4 Linkage

Please refer to CHICKEN - A practical and portable Scheme system - User's manual for detailed help on how to link object files to create a CHICKEN Scheme program. Briefly, to link object files, be sure to add `chicken-config -extra-libs -libs` or `chicken-config -shared -extra-libs -libs`to your linker options. Use the -shared option if you want to create a dynamically loadable module. You might also want to use the much simpler csc or csc.bat.

Each scheme file that is generated by SWIG contains (declare (uses modname)). This means that to load the module from scheme code, the code must include (declare (uses modname )).

21.4.1 Static binary or shared library linked at compile time

We can easily use csc to build a static binary.

$ swig -chicken example.i
$ csc -v example.scm example_impl.c example_wrap.c test_script.scm -o example
$ ./example

Similar to the above, any number of module.scm files could be compiled into a shared library, and then that shared library linked when compiling the main application.

$ swig -chicken example.i
$ csc -sv example.scm example_wrap.c example_impl.c -o example.so

The example.so file can then linked with test_script.scm when it is compiled, in which case test_script.scm must have (declare (uses example)). Multiple SWIG modules could have been linked into example.so and each one accessed with a (declare (uses ... )).

$ csc -v test_script.scm -lexample

An alternative is that the test_script.scm can have the code (load-library 'example "example.so"), in which case the test script does not need to be linked with example.so. The test_script.scm file can then be run with csi.

21.4.2 Building chicken extension libraries

Building a shared library like in the above section only works if the library is linked at compile time with a script containing (declare (uses ...)) or is loaded explicitly with (load-library 'example "example.so"). It is not the format that CHICKEN expects for extension libraries and eggs. The problem is the (declare (unit modname)) inside the modname.scm file. There are two possible solutions to this.

First, SWIG accepts a -nounit argument, in which case the (declare (unit modname)) is not generated. Then, the modname.scm and modname_wrap.c files must be compiled into their own shared library.

$ csc -sv modname.scm modname_wrap.c modname_impl.c -o modname.so

This library can then be loaded by scheme code with the (require 'modname) function. See the Loading-extension-libraries in the eval unit inside the CHICKEN manual for more information.

Another alternative is to run SWIG normally and create a scheme file that contains (declare (uses modname)) and then compile that file into the shared library as well. For example, inside the mod_load.scm file,

(declare (uses mod1))
(declare (uses mod2))

Which would then be compiled with

$ swig -chicken mod1.i
$ swig -chicken mod2.i
$ csc -sv mod_load.scm mod1.scm mod2.scm mod1_wrap.c mod2_wrap.c mod1_impl.c mod2_impl.c -o mod.so

Then the extension library can be loaded with (require 'mod) . As we can see here, mod_load.scm contains the code that gets executed when the module is loaded. All this code does is load both mod1 and mod2. As we can see, this technique is more useful when you want to combine a few SWIG modules into one chicken extension library, especially if modules are related by %import

In either method, the files that are compiled into the shared library could also be packaged into an egg. The mod1_wrap.c and mod2_wrap.c files that are created by SWIG are stand alone and do not need SWIG to be installed to be compiled. Thus the egg could be distributed and used by anyone, even if SWIG is not installed.

See the Examples/chicken/egg directory in the SWIG source for an example that builds two eggs, one using the first method and one using the second method.

21.4.3 Linking multiple SWIG modules with TinyCLOS

Linking together multiple modules that share type information using the %import directive while also using -proxy is more complicated. For example, if mod2.i imports mod1.i , then the mod2.scm file contains references to symbols declared in mod1.scm, and thus a (declare (uses mod1 )) or (require 'mod1) must be exported to the top of mod2.scm. By default, when SWIG encounters an %import "modname.i" directive, it exports (declare (uses modname)) into the scm file. This works fine unless mod1 was compiled with the -nounit argument or was compiled into an extension library with other modules under a different name.

One option is to override the automatic generation of (declare (uses mod1)) by passing the -noclosuses option to SWIG when compiling mod2.i. SWIG then provides the %insert(closprefix) %{ %} directive. Any scheme code inside that directive is inserted into the generated .scm file, and if mod1 was compiled with -nounit, the directive should contain (require 'mod1). This option allows for mixed loading as well, where some modules are imported with (declare (uses modname )) (which means they were compiled without -nounit) and some are imported with (require 'modname).

The other option is to use the second idea in the above section. Compile all the modules normally, without any %insert(closprefix) , -nounit, or -noclosuses. Then the modules will import each other correctly with (declare (uses ...)). To create an extension library or an egg, just create a module_load.scm file that (declare (uses ...)) all the modules.

21.5 Typemaps

The Chicken module handles all types via typemaps. This information is read from Lib/chicken/typemaps.i and Lib/chicken/chicken.swg.

21.6 Pointers

For pointer types, SWIG uses CHICKEN tagged pointers. A tagged pointer is an ordinary CHICKEN pointer with an extra slot for a void *. With SWIG CHICKEN, this void * is a pointer to a type-info structure. So each pointer used as input or output from the SWIG-generated CHICKEN wrappers will have type information attached to it. This will let the wrappers correctly determine which method should be called according to the object type hierarchy exposed in the SWIG interface files.

To construct a Scheme object from a C pointer, the wrapper code calls the function SWIG_NewPointerObj(void *ptr, swig_type_info *type, int owner), The function that calls SWIG_NewPointerObj must have a variable declared C_word *known_space = C_alloc(C_SIZEOF_SWIG_POINTER); It is ok to call SWIG_NewPointerObj more than once, just make sure known_space has enough space for all the created pointers.

To get the pointer represented by a CHICKEN tagged pointer, the wrapper code calls the function SWIG_ConvertPtr(C_word s, void **result, swig_type_info *type, int flags), passing a pointer to a struct representing the expected pointer type. flags is either zero or SWIG_POINTER_DISOWN (see below).

21.6.1 Garbage collection

If the owner flag passed to SWIG_NewPointerObj is 1, NewPointerObj will add a finalizer to the type which will call the destructor or delete method of that type. The destructor and delete functions are no longer exported for use in scheme code, instead SWIG and chicken manage pointers. In situations where SWIG knows that a function is returning a type that should be garbage collected, SWIG will automatically set the owner flag to 1. For other functions, the %newobject directive must be specified for functions whose return values should be garbage collected. See Object ownership and %newobject for more information.

In situations where a C or C++ function will assume ownership of a pointer, and thus chicken should no longer garbage collect it, SWIG provides the DISOWN input typemap. After applying this typemap (see the Typemaps chapter for more information on how to apply typemaps), any pointer that gets passed in will no longer be garbage collected. An object is disowned by passing the SWIG_POINTER_DISOWN flag to SWIG_ConvertPtr . Warning: Since the lifetime of the object is now controlled by the underlying code, the object might get deleted while the scheme code still holds a pointer to it. Further use of this pointer can lead to a crash.

Adding a finalizer function from C code was added to chicken in the 1.89 release, so garbage collection does not work for chicken versions below 1.89. If you would like the SWIG generated code to work with chicken 1.40 to 1.89, pass the -nocollection argument to SWIG. This will not export code inside the _wrap.c file to register finalizers, and will then export destructor functions which must be called manually.

21.7 Unsupported features and known problems

21.7.1 TinyCLOS problems with Chicken version <= 1.92

In Chicken versions equal to or below 1.92, TinyCLOS has a limitation such that generic methods do not properly work on methods with different number of specializers: TinyCLOS assumes that every method added to a generic function will have the same number of specializers. SWIG generates functions with different lengths of specializers when C/C++ functions are overloaded. For example, the code

class Foo {};
int foo(int a, Foo *b);
int foo(int a);

will produce scheme code

(define-method (foo (arg0 <top>) (arg1 <Foo>)) (call primitive function))
(define-method (foo (arg0 <top>)) (call primitive function))

Using unpatched TinyCLOS, the second (define-method) will replace the first one, so calling (foo 3 f) will produce an error.

There are three solutions to this. The easist is to upgrade to the latest Chicken version. Otherwise, the file Lib/chicken/tinyclos-multi-generic.patch in the SWIG source contains a patch against tinyclos.scm inside the 1.92 chicken source to add support into TinyCLOS for multi-argument generics. (This patch was accepted into Chicken) This requires chicken to be rebuilt and custom install of chicken. An alternative is the Lib/chicken/multi-generic.scm file in the SWIG source. This file can be loaded after TinyCLOS is loaded, and it will override some functions inside TinyCLOS to correctly support multi-argument generics. Please see the comments at the top of both files for more information.


22 SWIG and D

22.1 Introduction

From the D Programming Language web site: D is a systems programming language. Its focus is on combining the power and high performance of C and C++ with the programmer productivity of modern languages like Ruby and Python. [...] The D language is statically typed and compiles directly to machine code. As such, it is not very surprising that D is able to directly interface with C libraries. Why would a SWIG module for D be needed then in the first place?

Well, besides the obvious downside that the C header files have to be manually converted to D modules for this to work, there is one major inconvenience with this approach: D code usually is on a higher abstraction level than C, and many of the features that make D interesting are simply not available when dealing with C libraries, requiring you e.g. to manually convert strings between pointers to \0-terminated char arrays and D char arrays, making the algorithms from the D2 standard library unusable with C arrays and data structures, and so on.

While these issues can be worked around relatively easy by hand-coding a thin wrapper layer around the C library in question, there is another issue where writing wrapper code per hand is not feasible: C++ libraries. D did not support interfacing to C++ in version 1 at all, and even if extern(C++) has been added to D2, the support is still very limited, and a custom wrapper layer is still required in many cases.

To help addressing these issues, the SWIG C# module has been forked to support D. Is has evolved quite a lot since then, but there are still many similarities, so if you do not find what you are looking for on this page, it might be worth having a look at the chapter on C# (and also on Java, since the C# module was in turn forked from it).

22.2 Command line invocation

To activate the D module, pass the -d option to SWIG at the command line. The same standard command line switches as with any other language module are available, plus the following D specific ones:

-d2

By default, SWIG generates code for D1/Tango. Use the -d2 flag to target D2/Phobos instead.

-splitproxy

By default, SWIG generates two D modules: the proxy module, named like the source module (either specified via the %module directive or via the module command line switch), which contains all the proxy classes, functions, enums, etc., and the intermediary module (named like the proxy module, but suffixed with _im), which contains all the extern(C) function declarations and other private parts only used internally by the proxy module.

If the split proxy mode is enabled by passing this switch at the command line, all proxy classes and enums are emitted to their own D module instead. The main proxy module only contains free functions and constants in this case.

-package <pkg>

By default, the proxy D modules and the intermediary D module are written to the root package. Using this option, you can specify another target package instead.

-wrapperlibrary <wl>

The code SWIG generates to dynamically load the C/C++ wrapper layer looks for a library called $module_wrap by default. With this switch, you can override the name of the file the wrapper code loads at runtime (the lib prefix and the suffix for shared libraries are appended automatically, depending on the OS).

This might especially be useful if you want to invoke SWIG several times on separate modules, but compile the resulting code into a single shared library.

22.3 Typemaps

22.3.1 C# <-> D name comparison

If you already know the SWIG C# module, you might find the following name comparison table useful:

 ctype                  <->  ctype
 imtype                 <->  imtype
 cstype                 <->  dtype
 csin                   <->  din
 csout                  <->  dout
 csdirectorin           <->  ddirectorin
 csdirectorout          <->  ddirectorout
 csinterfaces           <->  dinterfaces
 csinterfaces_derived   <->  dinterfaces_derived
 csbase                 <->  dbase
 csclassmodifiers       <->  dclassmodifiers
 cscode                 <->  dcode
 csimports              <->  dimports
 csbody                 <->  dbody
 csfinalize             <->  ddestructor
 csdestruct             <->  ddispose
 csdestruct_derived     <->  ddispose_derived

22.3.2 ctype, imtype, dtype

Mapping of types between the C/C++ library, the C/C++ library wrapper exposing the C functions, the D wrapper module importing these functions and the D proxy code.

The ctype typemap is used to determine the types to use in the C wrapper functions. The types from the imtype typemap are used in the extern(C) declarations of these functions in the intermediary D module. The dtype typemap contains the D types used in the D proxy module/class.

22.3.3 in, out, directorin, directorout

Used for converting between the types for C/C++ and D when generating the code for the wrapper functions (on the C++ side).

The code from the in typemap is used to convert arguments to the C wrapper function to the type used in the wrapped code (ctype ->original C++ type), the out typemap is utilized to convert values from the wrapped code to wrapper function return types (original C++ type->ctype).

The directorin typemap is used to convert parameters to the type used in the D director callback function, its return value is processed by directorout (see below).

22.3.4 din, dout, ddirectorin, ddirectorout

Typemaps for code generation in D proxy and type wrapper classes.

The din typemap is used for converting function parameter types from the type used in the proxy module or class to the type used in the intermediary D module (the $dinput macro is replaced). To inject further parameter processing code before or after the call to the intermediary layer, the pre, post and terminator attributes can be used (please refer to the C# date marshalling example for more information on these).

The dout typemap is used for converting function return values from the return type used in the intermediary D module to the type returned by the proxy function. The $excode special variable in dout typemaps is replaced by the excode typemap attribute code if the method can throw any exceptions from unmanaged code, otherwise by nothing (the $imcall and $owner macros are replaced).

The code from the ddirectorin and ddirectorout typemaps is used for conversion in director callback functions. Arguments are converted to the type used in the proxy class method they are calling by using the code from ddirectorin, the proxy class method return value is converted to the type the C++ code expects via the ddirectorout typemap (the $dcall and $winput macros are replaced).

The full chain of type conversions when a director callback is invoked looks like this:

      type              CPPClass::method(type a)
        ↑                       ↓
   <directorout>          <directorin>
        ↑                       ↓
      ctype             methodCallback(ctype a)           C++
 :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
      imtype            methodCallback(imtype a)           D
        ↑                       ↓
  <ddirectorout>          <ddirectorin>
        ↑                       ↓
      dtype             DClass.method(dtype a)

22.3.5 typecheck typemaps

Because, unlike many scripting languages supported by SWIG, D does not need any dynamic dispatch helper to access an overloaded function, the purpose of these is merely to issue a warning for overloaded C++ functions that cannot be overloaded in D (as more than one C++ type maps to a single D type).

22.3.6 Code injection typemaps

These typemaps are used for generating the skeleton of proxy classes for C++ types.

By overriding dbase, dinterfaces or dinterfaces_derived, the inheritance chain of the generated proxy class for a type can be modified. dclassmodifiers allows you to add any custom modifiers around the class keyword.

Using dcode and dimports, you can specify additional D code which will be emitted into the class body respectively the imports section of the D module the class is written to.

dconstructor, ddestructor , ddispose and ddispose_derived are used to generate the class constructor, destructor and dispose() method, respectively. The auxiliary code for handling the pointer to the C++ object is stored in dbody and dbody_derived. You can override them for specific types.

22.3.7 Special variable macros

The standard SWIG special variables are available for use within typemaps as described in the Typemaps documentation , for example $1, $input, $result etc.

When generating D wrappers, a few additional macros are available:

$dclassname (C#: $csclassname)

This special variable works similar to $n_type in that it returns the name of a type - it expands to the D proxy class name of the type being wrapped. If the type does not have an associated proxy class, it expands to the type wrapper class name, for example, SWIGTYPE_p_p_SomeCppClass is generated when wrapping SomeCppClass **.

There are two other variants available, $&dclassname and $*dclassname. The former adds a level of indirection, while the latter removes one. For instance, when wrapping Foo **, $*dclassname would be replaced by the proxy class name corresponding to Foo *.

$dclazzname (C#: $csclazzname)

This special variable expands the fully qualified C++ class into the package name, if used by the nspace feature, and the proxy class name, mangled for use as a function name. For example, Namespace1::Namespace2::Klass is expanded into Namespace1_Namespace2_Klass_.

This special variable might be useful for calling certain functions in the wrapper layer (e.g. upcast wrappers) which are mangled like this.

$null

In code inserted into the generated C/C++ wrapper functions, this variable is replaced by either 0 or nothing at all, depending on whether the function has a return value or not. It can be used to bail out early e.g. in case of errors (return $null;).

$dinput (C#: $csinput)

This variable is used in din typemaps and is replaced by the expression which is to be passed to C/C++.

For example, this input

%typemap(din) SomeClass * "SomeClass.getCPointer($dinput)"

%inline %{
  class SomeClass {};
  void foo(SomeClass *arg);
%}

leads to the following D proxy code being generated:

void foo(SomeClass arg) {
  example_im.foo(SomeClass.getCPointer(arg));
}
$imcall and $owner (C#: $imcall )

These variables are used in dout typemaps. $imcall contains the call to the intermediary module which provides the value to be used, and $owner signals if the caller is responsible for managing the object lifetime (that is, if the called method is a constructor or has been marked via %newobject ).

Consider the following example:

%typemap(dout) SomeClass * {
  return new SomeClass($imcall, $owner);
}

%inline %{
  class SomeClass;
  SomeClass *foo();

  %newobject bar();
  SomeClass *bar();
%}

The code generated for foo() and bar() looks like this:

SomeClass foo() {
  return new SomeClass(example_im.foo(), false);
}

SomeClass bar() {
  return new SomeClass(example_im.bar(), true);
}
$dcall and $winput (C#: $cscall, $iminput)

These variables are used in the director-specific typemaps ddirectorin and ddirectorout. They are more or less the reverse of the $imcall and $dinput macros: $dcall contains the invocation of the D proxy method of which the return value is to be passed back to C++, $winput contains the parameter value from C++.

$excode

This variable is used in dout and dconstructor typemaps and is filled with the contents of the excode typemap attribute if an exception could be thrown from the C++ side. See the C# documentation for details.

$dbaseclass

Currently for internal use only, it contains the D name of the C++ base class (if any) inside proxy classes.

$directorconnect

This macro is only valid inside the dconstructor typemap and contains the value of the dconstructor typemap attribute if the currently wrapped class has directors enabled.

This is how the default dconstructor typemap looks like (you usually do not want to specify a custom one):

%typemap(dconstructor, excode=SWIGEXCODE,
         directorconnect="\n  swigDirectorConnect();") SWIGTYPE {
  this($imcall, true);$excode$directorconnect
}
$importtype(SomeDType)

This macro is used in the dimports typemap if a dependency on another D type generated by SWIG is added by a custom typemap.

Consider the following code snippet:

%typemap(dinterfaces) SomeClass "AnInterface, AnotherInterface";

This causes SWIG to add AnInterface and AnotherInterface to the base class list of SomeClass:

class SomeClass : AnInterface, AnotherInterface {
  ...
}

For this to work, AnInterface and AnotherInterface have to be in scope. If SWIG is not in split proxy mode, this is already the case, but it it is, they have to be added to the import list via the dimports typemap. Additionally, the import statement depends on the package SWIG is configured to emit the modules to.

The $importtype macro helps you to elegantly solve this problem:

%typemap(dimports) RemoteMpe %{
$importtype(AnInterface)
$importtype(AnotherInterface)
%}

If SWIG is in split proxy mode, it expands to an import statement for the specified type, to nothing if not.

$module

Expands to the name of the main proxy D module.

$imdmodule

Contains the fully qualified name of the intermediary D module.

22.4 %features

The D module defines a number of directives which modify the SWIG features set globally or for a specific declaration:

%dmanifestconst and %dconstvalue(value)

Out of the box, SWIG generates accessor methods for C #defines and C++ constants. The %dmanifestconst directive enables wrapping these constants as D manifest constants (const in D1, enum in D2).

For this to work, the C/C++ code for the constant value must directly compile as D code, though. If this is not the case, you can manually override the expression written to the D proxy module using the %dconstvalue directive, passing the new value as parameter.

For enums, again %dconstvalue can be used to override the value of an enum item if the initializer should not compile in D.

%dmethodmodifiers

This directive can be used to override the modifiers for a proxy function. For instance, you could make a public C++ member function private in D like this:

%dmethodmodifiers A::foo "private";

%inline %{
struct A {
  void foo();
};
%}

22.5 Pragmas

There are a few SWIG pragmas specific to the D module, which you can use to influence the D code SWIG generates:

%pragma(d) imdmodulecode

The passed text (D code) is copied verbatim to the intermediary D module. For example, it can be (and is, internally) used to emit additional private helper code for the use by proxy typemaps.

%pragma(d) imdmoduleimports

Additional code to be emitted to the imports section of the intermediary D module (the $importtype macro can be used here). You probably want to use this in conjunction with the imdmodulecode pragma.

%pragma(d) proxydmodulecode

Just like proxydmodulecode, the argument is copied to the proxy D module (if SWIG is in split proxy mode and/or the nspace feature is used, it is emitted to the main proxy D module only).

%pragma(d) globalproxyimports

The D module currently does not support specifying dependencies on external modules (e.g. from the standard library) for the D typemaps. To add the import statements to the proxy modules (resp. to all proxy modules if in split proxy mode), you can use the globalproxyimports directive.

For example:

%typemap(din) char[] "($dinput ? tango.stdc.stringz.toStringz($dinput) : null)"
%pragma(d) globalproxyimports = "static import tango.stdc.stringz;";
%pragma(d) wrapperloadercode

The D code for loading the wrapper library (it is copied to the intermediary D module). The $wrapperloaderbindcode variable is replaced by the list of commands for binding the functions from the wrapper library to the symbols in the intermediary D module.

Each time this pragma is specified, the previous value is overwritten.

%pragma(d) wrapperloaderbindcommand

The D command to use for binding the wrapper functions from the C/C++ library to the symbols in the intermediary D module. The $function variable contains the name of the D function in the wrap module, the $symbol variable is replaced by the name of the symbol in the library.

Each time this pragma is specified, the previous value is overwritten.

22.6 D Exceptions

Out of the box, C++ exceptions are fundamentally incompatible to their equivalent in the D world and cannot simply be propagated to a calling D method. There is, however, an easy way to solve this problem: Just catch the exception in the C/C++ wrapper layer, pass the contents to D, and make the wrapper code rethrow the exception in the D world.

The implementation details of this are a bit crude, but the SWIG D module automatically takes care of this, as long as it is able to detect that an exception could potentially be thrown (e.g. because the C++ method has a throw(...) exception specification).

As this feature is implemented in exactly the same way it is for C#, please see the C# documentation for a more detailed explanation.

22.7 D Directors

When the directors feature is activated, SWIG generates extra code on both the C++ and the D side to enable cross-language polymorphism. Essentially, this means that if you subclass a proxy class in D, C++ code can access any overridden virtual methods just as if you created a derived class in C++.

There is no D specific documentation yet, but the way the feature is implemented is very similar to how it is done in Java and C#.

22.8 Other features

22.8.1 Extended namespace support (nspace )

By default, SWIG flattens all C++ namespaces into a single target language namespace, but as for Java and C#, the nspace feature is supported for D. If it is active, C++ namespaces are mapped to D packages/modules. Note, however, that like for the other languages, free variables and functions are not supported yet; currently, they are all allows written to the main proxy D module.

22.8.2 Native pointer support

Contrary to many of the scripting languages supported by SWIG, D fully supports C-style pointers. The D module thus includes a custom mechanism to wrap C pointers directly as D pointers where applicable, that is, if the type that is pointed to is represented the same in C and D (on the bit-level), dubbed a primitive type below.

Central to this custom pointer handling scheme are two typemap attributes: the cprimitive attribute on the dtype typemap and the nativepointer attribute on all the typemaps which influence the D side of the code (dtype, din, dout, ...). When a D typemap is looked up, the following happens behind the scenes:

First, the matching typemap is determined by the usual typemap lookup rules. Then, it is checked if the result has the nativepointer attribute set. If it is present, it means that its value should replace the typemap value if and only if the actual type the typemap is looked up for is a primitive type, a pointer to a primitive type (through an arbitrary level of indirections), or a function pointer with only primitive types in its signature.

To determine if a type should be considered primitive, the cprimitive attribute on its dtype attribute is used. For example, the dtype typemap for float has cprimitive="1", so the code from the nativepointer attribute is taken into account e.g. for float ** or the function pointer float (*)(float *).

22.8.3 Operator overloading

The D module comes with basic operator overloading support for both D1 and D2. There are, however, a few limitations arising from conceptual differences between C++ and D:

The first key difference is that C++ supports free functions as operators (along with argument-dependent lookup), while D requires operators to be member functions of the class they are operating on. SWIG can only automatically generate wrapping code for member function operators; if you want to use operators defined as free functions in D, you need to handle them manually.

Another set of differences between C++ and D concerns individual operators. For example, there are quite a few operators which are overloadable in C++, but not in D, for example && and || , but also !, and prefix increment/decrement operators in D1 resp. their postfix pendants in D2.

There are also some cases where the operators can be translated to D, but the differences in the implementation details are big enough that a rather involved scheme would be required for automatic wrapping them, which has not been implemented yet. This affects, for example, the array subscript operator, [], in combination with assignments - while operator [] in C++ simply returns a reference which is then written to, D resorts to a separate opIndexAssign method -, or implicit casting (which was introduced in D2 via alias this ). Despite the lack of automatic support, manually handling these cases should be perfectly possible.

22.8.4 Running the test-suite

As with any other language, the SWIG test-suite can be built for D using the *-d-test-suite targets of the top-level Makefile. By default, D1 is targeted, to build it with D2, use the optional D_VERSION variable, e.g. make check-d-test-suite D_VERSION=2 .

Note: If you want to use GDC on Linux or another platform which requires you to link libdl for dynamically loading the shared library, you might have to add -ldl manually to the d_compile target in Examples/Makefile, because GDC does not currently honor the pragma(lib,...) statement.

22.9 D Typemap examples

There are no D-specific typemap examples yet. However, with the above name comparison table, you should be able to get an idea what can be done by looking at the corresponding C# section.

22.10 Work in progress and planned features

There are a couple of features which are not implemented yet, but would be very useful and might be added in the near future:

Some generated code might also be a bit rough around the edges, particularly in the following areas:


23 SWIG and Go

This chapter describes SWIG's support of Go. For more information on the Go programming language see golang.org .

23.1 Overview

Go is a compiled language, not a scripting language. However, it does not support direct calling of functions written in C/C++. The cgo program may be used to generate wrappers to call C code from Go, but there is no convenient way to call C++ code. SWIG fills this gap.

There are (at least) two different Go compilers. One is the gc compiler, normally invoked via the go tool. The other is the gccgo compiler, which is a frontend to the gcc compiler suite. The interface to C/C++ code is completely different for the two Go compilers. SWIG supports both, selected by a command line option.

Because Go is a type-safe compiled language, SWIG's runtime type checking and runtime library are not used with Go. This should be borne in mind when reading the rest of the SWIG documentation.

23.2 Running SWIG with Go

To generate Go code, use the -go option with SWIG. By default SWIG will generate code for the gc compilers. To generate code for gccgo, you should also use the -gccgo option.

23.2.1 Additional Commandline Options

These are the command line options for SWIG's Go module. They can also be seen by using:

swig -go -help
Go specific options
-intgosize <s>Set the size for the Go type int . This controls the size that the C/C++ code expects to see. The <s> argument should be 32 or 64. This option is currently required during the transition from Go 1.0 to Go 1.1, as the size of int on 64-bit x86 systems changes between those releases (from 32 bits to 64 bits). In the future the option may become optional, and SWIG will assume that the size of int is the size of a C pointer.
-gccgoGenerate code for gccgo. The default is to generate code for the gc compiler.
-package <name>Set the name of the Go package to <name>. The default package name is the SWIG module name.
-use-shlibTell SWIG to emit code that uses a shared library. This is only meaningful for the gc compiler, which needs to know at compile time whether a shared library will be used.
-soname <name>Set the runtime name of the shared library that the dynamic linker should include at runtime. The default is the package name with ".so" appended. This is only used when generating code for the gc compiler; when using gccgo, the equivalent name will be taken from the -soname option passed to the linker. Using this option implies the -use-shlib option.
-go-pkgpath <pkgpath>When generating code for gccgo, set the pkgpath to use. This corresponds to the -fgo-pkgpath option to gccgo.
-go-prefix <prefix>When generating code for gccgo, set the prefix to use. This corresponds to the -fgo-prefix option to gccgo. If -go-pkgpath is used, -go-prefix will be ignored.

23.2.2 Go Output Files

When generating Go code, SWIG will generate the following files:

Most Go programs are built using the go tool. The go tool has limited support for SWIG. To use it, put your SWIG interface into a file with the extension .swig, or, if you are wrapping C++ code, .swigcxx. Put that file in a GOPATH/src directory as usual for Go sources. Put other interface code in the same directory with extensions of .c and .cxx. The go build command and go install commands will automatically run SWIG for you and will build the interface code.

You can also use SWIG directly yourself. When using the gc compiler version 1.2 or later, or when using gccgo, the code generated by SWIG can be linked directly into the Go program. A typical command sequence when using the gc compiler would look like this:

% swig -go example.i
% gcc -c code.c	   # The C library being wrapped.
% gcc -c example_wrap.c
% go tool 6g example.go
% go tool 6c example_gc.c
% go tool pack grc example.a example.6 example_gc.6 code.o example_wrap.o
% go tool 6g main.go
% go tool 6l main.6

You can also put the wrapped code into a shared library, and when using the gc compiler before version 1.2 this is the only supported option. A typical command sequence for this approach would look like this:

% swig -go -use-shlib example.i
% gcc -c -fpic example.c
% gcc -c -fpic example_wrap.c
% gcc -shared example.o example_wrap.o -o example.so
% go tool 6g example.go
% go tool 6c example_gc.c
% go tool pack grc example.a example.6 example_gc.6
% go tool 6g main.go  # your code, not generated by SWIG
% go tool 6l main.6

23.3 A tour of basic C/C++ wrapping

By default, SWIG attempts to build a natural Go interface to your C/C++ code. However, the languages are somewhat different, so some modifications have to occur. This section briefly covers the essential aspects of this wrapping.

23.3.1 Go Package Name

All Go source code lives in a package. The name of this package will default to the name of the module from SWIG's %module directive. You may override this by using SWIG's -package command line option.

23.3.2 Go Names

In Go, a function is only visible outside the current package if the first letter of the name is uppercase. This is quite different from C/C++. Because of this, C/C++ names are modified when generating the Go interface: the first letter is forced to be uppercase if it is not already. This affects the names of functions, methods, variables, constants, enums, and classes.

C/C++ variables are wrapped with setter and getter functions in Go. First the first letter of the variable name will be forced to uppercase, and then Get or Set will be prepended. For example, if the C/C++ variable is called var, then SWIG will define the functions GetVar and SetVar. If a variable is declared as const, or if SWIG's %immutable directive is used for the variable, then only the getter will be defined.

C++ classes will be discussed further below. Here we'll note that the first letter of the class name will be forced to uppercase to give the name of a type in Go. A constructor will be named New followed by that name, and the destructor will be named Delete followed by that name.

23.3.3 Go Constants

C/C++ constants created via #define or the %constant directive become Go constants, declared with a const declaration.

23.3.4 Go Enumerations

C/C++ enumeration types will cause SWIG to define an integer type with the name of the enumeration (with first letter forced to uppercase as usual). The values of the enumeration will become variables in Go; code should avoid modifying those variables.

23.3.5 Go Classes

Go has interfaces, methods and inheritance, but it does not have classes in the same sense as C++. This sections describes how SWIG represents C++ classes represented in Go.

For a C++ class ClassName, SWIG will define two types in Go: an underlying type, which will just hold a pointer to the C++ type, and an interface type. The interface type will be named ClassName . SWIG will define a function NewClassName which will take any constructor arguments and return a value of the interface type ClassName. SWIG will also define a destructor DeleteClassName .

SWIG will represent any methods of the C++ class as methods on the underlying type, and also as methods of the interface type. Thus C++ methods may be invoked directly using the usual val.MethodName syntax. Public members of the C++ class will be given getter and setter functions defined as methods of the class.

SWIG will represent static methods of C++ classes as ordinary Go functions. SWIG will use names like ClassNameMethodName. SWIG will give static members getter and setter functions with names like GetClassName_VarName.

Given a value of the interface type, Go code can retrieve the pointer to the C++ type by calling the Swigcptr method. This will return a value of type SwigcptrClassName, which is just a name for uintptr. A Go type conversion can be used to convert this value to a different C++ type, but note that this conversion will not be type checked and is essentially equivalent to reinterpret_cast. This should only be used for very special cases, such as where C++ would use a dynamic_cast.

Note that C++ pointers to compound objects are represented in go as objects themselves, not as go pointers. So, for example, if you wrap the following function:

class MyClass {
  int MyMethod();
  static MyClass *MyFactoryFunction();
};

You will get go code that looks like this:

type MyClass interface {
  Swigcptr() uintptr
  SwigIsMyClass()
  MyMethod() int
}

MyClassMyFactoryFunction() MyClass {
  // swig magic here
}

Note that the factory function does not return a go pointer; it actually returns a go interface. If the returned pointer can be null, you can check for this by calling the Swigcptr() method.

23.3.5.1 Go Class Inheritance

C++ class inheritance is automatically represented in Go due to its use of interfaces. The interface for a child class will be a superset of the interface of its parent class. Thus a value of the child class type in Go may be passed to a function which expects the parent class. Doing the reverse will require an explicit type assertion, which will be checked dynamically.

23.3.6 Go Templates

In order to use C++ templates in Go, you must tell SWIG to create wrappers for a particular template instantation. To do this, use the %template directive.

23.3.7 Go Director Classes

SWIG's director feature permits a Go type to act as the subclass of a C++ class with virtual methods. This is complicated by the fact that C++ and Go define inheritance differently. In Go, structs can inherit methods via anonymous field embedding. However, when a method is called for an embedded struct, if that method calls any other methods, they are called for the embedded struct, not for the original type. Therefore, SWIG must use Go interfaces to represent C++ inheritance.

In order to use the director feature in Go, you must define a type in your Go code. You must then add methods for the type. Define a method in Go for each C++ virtual function that you want to override. You must then create a value of your new type, and pass a pointer to it to the function NewDirectorClassName, where ClassName is the name of the C++ class. That will return a value of type ClassName.

For example:

type GoClass struct { }
func (p *GoClass) VirtualFunction() { }
func MakeClass() ClassName {
	return NewDirectorClassName(&GoClass{})
}

Any call in C++ code to the virtual function will wind up calling the method defined in Go. The Go code may of course call other methods on itself, and those methods may be defined either in Go or in C++.

23.3.8 Default Go primitive type mappings

The following table lists the default type mapping from C/C++ to Go. This table will tell you which Go type to expect for a function which uses a given C/C++ type.

C/C++ typeGo type
boolbool
charbyte
signed charint8
unsigned charbyte
shortint16
unsigned shortuint16
intint
unsigned intuint
longint64
unsigned longuint64
long longint64
unsigned long longuint64
floatfloat32
doublefloat64
char *
char []
string

Note that SWIG wraps the C char type as a character. Pointers and arrays of this type are wrapped as strings. The signed char type can be used if you want to treat char as a signed number rather than a character. Also note that all const references to primitive types are treated as if they are passed by value.

These type mappings are defined by the "gotype" typemap. You may change that typemap, or add new values, to control how C/C++ types are mapped into Go types.

23.3.9 Output arguments

Because of limitations in the way output arguments are processed in swig, a function with output arguments will not have multiple return values. Instead, you must pass a pointer into the C++ function to tell it where to store the output value. In go, you supply a slice in the place of the output argument.

For example, suppose you were trying to wrap the modf() function in the C math library which splits x into integral and fractional parts (and returns the integer part in one of its parameters):

double modf(double x, double *ip);

You could wrap it with SWIG as follows:

%include <typemaps.i>
double modf(double x, double *OUTPUT);

or you can use the %apply directive:

%include <typemaps.i>
%apply double *OUTPUT { double *ip };
double modf(double x, double *ip);

In Go you would use it like this:

ptr := []float64{0.0}
fraction := modulename.Modf(5.0, ptr)

Since this is ugly, you may want to wrap the swig-generated API with some additional functions written in go that hide the ugly details.

There are no char *OUTPUT typemaps. However you can apply the signed char * typemaps instead:

%include <typemaps.i>
%apply signed char *OUTPUT {char *output};
void f(char *output);

23.3.10 Adding additional go code

Often the APIs generated by swig are not very natural in go, especially if there are output arguments. You can insert additional go wrapping code to add new APIs with %insert(go_wrapper), like this:

%include <typemaps.i>
// Change name of what swig generates to Wrapped_modf.  This function will
// have the following signature in go:
//   func Wrapped_modf(float64, []float64) float64
%rename(wrapped_modf) modf(double x, double *ip);

%apply double *OUTPUT { double *ip };
double modf(double x, double *ip);

%insert(go_wrapper) %{

// The improved go interface to this function, which has two return values,
// in the more natural go idiom:
func Modf(x float64) (fracPart float64, intPart float64) {
  ip := []float64{0.0}
  fracPart = Wrapped_modf(x, ip)
  intPart = ip[0]
  return
}

%}

For classes, since swig generates an interface, you can add additional methods by defining another interface that includes the swig-generated interface. For example,

%rename(Wrapped_MyClass) MyClass;
%rename(Wrapped_GetAValue) MyClass::GetAValue(int *x);
%apply int *OUTPUT { int *x };

class MyClass {
 public:
  MyClass();
  int AFineMethod(const char *arg); // Swig's wrapping is fine for this one.
  bool GetAValue(int *x);
};

%insert(go_wrapper) %{

type MyClass interface {
  Wrapped_MyClass
  GetAValue() (int, bool)
}

func (arg SwigcptrWrapped_MyClass) GetAValue() (int, bool) {
  ip := []int{0}
  ok := arg.Wrapped_GetAValue(ip)
  return ip[0], ok
}

%}

Of course, if you have to rewrite most of the methods, instead of just a few, then you might as well define your own struct that includes the swig-wrapped object, instead of adding methods to the swig-generated object.

If you need to import other go packages, you can do this with %go_import. For example,

%go_import("fmt", _ "unusedPackage", rp "renamed/package")

%insert(go_wrapper) %{

func foo() {
  fmt.Println("Some string:", rp.GetString())
}

// Importing the same package twice is permitted,
// Go code will be generated with only the first instance of the import.
%go_import("fmt")

%insert(go_wrapper) %{

func bar() {
  fmt.Println("Hello world!")
}

%}

24 SWIG and Guile

This section details guile-specific support in SWIG.

24.1 Supported Guile Versions

SWIG works with Guile versions 1.8.x and 2.0.x. Support for version 1.6.x has been dropped. The last version of SWIG that still works with Guile version 1.6.x is SWIG 2.0.9.

Note that starting with guile 2.0, the guile sources can be compiled for improved performance. This is currently not tested with swig so your mileage may vary. To be safe set environment variable GUILE_AUTO_COMPILE to 0 when using swig generated guile code.

24.2 Meaning of "Module"

There are three different concepts of "module" involved, defined separately for SWIG, Guile, and Libtool. To avoid horrible confusion, we explicitly prefix the context, e.g., "guile-module".

24.3 Old GH Guile API

Guile 1.8 and older could be interfaced using two different api's, the SCM or the GH API. The GH interface to guile is deprecated. Read more about why in the Guile manual.

Support for the guile GH wrapper code generation has been dropped from SWIG. The last version of SWIG that can still generate guile GH wrapper code is 2.0.9. Please use that version if you really need the GH wrapper code.

24.4 Linkage

Guile support is complicated by a lack of user community cohesiveness, which manifests in multiple shared-library usage conventions. A set of policies implementing a usage convention is called a linkage.

24.4.1 Simple Linkage

The default linkage is the simplest; nothing special is done. In this case the function SWIG_init() is exported. Simple linkage can be used in several ways:

If you want to include several SWIG modules, you would need to rename SWIG_init via a preprocessor define to avoid symbol clashes. For this case, however, passive linkage is available.

24.4.2 Passive Linkage

Passive linkage is just like simple linkage, but it generates an initialization function whose name is derived from the module and package name (see below).

You should use passive linkage rather than simple linkage when you are using multiple modules.

24.4.3 Native Guile Module Linkage

SWIG can also generate wrapper code that does all the Guile module declarations on its own if you pass it the -Linkage module command-line option.

The module name is set with the -package and -module command-line options. Suppose you want to define a module with name (my lib foo); then you would have to pass the options -package my/lib -module foo